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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 21

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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Joseph Rykwert
Изд-во: Oxford University Press, 2004, 320 с.
The subtitle to this, the tenth book by architecture professor (and lively writer) Joseph Rykwert--namely, "The City in the Twenty-First Century and Beyond"--is a whopping misnomer. It is only in the final chapter that Rykwert pays attention (and briskly, even then) to urban developments of recent years and to what we might expect in the 100 years to come. What this book really is, despite what its subtitlers intended, is at once a broad-ranging and satisfyingly detailed social history of some of the great cities of the modern world (mostly the Western one, with a marked emphasis on the two cities Rykwert calls home--New York and London--plus Paris) and an inquiry into how well they have served the material and spiritual lives of the people who inhabit them.

Ranging comfortably and coherently back and forth between the Old World and the New, Rykwert begins with the Industrial Revolution, its factories, the throngs of poor country people that flooded the cities to work in them, and the subsequent 150-year challenge faced by urban centres to house, transport and entertain these throngs cheaply, space-consciously and hygienically. But Seduction of Place is not so much a people's history of the city as it is a vibrantly researched and chronicled play-by-play of the big public--and some private--works of the major metropolises. The book also tackles the luminaries--including Haussmann, Olmstead and Vaux, L'Enfant, and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (who pioneered the enduring school of axial planning at Paris' Ecole Polytechnique)--whose names are often uttered in the same breath as the parks, boulevards and edifices they brought to life.

Social critics like Tocqueville, Marx, Engels, Fourier and Ruskin are just as well represented here, however, ably providing the basis for Rykwert's persistent question of what cities ought to be and how responses to that have diverged and evolved over the years, apart from what they have become, for better or ill, and how they got that way. Even though the book takes a more or less familiar course through the 20th century--from the emergence of subways, skyscrapers, and modernism through post-war urban planning, suburban sprawl, and subsequent urban decay and attempts at renewal--Rykwert knows when to dart away from well-known people, places and things to chronicle the planning of lesser-known English "New Towns" or of distinctly 20th-century cities like New Delhi, Islamabad, Australia's Canberra, and--rather famously--Brasilia, the ultimate "zoned" city.

The final chapter pays the requisite nod to the postmodernist implications of, for example, Celebration, Florida, (Disney's controversial new spin on the "company town") but is really distinguished by Rykwert's startlingly on-the-mark reading of how such wildly popular mega-museums as the new international Guggenheim franchise (with Gehry's Bilbao "branch" currently eclipsing Wright's New York "flagship") have come to best personify the encroachment of corporate globalisation in the urban civic realm. It is a fitting conclusion for a book that manages so gracefully to wed an engrossing history of urban growth with the deeper intellectual, cultural and ethical questions it raises--the very questions that the speculators, preservationists and "ordinary citizens" will still have to answer in creating and sustaining the great cities of the 21st century. --Timothy Murphy --
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Larry R. Ford, Judith A. Trachte
Изд-во: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, 234 с.
Gates and fences, sidewalks and driveways, alleys and parking lots--these ordinary features have an important architectural impact, influencing how a building relates to the spaces around it. As geographer Larry R. Ford argues, architectural histories and guidebooks tell us surprisingly little about the character of American cities because they concentrate on buildings taken out of context, buildings divorced from space. In The Spaces between Buildings , Ford focuses on the neglected "nooks and crannies" between structures, supplementing his analysis with three photographic essays.

Long before Ford knew anything about geography or architecture, he was a connoisseur of front porches, alleys, and loading docks. As a kid in Columbus, Ohio, he knew where to find coal chutes to play in, which rooftops and fire escapes were ideally suited for watching parades, and which stoops were perfect for waiting for a bus. To him the spaces between buildings seemed wonderfully integrated and connected. The Spaces between Buildings is the result of Ford's preoccupation with the relationship of buildings to one another and how their means of access and boundaries organize the areas around us.

As Ford observes, a city with friendly, permeable facades and a great variety of street-level doors is more conducive to civic life than a city characterized by fortresslike structures with blank walls and invisible doors. Life on the street is defined and guided by the nature of the surrounding buildings. Similarly, a residential neighborhood with front porches, small lawns or gardens, and houses with lots of windows and architectural details presents a more walkable and gregarious setting than a neighborhood where public space is surrounded by walls, three-car garage doors, blank facades, and concrete driveways.

Ford begins by looking at the growth of four urban places, each representing a historical era as much as a geographic location: the Islamic medina; the city shaped by the Spanish renaissance; the nineteenth-century North American city; and the twentieth-century American city. His first essay also discusses the evolution of the free-standing structure as a basic urban building type and the problems encountered in beautifying the often work-a-day back and side yards that have helped to create the image of the untidy American city. The second essay examines the urban trend toward viewing lawns, gardens, hedges, and trees as an essential adjunct to architecture. The final essay focuses on pedestrian and vehicular spaces. Here the author includes the landscape of the garage, sidewalks, streets, and alleys.

In its exploration of how spaces become places, The Spaces between Buildings invites readers to see anew the spaces they encounter every day and often take for granted.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Michael Larice, Elizabeth MacDonald
London, New York: Routledge, 2006, cерия "Routledge Urban Reader Series", 560 с.
Drawing together the very best of classic and contemporary writings, this informative book illuminates the theory and practice of urban design. Forty-one generous selections include contributions from Le Corbusier and Jacobs through to Hayden and Gillham.
This book provides an essential resource for students and practitioners of urban design, drawing together important but widely dispersed writings. Section and selection introductions are provided to assist students in understanding where readings come from and how they fit into the larger picture of the field of urban design.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Richard C. Wade
Изд-во: University of Illinois Press, 1996, 384 с.
Wade's 1959 volume raised a few eyebrows: it insisted that early immigrants tried to transfer the traditions and culture of their countries of origin into the New World rather than establish an American identity, as was long proposed by other history volumes. This edition contains a new introduction by historian Zane Miller
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2006
Anthony M. Orum, Xiangming Chen
Изд-во: Blackwell Publishing Company, 2002, cерия "21st Century Sociology", 180 с.
The World of Cities is a concise theoretical and empirical introduction to urban sociology. In clear and engaging terms, the book surveys and critiques all the major theoretical perspectives in urban studies. It examines the meanings of place and space, and applies these concepts to contemporary cities, communities, and neighborhoods. It then reviews the history of city-building in the United States from the late 18th century to the present time. Next it examines the impact of global economic and cultural forces on contemporary local places and city life in a comparative context, with illustrative examples and evidence from the United States and China. The final section discusses the current efforts of metropolitan leaders to improve cities and maintain the civic culture of a community.

For the student of urban sociology and urban studies in general, this textbook is an ideal overview and synthesis of a fascinating and ever-changing field.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2006
Tao Tao Liu, David Faure
Изд-во: Palgrave, 2002, 272 с.
Contemporary scholars place the rural-urban divide at the center of individual identity in China. This interdisciplinary collection traces the development and distinctions between urban and rural life and the effect on the Chinese sense of identity from the 16th century to the present day. It provides a daunting example of the influence that political ideology may exert on an individual's sense of place.
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