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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 535

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Thomas Glauben, Christian Henning, Arne Henningsen
2003
The study is devoted to the comparative static analysis and econometric estimation of farm household decisions under both standard and agricultural taxes. Accounting for labor market constraints a non- separable model is constructed implying increasing per-unit costs of accessing labor markets. To control for tax-induced adjustments related to labor market imperfections we compare the results to those derived from a separable approach, assuming perfect labor markets. Theoretical results suggest that most tax-induced responses are ambivalent mainly caused by shadow prices effects. Further, tax-induced effects differ between the two model versions. In particular standard taxes may imply production adjustments in the case of non- separability.

Thus, income and value-added taxes are no more necessarily superior to agricultural taxes. Econometric analysis using individual household data from Mid-West Poland indicates remarkable responses to market surplus and input taxes. In contrast, standard and land taxes imply only negligible production adjustments. Thus, they seem to be superior, at least in the Polish case.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thomas Glauben, Hendrik Tietje, Christoph Weiss
2002
This study examines family farms and characteristics affecting farm succession. Based on a farm survey, three aspects of succession are analysed in the paper: the probability of family succession; the likelihood of having a successor designated; and the timing of succession. Large and specialised farms are more likely to be transferred within the family and to have appointed a successor. The number of family members, as well as the experience of farm operator, is also significantly related to the succession behaviour. The probabilities of succession, and of having a successor, first increase with age and then decline again. Furthermore, timing of succession is delayed as the farm holder ages, suggesting most farm operators’ succession plans to be inconsistent over time. In addition, we find a significant interrelationship between the different aspects of succession indicating that decisions on family succession, the designation of a successor, as well as the timing of succession, are not separable.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Thilo Glebe, Klaus Salhofer
2004
The number of agri-environmental programs, as well as the share of agricultural land covered under these programs, varies significantly between EU member states. We analyze national differences in the uptake of agri-environmental programs by developing a model of countries’ political objective function. Based on this model we identify six factors which may explain the extent to which agri-environmental policies are implemented: environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participation, financial budget pressure, the share of program expenditures financed by the EU, contribution to the EU budget, and political weight attributed to farmers’ income. The conceptual approach is then supplemented by an empirical analysis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Renan-Ulrich Goetz, Alois Keusch
Zaragoza, 2002
The paper proposes the use of meta models to determine the optimal intertemporal management of soil and phosphorus losses from agricultural land. This approach allows finding a equilibrium of the economic and biophysical system simultaneously. In contrast to the existing literature the model takes account of nonlinear relationships and of a large number of agricultural activities. The mathematical problems arising from this complex setup are addressed and the model is solved numerically. The results show that the second best policy in form of soil protection scores is highly inefficient, while another second best policy in form of land-use taxes is nearly as efficient as the first best policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
2002
In modelling farm systems it is widely accepted that risk plays a central role. Furthermore, farmers’ risk aversion determines their decisions in both the short and the long run. This paper presents a methodology based on multiple criteria mathematical programming to obtain relative and absolute risk aversion coefficients. We rely on multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) to elicit a separable additive multiattribute utility function and then estimate the risk aversion coefficients and apply this methodology to an irrigated area of Northern Spain. The results show a wide variety of attitudes to risk among farmers, who mainly exhibit decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) and constant relative risk aversion (CRRA).
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Jose A. Gomez-Limon, Laura Riesgo, Manuel Arriaza
Durban, 2003
In this paper we present a methodology to analyse input use in the agricultural sector. The novelty of the theoretical model explained is that it has been developed considering a multi-criteria environment. Thus, the optimal input use condition is determined by the assessment of "multi-attribute utility" and "multi-attribute marginal utility". We show how the approach adopted in this paper is a generalization of the single-attribute expected utility theory. The theoretical model developed is further implemented in an empirical application that studies water for irrigation use as a particular case. Results show how multi-attribute utility functions elicited for a sample of 52 irrigators explain differences on irrigation water use in relative homogenous agricultural systems, albeit exhibiting similar water partial utility functions. We conclude that these differences come from the dissimilar weights that farmers attached to each attribute in the aggregate utility function. The irrigated area considered as case study is located in North-western Spain.
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Опубликовано на портале: 10-04-2005
Hamish R. Gow, Johan Swinnen
2002
This paper analyses empirically the effect of "hold-ups" on capital investment in farms using a sample of 318 Hungarian enterprises, surveyed over 1997. A negative relationship arises between capital investment and the incidence of hold-up behaviour. This relationship is affected by farm’s wealth and liquidity position, the quality of legal enforcement of contracts, by whether farms have contracted sales to foreign processors, and whether they are established as successors t pre-reform organisations rather than start-up businesses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
A. Gracia, Mehrez Ameur
2002
Agrifood firms operate in a more global, saturated and competitive market than other manufacturing firms, and they have smaller size. These firms certainly need to define appropriate strategies related to accessing the international market and to investing in innovative activities. This two decisions are related to firms size because as Krugman states international trade is not only explained by differences in technology between countries but also by firms’ desire to extend their sales in foreign markets to take advantage of the economies of scales. Therefore, it seems to exist a simultaneous relation between firm size, exports and innovative activities. The aim of this paper is to analyse agrifood firms’ decisions on these three strategies: export behaviour, innovative activities and firm’s size in comparison to other manufacturing firms using some modification from the simultaneous model defined by Entorf and Pohlmeier. The study is focused on the Spanish manufactured firms taking special attention to the agri-food ones. Data come from a National Survey (“Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales”) carried out by the “Fundación Empresa Pública”) from 1990. Results indicate that agri-food manufacturing firms decision process related to their size, export share and innovative activities is not a simultaneous process. Moreover, some differences with the rest of manufactured firms have been detected, In particular, agri-food firms have lower export shares, lower size and lower innovation intensity than Spanish firms in other manufacturing sectors. Spanish firms decision process on strategic variables (size, export share and innovation) is characterized by a recursive decision process where firms firstly decide export intensity, secondly, they decide their size or total sales depending on the previous decision and, finally, they decide their innovative intensity depending on the last two.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Wyn Grant
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997, 240 с.
В книге представлен анализ общеевропейской аграрной политики (ОАП) и её влияние на торговлю США с Европой. Основные главы – введение, основные характеристики европейского сельского хозяйства, структура европейского сельского хозяйства и перерабатывающей отрасли, общая аграрная политика, агромонетарная система и проблемы, режимы торговли некоторыми продуктами сельского хозяйства, процесс принятия решений и общая аграрная политика, новые аспекты реформ - расширение ЕС, торговля и окружающая среда, возможность радикальных реформ.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
G.R. Griffith, R.J. Farquharson, S.A. Barwick, R.G. Banks, W.E. Holmes
2003
This study aimed at estimating the costs and benefits of all beef cattle genetic improvement activity, across Australia, over the period 1970 to the present. The total cumulative Present Value (PV) of investments by industry, government and other agencies into selection, crossbreeding and grading up since 1963, and of imported genetics, was estimated to be $340m (in $2001 at a 7% discount rate). Using a suite of genetic evaluation models, farming systems models and an industry-level model, the cumulative PV of industry returns were estimated. Within-breed selection generated $944m; crossbreeding in southern Australia $255m; changing breed composition in southern Australia $62m; and changing breed composition in northern Australia $8.1bn. The benefit/cost ratio for this investment was 28:1 over the last 30 years.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
David Grigg
USA: Routledge, 1995, 256 с.
Учебник начального уровня по географии сельского хозяйства. Рассматриваются различные факторы, повлиявшие на становление и развитие сельского хозяйства во всём мире: климатические, географические, экономические, социальные, культурные институциональные. Основные разделы книги – введение, биология сельского хозяйства, климат и сельскохозяйственные культуры, почвы и фермер, высота и сельское хозяйство, спрос на сельскохозяйственные продукты, экономическое поведение фермеров, модернизация сельского хозяйства, государство и сельское хозяйство, рынки и транспорт, сельское хозяйство и урбанизация, население-предложение труда -сельское хозяйство, размер ферм и владение землёй, инновации в сельском хозяйстве, культурный аспект в сельском хозяйстве, сельское хозяйство и окружающая среда.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Zerihun Gudeta Alemu, Klooper Oosthuizen, Herman D. van Schalkwyk
2003
In Ethiopia, growth in cereal production is accompanied by a more than proportionate increase in the standard deviation of production. This study applies descriptive and variance decomposition procedures to determine the sources of increased instability in cereal production in order to show whether they are caused by policy changes. It was found that production instability was caused more by increased yield instability. Considering the fact that use of high-powered inputs is limited to a small number of farmers, production is at subsistence level and that farmers. responsiveness to policy changes is constrained by infrastructural and institutional constraints and by the existing land policy, instability in yield is predominantly attributed to weather variability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Gulisano, Marco Platania
2002
The strategies for exploiting typical production represents a theme of great interest, above all in the measure in which exploitation brought about via adequate marketing strategies allows these products to shed their anonymity. This paper constitutes a contribution in this direction, since it analyses the potential of a traditional product ('Nduja) using multivariate analysis techniques on a sample of consumers, identified by a specific market research survey. This made it possible to define the main characteristics of the type of consumer of this product and to define suitable market segmentation strategies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-03-2005
Sevtap Guler Gumus, Emin Isikli
2004
This paper is aiming at an analysis of Rural Development Programs (RDP) in Turkey with special reference to EU Rural Development Policies, Programs and implementations. Concerning to Turkish Programs, it has been reported that over the last 30 years and more particularly during the planned Development Period, special efforts have been made to gain Rural development experience in Turkey. In each five year Development Planning period (DPP), particular goals and instruments of policy for both agricultural development and that of rural areas have been specified and determined. Integrated Rural development Projects and some other typical Rural Development Projects have also been implemented in line with the targets given in each planning period.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Geir Wachler Gustavsen, Kyrre Rickertsen
Zaragoza, 2002
Increased consumption of vegetables may reduce obesity and the prevalence of cardiac diseases and cancer. Norwegians consume less vegetables than nutrition experts recommend and the per capita consumption is lower than in most European countries.

To investigate the causes of low consumption, a two-step approach is used to estimate the demand segmented by nine different household types. In the first step, a probit model is estimated to investigate the decision whether to purchase traditional vegetables, salad vegetables, and industrially processed vegetables. Conditional on purchase, an almost ideal demand model is used to model how much to purchase. The own-price elasticities and total expenditure elasticities are high for traditional and industrially processed vegetables for most household types. Especially households with children have elastic demand. Lower value added tax or lower import tariffs for traditional and industrially processed vegetables will increase the demand for these vegetables, while reducing the price of salad vegetables seem to have a limited effect. For households with children, increased incomes have large effects on the demand for traditional and industrially processed vegetables indicating that, for example, increased child support will result in increased vegetable consumption.
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