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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 6



Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Ред.: Nicolas Lampkin, Susanne Padel
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 480 с.
Книга написана по одной из актуальных и широко обсуждаемых проблем - производство органической (экологической) продукции в сельском хозяйстве. На примере США, Канады, Великобритании, Австралии, Германии, Дании, Швейцарии авторы представляют статистику по финансовому состоянию ферм, производящих органическую продукцию, знакомят со спецификой по введению и адаптации органического производства, политикой стран.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него

Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Javier Calatrava-Leyva, Alberto Garrido
Durban, 2003
Water availability in semiarid regions commonly exhibits patterns of extreme variability. Even in basins with large infrastructure development, some users are subject to low levels of water reliability, incurring economic losses during periods of scarcity. More flexible instruments, such as voluntary exchanges of water among users, may help users reduce their risk exposure. Recent changes in the Spanish water Law have given an initial impulse to allow for lease-out contracts of water use rights. This paper analyses, from theoretical and empirical standpoints, the effect that establishing water markets has on the economic risk caused by water availability variations.

The empirical study is performed on an irrigation district of the Guadalquivir Valley (Spain) with fair levels of average water availability but a high probability of periods of extreme scarcity. A non-linear programming model is used to simulate irrigators’ behaviour and derive water demand functions. Another spatial equilibrium model is used to compute market exchange and equilibrium. These programming models are combined with statistical simulation techniques. It is shown that the probability distribution of profits for a representative irrigator is modified if water exchanges are authorised, resulting in unambiguous risk reductions. Results also suggests that if the market would be extended to several irrigation districts and users, each characterised by different hydrological risk exposure, the occurrence of extremely low benefits events would become more unlikely. In sum, it is shown that exchanging water in annual spot markets allows for the reduction of farmers’ economic vulnerability caused by the variability of water supply across irrigation seasons.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Javier Guillem Carrau, Raul Compes Lopez
The United States is the leading country in the application of biotechnology to agricultural methods. One of the principal reasons for this is the flexibility of its legislation on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). A significant part of its production of soya or corn is already genetically modified, so that its companies need to avoid technical barriers to their exports in the world markets?. In the EU, negative public opinion has contributed to the adoption by the authorities of exigent legislation in order to avoid the possible risks to human health and the environment posed by GMO. The EU’s authorisation procedure for these organisms is long and meticulous.

Furthermore, a compulsory labelling system has been adopted for products, which contain GMO or genetically modified materials (GM materials). In 1998, American interests started to be adversely affected by European legislation. The USA Administration threatened to sue the EU before the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These threats have yet to be followed up with any action. The rules of international trade are regulated by agreements signed up to by the members of the WTO. The EU can argue that its authorisation procedure is designed to reduce the risks to health and the environment. This line of argument is compatible with the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The compulsory labelling system is also compatible with the Agreement on TBT if the WTO accepts that a product in which GM material is detected is not similar to a conventional one. The Protocol of Biosafety further supports the EU position since it advocates a cautious approach exemplified by the fact that the Protocol permits consideration of non-scientific risks during risk assessment. However, the Protocol is not yet in force, it is pending ratification by at least 50 countries and, now more than ever, it is uncertain whether the United States will be willing to ratify the Protocol. However, we cannot be sure that there will be future commercial controversy, which will show the contradictions between the commercial agreement and the environmental one.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
E. Wesley Peterson
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2001, 416 с.
Учебник по анализу политики в области сельского хозяйства, природных ресурсов и окружающей среды предназначен для студентов последнего года обучения в бакалавриате и начального уровня обучения в магистратуре. Студентам предлагается система знаний по анализу политики в данных областях, описываются аналитические методы для оценки эффекта от политики (метод выгод и издержек, частичного равновесия, моделирование всей экономики) с примерами из практики, рассматривается международный аспект.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Nico Polman, Jack Peerlings
In this paper a theoretical and empirical model is developed for analysing the decisions of individual farmers whether or not to produce wildlife and landscape services, how much of these services to produce and form an environmental co-operative in order to reduce transaction costs or to build up bargaining power. The model is applied for Dutch dairy farmers as the main users of agricultural land in the Netherlands. Simulations show that the reduction of transaction costs makes it attractive for farmers to form an environmental co-operative in case of a fixed price for wildlife and landscape services. Therefore more wildlife and landscape services are produced and more farmers are involved compared to a situation with individual supply. If demand is no longer perfectly elastic an increase in wildlife and landscape services production leads to lower prices offsetting part of the production and profit increase caused by lower transaction costs. However, if the environmental co-operative acts like a monopolist its bargaining position leads to a decrease in the production of wildlife and landscape services and higher prices.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл