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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 28

Авторы:
АБ ВГ ДЕЖЗИЙК ЛМН ОП РС Т У ФХ ЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H IJ K L M N O P QR S T UV W XYZ
 
Названия:
АБВГ ДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОПР С ТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC DE F GHIJKLMNOP QR S T UVW XYZ
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Johannes Jutting
2002
Community based health insurance schemes are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument which help farmers in rural areas of low income countries to better manage health. Health risks present a permanent threat to the income earning capacity of poor people. Beside direct economic cost for treatment and lost working time, indirect cost such as a reduction in labor supply materialize which increases the vulnerability of the household. It is often hypothesized that community based health insurance improve social protection, but quantitative analysis is largely missing. Against this background, this paper analyzes if members in a mutual health insurance scheme have a better access to health care than non-members taking “les mutuelles de santés” (mutual health organization) in rural Senegal as an example. Limited dependent and log linear regressions are used to capture the impact of health insurance on the probability of visiting a health care provider and the out-of-pocket expenditure at the point of use . The results of the analysis show that while community based health insurance schemes reach otherwise excluded people, the poorest of the poor in the communities are not covered. Regarding the impact on the access to health care, members have a higher probability of using hospitalization services compared to non-members and pay substantially less when they need care. Given the results from this study, community financing schemes have the potential to improve the risk management capacity of rural households.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Nicolas Lampkin, Susanne Padel
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 480 с.
Книга написана по одной из актуальных и широко обсуждаемых проблем - производство органической (экологической) продукции в сельском хозяйстве. На примере США, Канады, Великобритании, Австралии, Германии, Дании, Швейцарии авторы представляют статистику по финансовому состоянию ферм, производящих органическую продукцию, знакомят со спецификой по введению и адаптации органического производства, политикой стран.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 9-35 с.
Economic reforms have induced different output and productivity changes in Russia, China and the transition countries of Eastern Europe. The main objective of this paper is to analyze what has caused these differences in performance. We discuss how initial conditions and reform policy choices affect changes in property rights, production organization, terms of trade, and the liberalization of the economy. We analyze how these, in turn, have affected economic performance.

The hypotheses are tested by quantitative analysis. We conclude that it is a combination of both initial conditions and reform policy choices which has caused the differences in performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Simon Maxwell
Durban, 2003
Rural development has not received the priority and attention warranted by the present and future concentration of poverty in rural areas. Is this perhaps because rural development agencies present conflicting narratives? A framework is presented within which to answer that question, and is then applied to the recent policy statements of the EU, FAO, IFAD and the World Bank. Each policy statement is compelling in its own way, but the strategies are not consistent. A narrative is needed which: recognises the rapid pace of change in rural areas; acknowledges the overriding need for diversification out of agriculture; builds market institutions for growth; and works effectively within the current international consensus on poverty reduction, emphasising opportunity, empowerment and security.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Elisa Montresor
2002
The purpose of this work is to contribute with some reflections to the debate that has flourished in recent years around two issues: rural development and systemic reading of the territorial articulation of agricultural development. In the numerous investigations conducted in Italy and elsewhere, the analytical approach adopted (institutional level and investigation units, choice of indicators and of the analytical instruments) has profound repercussions on rural policies, according to its wider or narrower formulation. After a brief reflection on the approaches to rural development, highlighting the contradictions of institutional intervention, the study proposes a critical description of some results of the Italian investigations. The aim is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at different decisional levels (EU, national, regional). The proposed instruments satisfy some requirements: the repeatability of the investigation at different times and in a variety of contexts, the flexibility for the adaptability to the mosaic of situations in the rural world, the applicability at different territorial levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Yasuo Ohe
2002
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-01-2004
Kent Olson
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003, 416 с.
Учебник является новейшим представлением управления сельскохозяйственным предприятием. Рассматриваются стратегические и операционные аспекты управления. Это незаменимый справочник для управленцев, работающих в сельском хозяйстве. Внимание уделено написанию бизнес-плана и инновационным, современным методам оценки решений. В отличие от других изданий по управлению, в учебник вместе с традиционным материалом по бюджетированию, маркетинговому, финансовому планированию, управлению персоналом, вошли такие разделы как стратегический менеджмент, планирование производственного процесса и отдельных операций, управление качеством и контроль, оценка производственных контактов, принятие решений за рамками традиционного микроэкономического анализа.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Lesley A. Roberts, Derek Hall
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 256 с.
Книга касается одной из актуальных (в проблематике развития сельской местности и создания дополнительной занятости) тем – создание зон отдыха и развитие туризма в сельской местности. В книге рассматриваются возможности для малых предприятий сельской местности переориентировать стратегии развития и продукты в целях привлечения и развития туризма. Книга представляет интерес, как для студентов, изучающих данную тематику, так и практиков.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bekele Shiferaw, Stein Holden
2003
The paper examines the interlinkages between population pressure and poverty, possible impacts on household welfare and land management, and the consequent pathways of development in a low potential rural economy. A dynamic non-separable bio-economic model, calibrated using data from the Ethiopian highlands, is used to trace key relationships between population pressure, poverty and soil fertility management in smallholder agriculture characterized by high levels of soil degradation. Farm households maximize their discounted utility over the planning horizon. Land, labor and credit markets are imperfect. Hence, production, consumption and investment decisions are jointly determined in each period. The level of soil degradation is endogenous and has feedback effects on the stock and quality of the resource base. This may in turn influence land management choices. Under high population pressure, land becomes dearer relative to labor. This is likely to induce conservation investments, especially when conservation technologies do not take land out of production. When markets are imperfect, poverty in vital assets (e.g., oxen and labor) limits the ability or the willingness to invest in conservation and may lead to a less sustainable pathway. Boserup-type responses are more likely when (privately) profitable technologies exist and market imperfections do not limit farm-households' investment options.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Colin Thirtle, Lin Lin, Jenifer Piesse
2003
Twenty percent of the world population, or 1.2 billion live on less than $1 per day; 70% of these are rural and 90% in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Research led technological change in agriculture generates sufficient productivity growth to give high rates of return in Africa and Asia and has a substantial impact on poverty, currently reducing this number by 27 million per annum, whereas productivity growth in industry and services has no impact. The per capital cost of poverty reduction by means of agricultural research expenditures in Africa is $144 and in Asia $180, or 50 cents per day, but this is covered by output growth. By contrast, the per capita cost for the richer countries of Latin America is over $11,000.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Tassew Woldehanna
Durban, 2003
The impact of education on farmers. choice of activities and household welfare are modelled and estimated using farm household data for rural Ethiopia. We find that education has significant effects on household welfare. Schooling increases the adoption of new technologies and facilitates entry into highly profitable farm and non-farm activities, all of which may increase welfare and help farm households escape out of income poverty. An additional year of schooling in a household increases the welfare by 8.5 Percent. These findings provide a rationale to governments and donor organisations to include the expansion of rural schooling (through encouragement of parents to send their children to school) in their policy reform as a means of reducing material deprivation.
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