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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22

Книги

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C DE F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Peter Tillack, Eberhard Schulze
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 447-470 с.
The transitional countries have adopted different approaches toward privatizing and restructuring farms. This paper shows that large family farms and agribusinesses may be more efficient than small farms and that the property rights of land and asset owners in Russia and the Ukraine are restricted.

A survey conducted in Novosibirsk province reveals that 78.6 percent of the respondents working in agriculture disapproved of the selling and buying of farmland. Finally, farm and management structures in the transition countries of central and eastern Europe are outlined, and the relative dissimilarity of land distribution is assessed through the use of Gini coefficients
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Sami Daniel, Maureen Kilkenny
2002
This article considers the impacts of (de)coupled farm sector support on the locations of farming and agro-industrial activity. An economic geography model is developed which has two types of regions, one with extensive agricultural production (rural), the other with intensive farming that is more densely populated (urban). The farm and agro-industrial sectors are vertically linked. A service sector that is not directly linked to either basic industry is also explicit. We show that coupled and decoupled subsidies affect the spatial distribution of farming, industry, and service sector activity. Support that is provided to all farmers regardless of crop, thus semi-decoupled, increases spatial agglomeration. Support targeted to farmers of particular crops, especially rural comparative advantage crops, favors increased farming in rural areas but spatial agglomeration of non-farm activity still occurs. This latter targeting approach is used in the European Union.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Ред.: Stanley R. Johnson, Jati K. Sengupta, Erik Thorbecke
USA: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1992, 384 с.
Книга является сборником научных работ, опубликованных в 1950-1960х годах, одного из известных экономистов - Карла Фокса. Основные темы исследования, получившие отражение в данном сборнике – анализ спроса, пространственные модели равновесия, взаимоотношение сельского хозяйства с неаграрной экономикой, эконометрическое моделирование в экономике и экономической политики в США. Под редакцией С.Джонсона, Ж.Сенгупта, Э.Торбеке.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Terhi Latvala
2002
The aim of this study is to evaluate both qualitatively and quantitatively the value of new information about and the information systems set for credence characteristics of beef. Economics of information is our theoretical framework. The quantitative approach focuses to measure the ex ante value of credence characteristics, and the method of contingent valuation is applied for this purpose. Results indicate that 59 % of Finnish consumers are willing to pay more to get information about safety and quality of beef products. Consumers are most concerned with diseases caused by food of animal origin. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are not considered as the most hazardous risk factor in food products. However, if the beef products contain GMOs used in animals, then consumers also start requiring additional information.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Narciso Arcas, Jose Luis Munuera
2002
The integration in second-order cooperatives allows the first-order agricultural cooperatives to complement their resources and capabilities, achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The problems associated with the creation, development and long-term maintenance of these partnerships, along with the lack of research into this area, justify the realization of studies aimed at improving our understanding of the processes and outcomes that characterize them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover the factors which lead to the success of these relationships, empirically measured through the satisfaction of first-order co-operatives with the relationship. In order to achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework is established and an empirical study undertaken, with information obtained from a survey of 190 Spanish first-order agricultural co-operatives. The results obtained reveal that the contribution of the partnership to the first-order cooperative’s performance, its trust and perception of fairness are critical antecedents of the level of satisfaction of the first-order cooperative satisfaction with the relationship.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christoph Weiss, Wolfgang Briglauer
2002
This paper examines the impact of various farm and household characteristics (such as farm size, the off-farm employment status, the farm operator's age and schooling and the number of family members) on the level as well as the dynamics of on-farm diversification. Using linked census data for Upper-Austria from 1980, 1985 and 1990 we provide evidence that smaller farms are more specialised and also tend to increase the degree of specialisation over time more quickly than large farms. A significantly lower degree of diversification (higher degree of specialisation) as well as a stronger reduction in diversification over time is also reported for businesses operated by older, less educated, part-time farm operators. The analysis of diversification dynamics also suggests that (a) farms adjust to changes in their environment by steadily approaching their long-run equilibrium level of diversification ( β-convergence), and (b) the variance of the diversification distribution declines over time (σ-convergence).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
D.A. Petrovici
2002
This paper draws upon a consumer survey carried out in Bucharest (Romania) to explore determinants of food choice in a transition economy. An adapted version of the Theory of Reasoned Action was developed. This included attitude toward intention, habit and preference as independent variables. The structural equations modelling carried out in 'Analysis of MOment Structures' AMOS showed a significant positive influence of all variables. Similar to other studies conducted in European Union (EU) countries (Saba, Di Natale, 1998) habit outweighed the other variables. The study emphasises the heterogeneity of consumer beliefs about food. Furthermore it was suggested that there is scope for noneconomic variables in explaining food choices and consumer behaviour in these emerging economies, though the influence of these variables may be still limited relative the economic factors. Further research on special groups is required to quantify the influence of non-economic factors and compare the results estimated in Romania with other countries which are candidates to EU accession.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Romuald I. Zalewski, Eulalia Skawicska
2002
A questionnaire method has been used to collect the empirical data on the food processing enterprises. Data were collected for 36 out of 68 enterprises having ISO 9001 / 2 (April 2000). Value chain as a modeling power of competitive advantage, determinants of quality management system efficiency, participation of knowledge and skills in formation of firm competence were discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Vasant P. Gandhi, Robin Marsh
Durban, 2003
The paper examines the impact of local institutions on development and poverty in the rural areas of India. Recent research on the role of institutions on the path of economic development indicates the importance of both "macro" and "micro" institutions including local institutions. The study finds a large number of both formal and informal local institutions in the surveyed villages, and a substantial degree of interaction of the households with the institutions. These include both formal institutions such as service cooperatives and dairy cooperatives, as well as informal institutions such as savings groups, community associations and labour groups. The study finds that apart from the standard factors included such as land, capital and labour, the presence and membership in local institutions plays a significant role in explaining the variation in household incomes and gain in capital assets over time.

Savings/ micro-credit groups, and dairy cooperatives are found to be particularly important. Further, membership in these institutions is not found to be related to high asset levels or high caste - it is often inversely so. This indicates a stronger developmental role. Recorded opinions of the households supports the findings on the impact and beneficial role of local institutions. The study confirms that institutions do matter, and that local institutions can and do make a significant contribution in helping development in the rural areas, especially so for the lower income groups.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
C.M. Yates, T. Rehman
2002
In order to respond to the current pressures on agriculture in the EU, the industry will have to go through fundamental structural change. Economic modelling provides the framework for understanding such changes. Mathematical programming is probably the most robust of all the modelling approaches notwithstanding several criticisms of the technique. Economists have long understood that profit maximisation is not the only objective of farmers. Although there are techniques to incorporate other objectives there does not exist a statistically rigorous method for estimating an appropriate objective functions. This problem also occurs at national and international levels of aggregation. This paper presents a new approach to modelling national and international production and trade through partial equilibrium and the use of a new development called positivistic mathematical programming. The nonlinear element of the objective function representing the partial equilibrium is estimated using past observations on supply, consumption and prices.

Further, the paper also presents an original parameterisation of the demand curve that allows perfect competition to be simulated within the framework of a single mathematical model. Such a methodology is an advancement over methods that are currently in use.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Stuart Corbridge
USA: Edward Arnold, 1995, 496 с.
Это сборник - ридер по проблемам экономики развития. В книгу вошли статьи известных экономистов по данной проблематике – А.Франк, А.Эскобар, А.Сен, Б.Джонсон, П.Килби, Р.Чэмберс, Р.Вейд и др. Рассматриваемые темы – развитие как концепция, изменение сельского хозяйства и развитие сельской местности, проблемы бедности в развивающихся странах, урбанизация и индустриализация, глобальная политическая экономика, новые пути в изучении экономики развития.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Bruno Henry De Frahan, Christian Tritten
2002
This paper proposes a partial equilibrium displacement model that differentiates wheat according to its end-use and country of origin to investigate the impact of alternative European trade policies on wheat supply and demand in France. Transmission, demand and supply elasticities are estimated for each class and origin of wheat. Simulation results show that rebalancing trade protection across wheat classes encourages domestic supply of high quality wheat and displaces imports from North America.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Emil Erjavec, Stanko Kavcic
2002
This paper's aim is an assessment of economic effects of Slovenia’s accession to the EU in the field of agriculture and a discussion about some key dilemmas about the introduction of CAP in the new member states. For the purpose of assessing economic effects, a new sectoral model of Slovenian agriculture APAS-PAM has been compiled which allows assessment of market and income effects for ten key agricultural products with regard to various accession scenarios. The accession under the scenario of equal treatment of new member states would bring significant improvements in the aggregate income levels. On the other hand, discrimination of the candidate countries in the field of direct payments (“phasing in” process) would result in a fall of aggregate income level by an eighth. Moreover, noncompetitive production structures in the food-processing sector would deteriorate the economic situation of agricultural production by up to further 40 %. The positive effects of different accession scenarios are expected in the sugar beet and - under assumption of eligibility for direct payments - also in coarse grains, beef and sheep meat production. The economic situation in milk production is not expected to change significantly. The negative accession effects can be expected in pigmeat, cereal, egg and, potentially, poultry production. The results reveal a great significance of the equal treatment and differentiation approach to negotiation process for the preservation of the economic situation of Slovenian agriculture after accession. This holds especially for cereal, beef and sheep meat production.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Giannis Karagiannis, Alexander Sarris
Zaragoza, 2002
In this paper we apply the technical inefficiency effect model to a set of eight different crop products (i.e., wheat, mixed arable crops, tobacco, cotton, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse horticulture) in Greek agriculture.

For each product, a panel data set covering the period 1991- 1995 is used and separate econometric results are obtained for each product. A particular set of socioeconomic and demographic variables is used to explain technical efficiency differentials among Greek farmers, including the direct subsidies given to each farmer, and the concordance of these efficiency determinants is discussed across the eight different crop products considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
M. Carmen Firici, Kenneth J. Thomson
2002
This paper focuses on estimation of distributional economic welfare effects of the adoption of the CAP on different groups of Romanian households. The calculations of welfare effects are based on 1999 household data and refer to a 10-fold breakdown of Romanian households, i.e. five socio-economic categories from urban and rural areas, taking into account own (home) production of food. To identify the most vulnerable groups of Romanian consumers to food price changes, the Slutsky approximation Compensating Variation approach is applied. The results suggest that, if the current CAP is adopted and results in food price changes averaging a 10 per cent increase in all food prices, the lowest-income groups (i.e. urban and rural unemployed households, urban pensioner households) will be the most affected, ceteris paribus (prices of all other goods held constant). The minimum amount by which the groups could be compensated for the effect of price change on their real incomes varies between Euro 3 per month for employers’ households (about 1% of total income) and about Euro 8 per month for farmers’ households (6%). However, due to the relatively large shares of food self-production in total consumption, in particular by rural households, somewhat smaller money compensation would be appropriate.
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