Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 29
Телевидение и выборы [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-05-2006Э. Мицкевич, Charles Firestone
Москва: Галерия, 1999, 80 с.
Брошюра предлагает сравнительный анализ практики правового и неформального регулирования разных аспектов деятельности телевидения во время выборов в разных странах. Рассматриваются такие явления как освещение выборов в информационных программах, платная политическая реклама, дебаты и др.; все способы их регулирования анализируются с точки зрения их способности приближать функционирование телевидения и политической системы в целом к демократическому идеалу.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008Robert Boyer, Michel Freyssenet
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, 144 с.
During the 1990s, many scientific publications, economic manuals and mass media pundits held that a correct representation of the industrial history of the 20th century would break this period down into three phases. The first phase was thought to involve “semi-craft” production, characterised by a wide variety of goods made by self-organised professional workers seeking to satisfy a demand that emanated from the upper social categories, these being the only persons who could access such custom-made items. Then came a phase of “mass production”, characterised by the manufacturing of large series of standardised goods by unskilled workers whose efforts were strictly defined and prescribed. Thanks to the economies of scale that were made possible by this system, it was supposedly during this period that the working classes acceded to a consumption of industrial products. Lastly, the century’s third and final phase of productive activity, called “lean production”, was said to have appeared in the 1990s, first in Japan before diffusing across the rest of the world. This system was said to have enabled a manufacturing of diversified, high-quality and competitively priced goods, thanks to employees’ and suppliers’ joint efforts towards a continuous improvement in performance (the purpose being to satisfy a market that was becoming increasingly competitive and globalised). This final phase was said to have signalled the end of the so-called Taylorian division of labour, assimilated with a separation of design and execution. The MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) researchers put together an International Motor Vehicle Programme (IMVP) to orient research into automobile manufacturers and into variations in their levels of productivity. It subsequently devised the lean production theory to account for the system of production it was describing. The IMVP stated that this system “would change the world”, and that it was imperative that American and European firms adopt it (Womack et. al., 1990). This thesis, which was widely successful internationally in both professional and scientific circles, nevertheless raised a greater number of questions, and even outright criticism. This in turn led to a new wave of research throughout the 1990s - initiatives that enabled more operative types of theoretical formulation. The purpose of the present book is to present these latter formulations. History however moves quickly. The “system that was going to change the world” was not able to keep the country where it was said to have originated from going into a protracted and painful crisis. Nor did it prevent some of the companies who allegedly embodied its principles from being forced to ally themselves with (or even be taken over by) foreign groups - only to be restructured and discover that they had much to learn from foreigners who were reputedly less efficient. Methods that had been attributed to the Japanese and which had seduced economic and political leaders (as well as many university professors and researchers) began to lose their charm. One intellectual fashion replacing another, now a new “Anglo-Saxon” model, based on the search for short-term profitability and a consequence of the power that has been acquired by institutional investors (pension funds, mutual funds, etc.) is supposedly forcing itself on the rest of the planet - just as 10 years ago people had been saying that lean production was sure to be the wave of the future. The disillusion is as blinding as it is fascinating. It makes it difficult to learn from the past and causes analysts to repeat the same mistakes - notably that which consists of seeing a new phenomenon as a potentially general and irreversible tendency without first examining the conditions that led to its birth or which are necessary if it is to spread. It is crucial that analysts avoid falling prey to faddish thinking again, whatever the nature thereof. Observers have to engage in conceptual clarifications and carry out meticulous analyses. This has been the goal of the “GERPISA International Network” (Group for the Permanent Study of and Research into the Automobile Industry and its Workers), an association of researchers who have been focusing on the automobile industry in an attempt to verify the validity of the IMVP’s thesis. The GERPISA has been studying automobile firms’ trajectories as well as the spaces in which such companies have deployed their activities from the late 1960s through the late 1990s. This has been achieved via two international research programmes: “The emergence of new industrial models” (1993-1996) and “The automobile industry between globalisation and regionalisation” (1997-1999). The authors of the present book, who managed the scientific aspects of these two programmes, present here the conclusions that they have personally drawn from them, enhanced by findings from research on the automobile industry since its birth. The present book provides an analytical structure that could readily inspire research into other sectors of activity. For the moment, the automobile sector is the only one to have been subjected to systematic investigation at a worldwide level. The stakes are high in this debate. At a scientific level, they involve an understanding of the full diversity of the various forms that the relationship between capital and labour has assumed, wherever this relationship is being renewed on a daily basis (i.e., in those firms and economic and political spaces where such activities are deployed). At a practical level, we focus on the conditions underlying firms’ durable profitability (and thus longevity), thereby assessing the room to manoeuvre for each of the actors involved: shareholders, banks, executives, employees, labour unions, suppliers, the State and local authorities – with consideration being given to each actor’s own economic and social outlook. The first chapter of the present book suggests a framework for analysing the process that gives birth to a “productive model”. The purpose is to build a definition that can be used operationally. The six following chapters are devoted to the “profit strategies” that can become possible, depending on the state of the market or labour; and to the “productive models” by which these strategies (such as they have been defined up until now in the automobile industry) can be implemented. Each chapter presents the development of one (or two) productive model(s); the profit strategy it implements; the means it activates; the “company governance compromise” in which it is embedded; the firms that have successfully embodied it (and those who have failed); the crises it has known; and finally the future that can be predicted for it. The conclusion provides an overview of the way in which these productive models have evolved over time, and specifies both the conditions in which firms can be profitable as well as the room for manoeuvre that actors have at their disposal.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006Scott Campbell, Susan S. Fainstein
Изд-во: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2003, 488 с.
The second edition of this very successful volume examines the current state of planning theory and the new directions it has taken in recent years. The editors have selected a set of classic and contemporary writings to address a central question: What role can planning theory play in making the good city and region within the constraints of a capitalist political economy and a democratic political system? The volume draws on a wide range of authors who address planning history, arguments for and against planning, competing planning styles, planning ethics, the public interest, and considerations of race and gender. Theoretical perspectives include political economy, postmodernism, communicative rationality, and feminism. Readings new to this edition examine themes emerging in planning theory, including a critique of the modernist roots of centralized planning, a reemphasis on space in planning, and a discussion of the difficulty of sustainable development. The second edition also features new case studies of planning success and failure in both the United States and the United Kingdom.In this second edition of Readings in Planning Theory the editors retain 10 of the 28 original readings from the first edition. Four other readings have been updated with more recent writings from the same author (the opening introduction and the chapters by Fainstein, Krumholz and Healey). Thirteen readings are wholly new.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006Anthony P. Cohen, Katsuyoshi Fukui
Изд-во: Edinburgh University Press, 1993, 228 с.
Essays originally presented to the symposium, The Age of the City: Human Life in the Twenty- First Century, held at The International House, Osaka, Japan, 27-30 March 1990 and published with the support of the Senri Foundation.
Are Skills the Answer? The Political Economy of Skill Creation in Advanced Industrial Countries [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006Colin Crouch, David Finegold, Mari Sako
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 296 с.
This study of vocational education in advanced industrial countries contributes to two different areas of debate. The first is the study of the diversity of institutional forms taken by modern capitalism, and the difficulties currently surrounding the survival of that diversity. Rather than analysing economic institutions and governance in general, the authors specifically focus upon the key area of skill creation. The second theme is that of vocational education and training in its own right. While sharing the consensus that the advanced countries must secure competitive advantage in a global economy by developing highly-skilled work forces, the authors draw attention to certain awkward aspects of this approach that are often glossed over in general debate: 1. The employment-generating power of improvements in skill levels is limited: employment policy cannot depend fully on education policies; 2. While the acquisition of skills has become a major public need, there is increasing dependence for their provision on individual firms, with government action being restricted to residual care for the unemployed, rather than contributing at the leading edge of advanced skills policy. Covering France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK, and the USA, this book provides a unique approach to education and training within the broader political and economic environment. As such, it will appeal to students, teachers, and practitioners concerned with vocational training, human resource management, industrial relations, and the sociology of the economy.
Бои за историю [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2009Lucien Febvre
Москва: Наука, 1991, cерия "Памятники исторической мысли", 630 с.
«Бои за историю» - сборник статей крупнейшего французского историка Люсьена Февра (1878-1956). В сборник вошли специально отобранные автором работы, наиболее ярко освещающие те нетрадиционные подходы к изучению истории, которые были сформулированы великим учёным, и которые показали свою удивительную плодотворность в свете последующего опыта науки. Постановка новых проблем, новое прочтение старых источников и в этой связи применение новых методов их исследования - таков важнейший вклад Февра в историографию. Всё это позволило Февру в течение значительного времени оставаться «властителем дум» передовых историков.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Giovanni Federico
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2005, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 416 с.
In the last two centuries, agriculture has been an outstanding, if somewhat neglected, success story. It has fed an ever-growing population with an increasing variety of products at falling prices, even as it has released a growing number of workers to the rest of the economy. This book, a comprehensive history of world agriculture during this period, explains how these feats were accomplished. Feeding the World synthesizes two hundred years of agricultural development throughout the world, providing all essential data and extensive references to the literature. It covers, systematically, all the factors that have affected agricultural performance: environment, accumulation of inputs, technical progress, institutional change, commercialization, agricultural policies, and more. The last chapter discusses the contribution of agriculture to modern economic growth. The book is global in its reach and analysis, and represents a grand synthesis of an enormous topic.
Changing Places of Work [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2006Alan Felstead, Nick Jewson, Sally Walters
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 208 с.
The places and spaces of managerial and professional work are changing rapidly. Long-established routines and disciplines of the personal office are being superseded in a multiplicity of new locations, such as 'hot desks', 'touchdown areas', 'home offices', motorway service stations, airport lounges, cars, trains and planes. Drawing on original research, this book analyses the impact of these developments on the experience of time and space, privacy and surveillance, freedom and constraint in everyday working life.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006Erik E. Filsinger
USA: Sage Publications, 1988, 208 с.
New theoretical models conceptualize families as systems affected by, and effecting change in, reciprocal influences among social, behavioral, and biological processes. Technological breakthroughs make noninvasive assessment of many biological processes available to family researchers. These theoretical and measurement advances have resulted in significant increases in research on family processes and relationships that integrate knowledge from the fields of behavioral endocrinology, behavior genetics, and, to a lesser degree, evolutionary psychology. This review covers a broad spectrum, including the topics of parenthood, early child development, adolescent and middle child development, parent-child relations, courtship and mate selection, and the quality and stability of marital and intimate relations. Our intention is to introduce, by example, the relevance of the biosocial approach, encourage family researchers to consider the application of these ideas to their interests, and increase the participation of family researchers in the next generation of studies.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006Janet Finch
Изд-во: Routledge, 1992, 228 с.
Negotiating Family Responsibilities provides a major new insight into contemporary family life, particularly kin relationships outside the nuclear family. While many people believe that the real meaning of 'family' has shrunk to the nuclear family household, there is considerable evidence to suggest that relationships with the wider kin group remain an important part of most people's lives. Based on the findings of a major study of kinship, and including lively verbatim accounts of conversations with family members concepts of responsibility and obligation within family life are examined and the authors expand theories on the nature of assistance within families and argue that it is negotiated over time rather than given automatically.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Ronald Findlay, Kevin O'Rourke
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 624 с.
International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends. They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago. Drawing extensively upon empirical evidence and informing their systematic analysis with insights from contemporary economic theory, Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth. Power and Plenty is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century. Ronald Findlay is the Ragnar Nurkse Professor of Economics at Columbia University. He is the author of Factor Proportions, Trade, and Growthand Trade, Development, and Political Economy. Kevin H. O'Rourke is professor of economics at Trinity College, Dublin. He is the coauthor of Globalization and History.
Television culture [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-02-2006John Fiske
London: Routledge, 1988, cерия "Studies in communication", 400 с.
Книга известного американского исследователя популярной культуры Джона Фиска представляет собой критический культурологический анализ разных аспектов телевидения. Используя методологию Ролана Барта, Михаила Бахтина и множество других теоретических подходов, Фиск рассматривает такие разные темы как семиотические характеристики телезвезд (на примере Мадонны), гендерные аспекты телесериалов, социальные функции телевикторин, роль зрителей в интерпретации и "дописывании" телепродукции. Фиск всячески подчеркивает активную роль аудитории, в частности, с помощью одного из своих ключевых понятий "производительные тексты" (producerly texts) - т.е. тексты, в создании которых прямым или косвенным образом принимает участие аудитория. Книга написана простым, увлекательным языком, доступным для студентов.
Флек Л. Возникновение и развитие научного факта [Текст] : введение в теорию стиля мышления и мыслительного коллектива / Л. Флек. М. : Идея-Пресс : Дом интеллектуальной книги, 1999. 208 с. (CEU). [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-05-2004
Основной труд замечательного польского ученого-гуманиста, врача-микробиолога и философа Л. Флека впервые публикуется на русском языке. Т. Кун в предисловии к своей знаменитой книге « Структуры научных революций » сослался на работы Л. Флека наряду с блестящими именами А. Койре, Ж. Пиаже, Е. Мецгер и др. как на источники собственных воззрений о природе научного познания и роли истории науки в формировании эпистемологических моделей. Однако работы Л. Флека имеют вполне самостоятельное научное значение и позволяют считать его одним из основоположников современной социологии науки и сравнительной эпистемологии.
The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist Societies [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Neil Fligstein
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2002, 288 с.
Winner of 2003 Distinguished Book Award. Market societies have created more wealth, and more opportunities for more people, than any other system of social organization in history. Yet we still have a rudimentary understanding of how markets themselves are social constructions that require extensive institutional support. This groundbreaking work seeks to fill this gap, to make sense of modern capitalism by developing a sociological theory of market institutions. Addressing the unruly dynamism that capitalism brings with it, leading sociologist Neil Fligstein argues that the basic drift of any one market and its actors, even allowing for competition, is toward stabilization. The Architecture of Markets represents a major and timely step beyond recent, largely empirical studies that oppose the neoclassical model of perfect competition but provide sparse theory toward a coherent economic sociology. Fligstein offers this theory. With it he interprets not just globalization and the information economy, but developments more specific to American capitalism in the past two decades--among them, the 1980s merger movement. He makes new inroads into the ''theory of fields,'' which links the formation of markets and firms to the problems of stability. His political-cultural approach explains why governments remain crucial to markets and why so many national variations of capitalism endure. States help make stable markets possible by, for example, establishing the rule of law and adjudicating the class struggle. State-building and market-building go hand in hand. Fligstein shows that market actors depend mightily upon governments and the members of society for the social conditions that produce wealth. He demonstrates that systems favoring more social justice and redistribution can yield stable markets and economic growth as readily as less egalitarian systems. This book will surely join the classics on capitalism. Economists, sociologists, policymakers, and all those interested in what makes markets function as they do will read it for many years to come.
Моя жизнь, мои достижения [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2005Henry Ford
Москва: Попурри, 2004, 352 с.
В 1911 году Генри Форд изменил мир. Он вошел в историю как изобретатель конвейера и один из самых честных миллионеров. Он ошибался, терял состояние и богател, судился за патенты, выигрывал и проигрывал суды, он вытащил Америку из экономической депрессии и стал символом самой мощной экономики в истории человечества. Его книга "Моя жизнь, мои достижения" - это катехизис механика-романтика. Его идеи и методы организации производства, описанные в данной книге, внедрены в деятельность тысяч предприятий.