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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 38

Книги

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O PQ R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Giannis Karagiannis, Peter Midmore, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
The objective of this paper is to develop a tractable approach for recovering and quantifying all sources of TFP changes (namely, technical change, changes in technical and allocative efficiency, and scale economies) from the econometric estimation of an input distance function which also fully describes the production technology. The proposed theoretical framework relies on Bauer’s TFP decomposition framework and the duality between input distance and cost functions. Hence, instead of using a system approach to estimate a cost frontier, all necessary information for decomposing TFP changes are recovered from its dual counterpart.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Frank Ellis
Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 328 с.
Книга по экономике фермерских домохозяйств в развивающихся странах. Основные рассматриваемые темы – эффективность, риск, распределение времени, род, сельскохозяйственные контракты, размер фермерских хозяйств и технологические изменения. Дополненное издание содержит новые главы по экологическим проблемам, связанным с применением экстенсивных методов ведения сельского хозяйства.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Cristina Marreiros, Mitchell Ness
Zaragoza, 2002
The objectives of this paper are to examine consumers’ perceptions of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) beef on the basis of a survey of consumers and buyers of beef.

The paper identifies a profile of PDO beef consumers, examines their behaviour and perceptions on PDO beef, derives the dimensions of perceptions of PDO beef, and establishes segments based upon those dimensions. The results reveal that PDO consumers are representative of all geographical regions, age and profession groups, are lighter consumers of beef and shop for food mainly in the butchers. Consumers’ perceptions on PDO beef emphasises quality, safety, and control. However, underlying those perceptions are six main dimensions and it is possible to identify three segments of PDO beef consumers: a faithful consumer group, an unaware consumer group, and a sensory, price conscious group.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ir. J.J. de Vlieger
2002
In this paper a study is presented that had as goal to develop a management instrument ( benchmarking)for co-innovation projects on basis of a set of performance indicators for chains and net-works of firms. To base the indicators on a sound basis relevant theories were studied, like industrial economics, resource-based theory, marketing theory, net-work theory and also specialised theories related to flexibility, innovation and quality care.

Thereafter a framework was developed. The framework consist of a quick scan of performance measurement and comparative benchmarking to get a global idea of the possible improvements. For the aspects that need to be improved a more fine tuned approach is the measurement of performance related tot the different processes and a benchmark thereof. In the fine tuned part of the framework we distinguish capacities, realisation and perspectives. The quick scan part is used to get a global idea of the performance of different apple chains in The Netherlands, France and New-Zealand. It appeared to be a useful approach to get an idea about the performance of different chains with help of desk research and published information. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Elizabeth Bird, Gordon Bultena, John Gardner
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1995, 300 с.
Сборник работ. Авторы пытаются найти ответы на вопросы - как влияет сельское хозяйство на окружающую среду, семьи фермеров, быт людей в сельской местности, а также какие методы ведения сельского хозяйства являются наиболее приемлемыми для окружающей среды, не нанося ущерба и одновременно, открывая дорогу для появления новых фермеров и оживляя развитие сельской местности.

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
David R. Harvey
Durban, 2003
Economic analysis condemns market intervention in favour of farmers as inefficient, if not also ineffective, and therefore well worth reform. Practical experience, however, indicates that such lessons are hard to learn and implement. Part of the reason appears to be that economic analysis seldom clearly identifies the real costs and benefits of reform, and seldom explains these sensibly to the relevant constituencies.

Furthermore, economic analysis rarely explains why the protectionist measures were adopted in the first place, or explores the dependencies that these policies generate. Without these explanations, and without reform strategies that take full account of them, policy reform will continue to be reluctant, slow and frequently counterproductive. This paper reconsiders the evolution of farm policies and the economic assessment of their costs and benefits, and draws conclusions as to the general shape of reforms likely to reconcile economic efficiency with political acceptability. In so doing, it re-phrases conventional economic arguments in terms which seem to accord better with sensible intuition, which may prove more accessible and credible to policy makers and advisors. It concludes with a substantial challenge to the agricultural economics profession.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Klaus Mittenzwei
2002
This paper is concerned with the timing of an agricultural policy reform under uncertainty. The focus is on the opportunity cost of giving up the option to wait when implementing a policy reform. Including the option value in applied policy analysis can help explain why conventional analyses may find observed policies to be Pareto-inferior. Furthermore, it explains why otherwise profitable policy reforms may be delayed. The theoretical model is applied to Norwegian agricultural policy anticipating a prospective WTO agreement. It is argued that the option value should be incorporated into applied policy analysis when high uncertainty prevails.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2002
Agricultural policy reform has been an important source of change in the Chinese agricultural sector. The reforms led to productivity growth and helped China in pursuing its self-sufficiency goal especially in the grain sector. To analyse whether observable productivity growth stems from technologically induced components, or from the market induced parts, a multi-input-multi-output model is derived using an econometric distance function framework. A decomposition allows to distinguish allocative effects, scale effects, technological change, and technical efficiency change. Data on farms in Zhejiang from 1986 to 1999 are used to analyse the impact of policy reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Keijiro Otsuka
Berlin, 2000
Based on the recently completed project on land tenure and the management of land and trees in Asia and Africa (Otsuka and Place 2000), this article attempts to identify the process by which population pressure leads to the individualization of land rights and its consequences on the management of land and trees. A particular focus will be placed on the development of agroforestry systems growing commercial trees, such as cocoa, coffee, cinnamon, and rubber, which are becoming important farming systems in agriculturally marginal areas, where people are particularly poor and natural forests have been degraded rapidly (Otsuka 2000).

The conceptual framework is discussed in the next section, which is followed by the examination of the results of case studies on the management of trees and cropland. Policy implications of this study are discussed in the final section.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Marion Desquilbet, Stephane Lemarie, Fabrice Levert
2002
In this paper, we conduct an empirical investigation of potential adoption of herbicide-tolerant (HT) genetically modified (GM) rapeseed in France. Our aim is to study ex ante the potential impact of their adoption in France, in terms of adoption level, economic gains, and distribution of these gains between farmers and input suppliers. We use French survey data about current plant protection practices, in order to compute pesticide costs with conventional (i.e., non GM) crops for individual farms. Then, based on results of technical studies about GM variety trials in France, we compute a predicted pesticide cost with the GM variety. Next, we study adoption rates and gains or losses of farmers (adopters and non adopters) and upstream companies (sellers of conventional herbicides, of the total herbicide to which GM rapeseed is tolerant, of GM seed), depending on the GM seed license price, the margin rate on herbicide sales and the price of conventional herbicides.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bekele Shiferaw, Stein Holden
2003
The paper examines the interlinkages between population pressure and poverty, possible impacts on household welfare and land management, and the consequent pathways of development in a low potential rural economy. A dynamic non-separable bio-economic model, calibrated using data from the Ethiopian highlands, is used to trace key relationships between population pressure, poverty and soil fertility management in smallholder agriculture characterized by high levels of soil degradation. Farm households maximize their discounted utility over the planning horizon. Land, labor and credit markets are imperfect. Hence, production, consumption and investment decisions are jointly determined in each period. The level of soil degradation is endogenous and has feedback effects on the stock and quality of the resource base. This may in turn influence land management choices. Under high population pressure, land becomes dearer relative to labor. This is likely to induce conservation investments, especially when conservation technologies do not take land out of production. When markets are imperfect, poverty in vital assets (e.g., oxen and labor) limits the ability or the willingness to invest in conservation and may lead to a less sustainable pathway. Boserup-type responses are more likely when (privately) profitable technologies exist and market imperfections do not limit farm-households' investment options.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Joachim Braun, Matin Qaim
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 301-321 с.
Falling real incomes, inequality in income distribution and the increased incidence of poverty have led to a both qualitative and quantitative deterioration in the average Russian’s diet. This analysis, which is based on a comprehensive household survey conducted in the mid-1990s, reveals that 19 percent of Russian families are poor according to at least two of the different poverty indicators used. It shows that, for the majority of rural and urban households, subsistence production of food is an important private mechanism for coping with the transformation risks of market failures. The subsistence sector is likely to be a long-term reality in Russia, that will continue to exist at least until the economy stabilizes and a sound social-security system supersedes this private insurance mechanism.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Giovanni Signorello, Gioacchino Pappalardo
2002
In this paper we report on preliminary results of a research aimed to examine the content of farm animal biodiversity conservation actions currently under implementation in the European Union in the framework of EU Agenda 2000. In particular, we surveyed sixty-three Rural Development Plans (RDPs) set up in twelve countries in application of EEC regulations 1257/99 and 1750/99. Our analysis focused on endangered breeds of six major livestock species included in the RDPs. This analysis, which is based on the comparison with the indicator’s status of the DAD-IS FAO database, allowed to identify priorities in conservation efforts in each country, and estimate the level of expected public expenditure needed to ensure the moving of breeds from at-risk (of extinction) status to not-at-risk status over the period 2000-2006.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ernst-August Nuppenau
2002
The paper explores the question of diversity in agricultural practice as related to bio-diversity and landscape appearance. It starts with the observation that, in the past, diverse natural conditions have considerably impacted on adapted modes of agricultural production, more than today, and that previously performed farm practices were strongly affiliated with specific natural conditions. These practices positively contributed to a modified, diverse and man-made environment which is frequently considered a beautiful landscape. This has changed dramatically. Particularly, where the European countryside is regarded a natural heritage, today, the public seems to be worried about modern farm practices. After the adoption of modern techniques, farmers prefer to apply unified production technologies and tend to set-up uniform farm structures and product mixes as well as land cultivation practices based on purchased inputs. Farm operations equalise natural conditions and contribute to uniform land rents. However, a rising public concern for the preservation of bio-diversity is asking for change and new measures. Additional to regulations on farm practices governments seek to compensate farmers for nature preservation and production of bio-diversity. Presuming that high biodiversity is dependent on diversity in agricultural practice and landscape appearance due to preserved natural conditions, the paper develops a model that links payments to diversity in farm practice and natural conditions. The applied model is landscape-oriented and classifies farm behaviour according to agronomic conditions. A reference system for a unified technology is presented and implications for payments are discussed using a behavioural approach. This behavioural approach focuses on regional dynamics in natural condition as major determinants for bio-diversity and payments as determinants for farm practices. Payments are directed to re-establish diversity in farm practices, counteract current technology dominance, and assure a new exposure to nature, though only partly. Diversity becomes prevalent; notably according to an economic calculus of costs and benefits from taxpayers' point of view.
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