Экономика » Экономика отраслевых рынков » Аграрная экономика » Сельское хозяйство и охрана окружающей среды
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 4
NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURE: ANALYSING THE ROOM FOR MANOEUVRE FOR MITIGATION, IN CASE OF CARBON PRICING / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003Daniel Deybe, Abigail Fallot
Relationships between the greenhouse effect and agricultural activity are usually and firstly considered in terms of the impact of climate change on agriculture. But in reverse, farmers and herders may react to a climate policy imposing a carbon price to GHG-emitting activities, and possibly contribute to the emissions mitigation as well as to carbon sequestration. The degree of efficiency of the reactions will vary across regions of the world and across activities. A methodology considering risk associated with technology changes is proposed for estimating and accounting these reactions under production and resource constraints. For a business-as-usual scenario quantified by the integrated assessment model Image, decisions concerning land-use and alternative practices are modeled. Results indicate that main agricultural activities provide little room for manoeuvre for emissions mitigation.
Agri-environmental Instruments for an Integrated Rural Policy: An Economic Analysis /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003Eli Feinerman, Marinus H.C. Komen
The new Rural Development Regulation of the EU reflects the shift of attention within rural areas from agricultural production towards rural development and embraces both, farmers and non-farm residents. While agricultural production is required to comply with environmental standards, rural areas also have to fulfil the growing demand for landscape, outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation. This paper develops a model of a rural area where farmers and non-farm residents live together. A central government uses a combination of two-policy instruments - direct compensation payments and public services - aimed at encouraging farmers to adopt environmentally beneficial practices and at the same time to increase the provision of country-side amenities and the sustained vitality of the rural area. The optimal mix of the policy instruments is evaluated under various governmental objectives. The analysis suggests that a combination of direct payments to farmers with the supply of local public services is a promising tool for rural policy development initiatives in the EU.
Principles of Environmental and Resource Economics : a Guide for Students and Decision-Makers (New Horizons in Environmental Economics) [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003Hank Folmer, Landis Gabel
USA: Edward Elgar, 2000, 784 с.
Книга по экономике природных ресурсов и окружающей среде раскрывает проблемы использования природных ресурсов и загрязнения окружающей среды, их экономическую составляющую и последствия, современные механизмы и инструменты политики в области защиты окружающей среды и поведение экономических агентов.
The Evolution of the Agri-Environmental Policies and Sustainable Agriculture /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.