Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 38
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Kozo Yamamura
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001, cерия "Cornell Studies in Political Economy", 288 с.
The German and Japanese economies are more socially and politically regulated, and in this sense less liberal, than their Anglo-American counterparts. In The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars explains why and how Germany and Japan developed nonliberal types of capitalism, looking at the institutional histories of the welfare state, the financial system, corporate governance and skill formation. Similarities and differences are traced in relation to attempts at conservative social reform during late 19th century industrialization and subsequent political pathways to democratization. The book's analysis of the historical dynamics of institutional change, particularly the political and organizational challenges of adapting and integrating new institutional repertoires, suggests new insights on how nationally distinct forms of capitalism will respond to current and future challenges of internationalization.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2006John Minns
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, cерия "International Political Economy Series", 328 с.
Minns argues that the industrial transformations of Mexico, South Korea and Taiwan were based on the existence of powerful developmentalist states in each. It explores the origins of such states and their dynamics and connects the form of autonomy they enjoy within their countries to the policies they pursue. However, these so-called economic 'miracles' have not and, it is suggested here, cannot continue indefinitely. The causes of the decline of the developmentalist state are already present at its birth.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008Robert Boyer, Michel Freyssenet
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, 144 с.
During the 1990s, many scientific publications, economic manuals and mass media pundits held that a correct representation of the industrial history of the 20th century would break this period down into three phases. The first phase was thought to involve “semi-craft” production, characterised by a wide variety of goods made by self-organised professional workers seeking to satisfy a demand that emanated from the upper social categories, these being the only persons who could access such custom-made items. Then came a phase of “mass production”, characterised by the manufacturing of large series of standardised goods by unskilled workers whose efforts were strictly defined and prescribed. Thanks to the economies of scale that were made possible by this system, it was supposedly during this period that the working classes acceded to a consumption of industrial products. Lastly, the century’s third and final phase of productive activity, called “lean production”, was said to have appeared in the 1990s, first in Japan before diffusing across the rest of the world. This system was said to have enabled a manufacturing of diversified, high-quality and competitively priced goods, thanks to employees’ and suppliers’ joint efforts towards a continuous improvement in performance (the purpose being to satisfy a market that was becoming increasingly competitive and globalised). This final phase was said to have signalled the end of the so-called Taylorian division of labour, assimilated with a separation of design and execution. The MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) researchers put together an International Motor Vehicle Programme (IMVP) to orient research into automobile manufacturers and into variations in their levels of productivity. It subsequently devised the lean production theory to account for the system of production it was describing. The IMVP stated that this system “would change the world”, and that it was imperative that American and European firms adopt it (Womack et. al., 1990). This thesis, which was widely successful internationally in both professional and scientific circles, nevertheless raised a greater number of questions, and even outright criticism. This in turn led to a new wave of research throughout the 1990s - initiatives that enabled more operative types of theoretical formulation. The purpose of the present book is to present these latter formulations. History however moves quickly. The “system that was going to change the world” was not able to keep the country where it was said to have originated from going into a protracted and painful crisis. Nor did it prevent some of the companies who allegedly embodied its principles from being forced to ally themselves with (or even be taken over by) foreign groups - only to be restructured and discover that they had much to learn from foreigners who were reputedly less efficient. Methods that had been attributed to the Japanese and which had seduced economic and political leaders (as well as many university professors and researchers) began to lose their charm. One intellectual fashion replacing another, now a new “Anglo-Saxon” model, based on the search for short-term profitability and a consequence of the power that has been acquired by institutional investors (pension funds, mutual funds, etc.) is supposedly forcing itself on the rest of the planet - just as 10 years ago people had been saying that lean production was sure to be the wave of the future. The disillusion is as blinding as it is fascinating. It makes it difficult to learn from the past and causes analysts to repeat the same mistakes - notably that which consists of seeing a new phenomenon as a potentially general and irreversible tendency without first examining the conditions that led to its birth or which are necessary if it is to spread. It is crucial that analysts avoid falling prey to faddish thinking again, whatever the nature thereof. Observers have to engage in conceptual clarifications and carry out meticulous analyses. This has been the goal of the “GERPISA International Network” (Group for the Permanent Study of and Research into the Automobile Industry and its Workers), an association of researchers who have been focusing on the automobile industry in an attempt to verify the validity of the IMVP’s thesis. The GERPISA has been studying automobile firms’ trajectories as well as the spaces in which such companies have deployed their activities from the late 1960s through the late 1990s. This has been achieved via two international research programmes: “The emergence of new industrial models” (1993-1996) and “The automobile industry between globalisation and regionalisation” (1997-1999). The authors of the present book, who managed the scientific aspects of these two programmes, present here the conclusions that they have personally drawn from them, enhanced by findings from research on the automobile industry since its birth. The present book provides an analytical structure that could readily inspire research into other sectors of activity. For the moment, the automobile sector is the only one to have been subjected to systematic investigation at a worldwide level. The stakes are high in this debate. At a scientific level, they involve an understanding of the full diversity of the various forms that the relationship between capital and labour has assumed, wherever this relationship is being renewed on a daily basis (i.e., in those firms and economic and political spaces where such activities are deployed). At a practical level, we focus on the conditions underlying firms’ durable profitability (and thus longevity), thereby assessing the room to manoeuvre for each of the actors involved: shareholders, banks, executives, employees, labour unions, suppliers, the State and local authorities – with consideration being given to each actor’s own economic and social outlook. The first chapter of the present book suggests a framework for analysing the process that gives birth to a “productive model”. The purpose is to build a definition that can be used operationally. The six following chapters are devoted to the “profit strategies” that can become possible, depending on the state of the market or labour; and to the “productive models” by which these strategies (such as they have been defined up until now in the automobile industry) can be implemented. Each chapter presents the development of one (or two) productive model(s); the profit strategy it implements; the means it activates; the “company governance compromise” in which it is embedded; the firms that have successfully embodied it (and those who have failed); the crises it has known; and finally the future that can be predicted for it. The conclusion provides an overview of the way in which these productive models have evolved over time, and specifies both the conditions in which firms can be profitable as well as the room for manoeuvre that actors have at their disposal.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Ред.: David Lane
Изд-во: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, cерия "Studies in Economic Transition", 368 с.
This book considers several aspects of the transformation of the former state socialist countries: social and economic outcomes; forces in the transformation process; problems of consolidation of the new regimes; and alternative scenarios. The book evaluates the course of transformation of state socialist societies. It focuses on economic change and its impact on inequality and health. Comparisons are made between the successful central European countries now members of the European Union with those of the former Soviet Union. There are detailed studies of the transformation of the (former) German Democratic Republic, Czech Republic, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, as well as the impact on Poland. A feature of the book is the impact of the collapse of state socialism on countries of Asia and the Third World. Alternative scenarios are considered, with specific chapters on China, Cuba, and North Korea. The book contemplates the alternative types of society that might replace state socialism, particularly state capitalism and market socialism.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-08-2007Angus Maddison
Изд-во: OECD, 2001, 384 с.
The book analyses changes in world income and population over the past two millennia in a comprehensive way, identifies the forces which explain the success of the rich countries, explores the obstacles which hindered advance in regions and countries which lagged behind, and scrutinises the interaction between the rich countries and the rest. As with my earlier books, the causal analysis is supported by an extensive framework of macroeconomic statistics.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-08-2007Angus Maddison
Изд-во: OECD, 2003, 276 с.
Written by the distinguished economic historian, Angus Maddison, the book offers a rare insight into the history and political influence of national accounts and national accounting. Packed with over 150 tables, boxes and figures, this book pulls together an incredible array of hard-to-find facts both large and small. These are just a random sample: Annual Change of World GDP, IMF and Maddison Measures, 1970-2001; World Gold Output by Major Region, 1493-1925; Slave Exports from Black Africa, 650-1900, by Destination; Population of 12 West European Countries, 1500-2003; Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States), 1500-2001. The World Economy: Historical Statistics is a "must" for all scholars and students of economics and economic history, while the casual reader will find much of fascinating interest. It is also a monumental work of reference. It is the sequel to the author's best-selling The World Economy: a Millennial Perspective, published by the OECD Development Centre in 2001.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Ред.: Harry F. Dahms
Изд-во: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, cерия "Main Trends of the Modern World", 496 с.
A diverse, complex, and stable, yet volatile system, capitalism has undergone fundamental transformations over the twentieth century. Entrepreneurial capitalism has become increasingly managerial and corporate in nature. The influence of laissez-faire policies waned for decades, only to experience a renaissance. No longer dominated by industrial production, capitalist economies are now based on information technologies and geared toward supplying services. An economy based on individual companies is being replaced by complex relationships between state, economy, and multinational corporations. Modern capitalism is by no means monolithic - witness the differences among American, British, German, French, Italian, Japan, and Korean capitalisms. Moreover, the emergence of distinctive global concentrations of capitalism has subverted the idea of a global economy as a unified and homogeneous system. Focusing on the structural shifts in advanced political economies, this volume brings to light trends that occur 'below' the surface of economic activity. The essays identify the basic patterns of those transformations and their implications - social, political, and economic - for contemporary and future capitalisms
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2006Marshall C. Eakin
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, 288 с.
Tropical Capitalism traces the rise of Brazil’s second largest industrial center, a planned city created in the 1890s as the capital of Minas Gerais, the nation’s second most populous state. Marshall Eakin offers the industrialization of Belo Horizonte as an example of an extreme form of the pattern of Brazilian industrialization--a variation of capitalism characterized by state intervention, clientelism, family networks, and the lack of tehcnological innovation. At the core of the analysis are the webs of power formed by politicians, technocrats, and entrepreneurs who drove forward the process of industrialization. The first comprehensive analysis of Belo Horizonte, this book explores industrialization in Latin America, and looks beneath the larger, national economy to dissect a city and region.