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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 535

Авторы:
А Б ВГ Д Е ЖЗИ ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У ФХ ЦЧ Ш ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ Г Д ЕЖЗ И ЙК ЛМ Н О П Р С Т У ФХЦ ЧШЩЭ ЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Christian Bjornskov, Kim Martin Lind
2002
In the wake of the November 2001 Ministerial Conference in Doha, the positions of most members of the World Trade Organisation diverge, reflecting a large extent of disagreement within the organisation. This paper attempts to organise these positions and thereby inspire a debate on the possibility of collusion in the coming round of trade negotiations with a particular focus on the options of developing countries. Members’ positions on a range of issues identified as important in the coming round are rated and used as inputs in a correlation analysis and two forms of cluster analyses to identify potential alliances between members with reasonably similar positions. The paper identifies nine clusters of countries that are internally similar. Among these clusters, the positions of most developing countries are most similar to the positions of the so-called Cairns group and the US, whereas the European Union and Norway are significantly isolated and positioned far away from the developing countries. The paper concludes that developing countries have opportunities of forming alliances with specific developed countries in order to promote their trade objectives in the coming round of negotiations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Guy Blaise Nkamleu, Jim Gokowski, Harounan Kazianga
Durban, 2003
This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in 10 Sub-saharan countries. The relative performance of agricultural sector was gauged using data envelopment analysis. From a panel data set of the 10 countries which included the 28-year period 1972-1999, mathematical programming methods were used to measure Malmquist indexes of total factor productivity. It was found that, during that period, total factor productivity have experienced a negative evolution in sample countries. A decomposition of those measures suggest that, most of the weak performance of factors productivity is attributable more to technological change than technical efficiency change. French-speaking countries better succeeded to raise their productivity than English-speaking countries do. In addition, it have been found that Sahelian countries failed to rise their agricultural productivity compared to forest countries where a positive evolution have been detected.
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Finance [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Zvi Bodie, Robert C. Merton
Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 1999, 479 с.
Базовый учебник по финансам. Может быть использован для курса «Финансы в АПК». Рассматриваются три основные части в корпоративных финансах – оптимизация активов с течением времени, оценка активов, и управление риском. Главы учебника – финансы и финансовая система, время и распределение ресурсов, оценка активов, управление риском и теория портфельной оптимизации, ценообразование на вторичном рынке (фьючерсы, опционы), финансовый менеджмент.

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Silke Boger, Volker Beckmann
Durban, 2003
The paper investigates theoretically and empirically the role of courts for contract enforcement in transition agriculture. In a survey of 306 Polish hog farmers conducted in 1999, only 38.5% of them reported to believe that they could use courts to enforce contracts with their most important customer. Furthermore, those who believe the legal system could be used would accept significant financial losses before taking action.

We develop a theoretical model, based on the costs and benefits of court enforcement, which captures the boundary between contracts to be regarded as "enforceable" and "not-enforceable" and, simultaneously, the threshold of taking legal action. The empirical analysis strongly supports our model: (1) the farmers. responds can be explained by cost-benefit calculations regarding the use of courts, (2) the legal "enforceability" of contracts depends not only on the efficiency of the legal system, but also on the attributes of the transaction, the contracts and the relationship between buyer and seller, and (3) the threshold of taking legal action is significantly influenced by indirect costs of court enforcement, such as the disruption of a valuable relationship, and by the availability of alternative enforcement mechanisms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Peter Bogetoft, Kurt Nielsen
Durban, 2003
This paper discuss the design of multidimensional yardstick based procurement auction. The suggested design combines Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based yardstick schemes with the multidimensional score auction. The principal select a single winner to perform a project, characterized by a multidimensional vector. The design is especially useful when there are uncertainty about the underlying common cost structure as well as the principal’s valuation function. Potential applications in natural resource management is provided.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Stefan Bojnec, Liesbeth Dries, Johan Swinnen
Durban, 2003
This paper analyses the determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities.

There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Ray Bollman, John Bryden
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 480 с.
The book consists of 30 chapters divided into seven parts. Seven chapters are reports of international comparative analyses prepared for the OECD Rural Development Programme. Another group of chapters focuses on retaining and retraining youth to stay in rural areas. Other issues addressed include lifestyle and residential choice, rural enterprises, policies to stimulate employment, the role of agriculture, and alternative niches including tourism and using the information highway. Case study material is drawn from several countries, including the USA, Canada, UK, Sweden and Finland. The book presents a timely review of an important subject that will interest a wide range of academics and policy makers in rural studies, whether from the perspective of economics, geography, sociology or planning.

Книга является сборником исследовательских работ по тематике развития сельской местности, являющейся актуальной областью исследования и применения различных мер политики в развитых странах. В центре исследований – занятость в сельской местности. Работы были представлены на конференции канадского фонда «Реструктуризация в сельской местности» в 1995 году, Квебек, Канада. Под редакцией Р.Болман, Д.Брайден
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-03-2005
Andrea Bonfiglio, Emilio Chiodo
2004
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the overall impact produced by the application of European development policies for rural areas of the Italian Marche region for the period 2000-2003. Towards this aim, the input-output approach is adopted. A Marche regional I-O table is firstly constructed using a hybrid method. To evaluate the overall impact throughout the territory, two models are developed and applied recursively: an interregional I-O model and a gravity model. As for the former, sub-interregional I-O tables are constructed, where the regions under study are, on one hand, the functional area receiving funds and, on the other hand, the rest of the Marche region. The gravity model is instead used to allocate among the other areas the impact calculated for the rest of the region. To show how the impact is distributed among regional areas, a Geographical Information System is used. The paper concludes illustrating the main results in terms of overall impact generated by policy and providing some considerations related to policy effectiveness.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Robert Bork
New York: Free Press, 1993, 479 с.
Книга посвящена описанию кризисного состояния антимонопольного регулирования (преимущественного в Соединенных Штатах) и состоит из трех частей. В первой части рассматриваются теоретические основы антимонопольной политики, ее цели и методы, а также теория поведения фирмы и предпочтений потребителя. Во второй части анализируется соотношение между законодательством и экономической политикой в отношении слияний, поглощений, сегментации рынка и барьеров входа на рынок, ценовой дискриминации, связанных продаж и пр. В заключении подводятся итоги исследования и формулируют политические рекомендации в отношени антимонопольной политики.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Zohra Bouamra-Mechemache, Jean-Paul Chavas, Tom Cox, Vincent Requillart
2002
In a period of market liberalization and multilateral trade negotiations, price discrimination for commodities with distinct markets provides additional policy options to support farm income. While both the USA and Canada have implemented price discrimination policies in their domestic dairy sector, so far the European Union (EU) has not. This paper evaluates the options of developing a price discrimination policy in the EU dairy sector. The analysis is based on an interregional model of the EU dairy sector, involving milk production, dairy processing, and consumption of ten dairy commodities in nine regions.

The paper shows that a price discrimination policy that increases prices for commodities with more inelastic demand (fluid milk, soft dairy products) would generate income that can be redistributed to dairy farmers. The results suggest that, while such a price discrimination policy can be a WTO compatible way to support dairy farm income, the efficiency of the associated income transfers declines in the presence of significant supply response.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2003
Duncan Boughton, David L. Tschirley, Higino Marrule, Ballard Zulu
2003
Cotton is one of the most important smallholder cash crops in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). How to ensure input supply, credit recovery and competition is a subject of intense policy debate. This paper examines the performance of cotton sector development policies in Mozambique and Zambia. Both countries face the challenge of organizing input supply to farmers in the absence of rural credit markets, and competing in international markets distorted by production subsidies in developed countries. Both countries privatized cotton ginning in the 1990s. Emerging from civil war, Mozambique established geographical monopolies to interlink input and output markets and facilitate credit recovery. In Zambia, the government completely liberalized the cotton sector, forcing the private sector to deal with the problem of input distribution and credit recovery by itself. Despite being landlocked, Zambia.s cotton sector has achieved better performance in terms of both value of cotton output per hectare and smallholder share of world market prices. An analysis of the institutional and technical factors behind the two countries. performance provides insights to guide the design of public/private partnerships relevant to many SSA countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Ian R. Bowler, Christopher R. Bryant, M. Duane Nellis
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992, 296 с.
Первый том из двухтомного издания по исследованию современных аграрных систем. Рассматривается проблематика изменений, происходящих в сельской местности в развитых странах на примере Великобритании, США, Канады. Акцент делается на отношении сельского хозяйства и окружающей среды. Основные темы: развитие организационных структур в системе агробизнеса, диверсификация фермерского бизнеса, экология и современное сельское хозяйство, новые цели для политики, устойчивое сельское хозяйство.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Cristina Brasili
2003
In the course of the past decades major transformations in the Italian food industry induced considerable structural changes: on one hand, the creation of large industrial groups, with substantial input of foreign capital and, on the other, the concentration and geographic specialisation of numerous small and medium enterprises, with the formation of specific and typical agri-food local system(districts).To take account of the presence of food districts the analysis of the Italian food industry could not be conducted at national and regional level but it has to be studied at province and local level. It is also useful to analyse the food industry with reference to the different sub-sectors.

We will conduct an in-depth analysis of the local systems(districts) of two sectors meat and fruit and vegetables processing. We will use balance-sheet data of the processing firms that were active in the meat (446 firms) and fruit and vegetables (227 firms) sub-sector in the years from 1996 to 1999. The analysis will consider the most significant balance sheet ratios, such as returns, productivity and labour cost in these local systems. Then, we will consider the economic assessment of the firms belonging to local systems of the two sectors and compare with the non district firms .For the efficiency analysis will estimate a stochastic frontier production function in order to determine the ‘district effect’. This analysis will also be directly correlated with investment in technological innovation. The economic and efficiency analysis confirms for many aspects the presence of a ‘district effect’ in the Italian food industry.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Cristina Brasili, Roberto Fanfani
2002
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the structural changes in European Agri-food systems in the last 30 years in order to verify the presence of a convergence process towards a more homogeneous structure among EU countries. This analysis considers the relative importance of the main components of Agri-food systems (agriculture, food industry and food consumption) and how they change over time. The analysis of convergence utilise the European National Accounting Data (from the SEC2 Data Base of Eurostat) from 1970 to 2000 for twelve EU countries. We use tests of convergence on cross section data by countries, but also stochastic kernel methodologies to verify the dynamic evolution of groups of countries inside the EU. The results show there are important process of convergence among countries for the variables of the Agri-food system that are more linked to the economic development, such as the importance of agriculture and food consumption in GDP. On the other hand there are divergences on the variables more linked to the openness degree and to the competitiveness of the Agri-food system. The presence of polarisation process among groups of countries contribute to permanence of long run structural changes among Northern and Southern countries in the EU.
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