Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 6
Comparing Financial Systems [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Franklin Allen, Douglas Gale
Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2000, 519 с.
Financial systems are crucial to the allocation of resources in a modern economy. They channel household savings to the corporate sector and allocate investment funds among firms; they allow intertemporal smoothing of consumption by households and expenditures by firms; and they enable households and firms to share risks. These functions are common to the financial systems of most developed economies. Yet the form of these financial systems varies widely. In the United States and the United Kingdom competitive markets dominate the financial landscape, whereas in France, Germany, and Japan banks have traditionally played the most important role. Why do different countries have such different financial systems? Is one system better than all the others? Do different systems merely represent alternative ways of satisfying similar needs? Is the current trend toward market-based systems desirable? Franklin Allen and Douglas Gale argue that the view that market-based systems are best is simplistic. A more nuanced approach is necessary. For example, financial markets may be bad for risk sharing; competition in banking may be inefficient; financial crises can be good as well as bad; and separation of ownership and control can be optimal. Financial institutions are not simply veils, disguising the allocation mechanism without affecting it, but are crucial to overcoming market imperfections. An optimal financial system relies on both financial markets and financial intermediaries.
Новое индустриальное общество [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: АСТ, 2004, cерия "Philosophy", 602 с.
Джон Гэлбрейт, один из наиболее крупных и влиятельных современных американских экономистов, в своей работе "Новое индустриальное общество" исследует основные тенденции развития экономики второй половины XX века. Выдвигает концепцию "индустриального общества", где активная роль принадлежит государству, вводит понятия "техноструктура" и "зрелая корпорация". Книга Дж.Гэлбрейта, вышедшая в середине XX века, актуальна и сегодня, в современных экономических условиях, которые переживает Россия. Написанная живым, доступным языком, содержащая много ярких примеров и сравнений, она будет интересна как специалистам, так и широкому кругу читателей.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: Прогресс, 1976
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Elizabeth Gallagher
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, 256 с.
One of the core assumptions of recent American foreign policy is that China's post-1978 policy of "reform and openness" will lead to political liberalization. This book challenges that assumption and the general relationship between economic liberalization and democratization. Moreover, it analyzes the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalization on Chinese labor politics. Market reforms and increased integration with the global economy have brought about unprecedented economic growth and social change in China during the last quarter of a century. Contagious Capitalism contends that FDI liberalization played several roles in the process of China's reforms. First, it placed competitive pressure on the state sector to produce more efficiently, thus necessitating new labor practices. Second, it allowed difficult and politically sensitive labor reforms to be extended to other parts of the economy. Third, it caused a reformulation of one of the key ideological debates of reforming socialism: the relative importance of public industry. China's growing integration with the global economy through FDI led to a new focus of debate--away from the public vs. private industry dichotomy and toward a nationalist concern for the fate of Chinese industry. In comparing China with other Eastern European and Asian economies, two important considerations come into play, the book argues: China's pattern of ownership diversification and China's mode of integration into the global economy. This book relates these two factors to the success of economic change without political liberalization and addresses the way FDI liberalization has affected relations between workers and the ruling Communist Party. Its conclusion: reform and openness in this context resulted in a strengthened Chinese state, a weakened civil society (especially labor), and a delay in political liberalization. Mary Elizabeth Gallagher is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She is also a faculty associate of the Center for Chinese Studies and the Institute for Labor and Industrial Relations.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2007Gary Gereffi
Geneva: International Labor Organization, 2006, 65 с.
The volume contains the full text of the 7th ILO Nobel Peace Prize Social Policy Lectures organized by the International Institute for Labour Studies. The lectures given by Professor Gary Gereffi of the Duke University, USA were hosted by the University of West Indies and held at the Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica in December 2005. In all there were three lectures, dealing with the following topics: (i) An overview of the contemporary global labour market; (ii) Global consolidation and industrial upgrading: The promise and perils of development; and (iii) Globalization and the demand for governance.
The Limits of Convergence: Globalization and Organizational Change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Mauro F. Guillén
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2003, 304 с.
This book challenges the widely accepted notion that globalization encourages economic convergence--and, by extension, cultural homogenization--across national borders. A systematic comparison of organizational change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain since 1950 finds that global competition forces countries to exploit their distinctive strengths, resulting in unique development trajectories. Analyzing the social, political, and economic conditions underpinning the rise of various organizational forms, Guillén shows that business groups, small enterprises, and foreign multinationals play different economic roles depending on a country's path to development. Business groups thrive when there is foreign-trade and investment protectionism and are best suited to undertake large-scale, capital-intensive activities such as automobile assembly and construction. Their growth and diversification come at the expense of smaller firms and foreign multinationals. In contrast, small and medium enterprises are best fitted to compete in knowledge-intensive activities such as component manufacturing and branded consumer goods. They prosper in the absence of restrictions on export-oriented multinationals. The book ends on an optimistic note by presenting evidence that it is possible--though not easy--for countries to break through the glass ceiling separating poor from rich. It concludes that globalization encourages economic diversity and that democracy is the form of government best suited to deal with globalization's contingencies. Against those who contend that the transition to markets must come before the transition to ballots, Guillén argues that democratization can and should precede economic modernization. This is applied economic sociology at its best--broad, topical, full of interesting political implications, and critical of the conventional wisdom.