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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 5



Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
Durban, 2003
Water availability in semiarid regions commonly exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in basins with large infrastructure development, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, incurring economic losses during periods of scarcity. More flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, may help users reduce their risk exposure. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for lease-out contracts of water use rights. This paper analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the effect that establishing water markets has on the economic risk caused by water availability variations.

The empirical study is performed on an irrigation district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain) with fair levels of average water availability but a high probability of periods of extreme scarcity. A non-linear programming model is used to simulate irrigators’ behaviour and derive water demand functions. Another spatial equilibrium model is used to compute market exchange and equilibrium. These programming models are combined with statistical simulation techniques. It is shown that the probability distribution of profits for a representative irrigator is modified if water exchanges are authorised, resulting in unambiguous risk reductions. Results also suggests that if the market would be extended to several irrigation districts and users, each characterised by different hydrological risk exposure, the occurrence of extremely low benefits events would become more unlikely. In sum, it is shown that exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability of water supply across irrigation seasons.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Hank Folmer, Landis Gabel
USA: Edward Elgar, 2000, 784 с.
Книга по экономике природных ресурсов и окружающей среде раскрывает проблемы использования природных ресурсов и загрязнения окружающей среды, их экономическую составляющую и последствия, современные механизмы и инструменты политики в области защиты окружающей среды и поведение экономических агентов.

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Galdeano Gomez, Jose Cespedes Lorente, Manuel Rodrigues
This paper analyses the effect of environmental and quality improvement practices on the value added of the fruit and vegetable sector. These practices form part of the incentive-based programmes established by the Common Agricultural Policy. Taking the investment in quality-environmental activities as knowledge capital, we propose a specific analysis that evaluates the effect of the factors of the production function and of the current subsidies over the value added. In general, the share of qualityenvironmental activities in the rise of the product's market value is quite high. The analysis reflects that the expenditure on these activities is still higher than their benefit, and that the current subsidies can hardly be considered encouraging factors for the development of the above-mentioned practices.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Albino Prada, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Maria Xose Vazquez, Mario Solino
This article presents results from an experiment into attribute perception and relevant levels for management of woodland and mountain areas typical of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. The aim, which the authors argue has been robustly reached, was to identify those aspects of forestry policy clearly perceived by citizens. This is useful for defining enlargement of areas protected under Natura 2000 Network. Results show clear preference for an increase in woodland to over half the current surface area, with replanting of traditional trees, in woodlands of low density and trees of different age and, preferably in irregular shaped plots.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл