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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 352

Книги

Авторы:
АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙК Л МНОП Р С ТУ ФХЦЧШ ЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P QR S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
А БВ ГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОП Р СТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC D E F G H I JKL M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Ирина Безлепкина
2002
This study analyses the causal factors of fall in Russian farm output focusing on financial determinants. Translog production function is estimated on panel of 17653 large-scale farms for 1996-1998 period using fixed-effects and accounting for inter-regional climate differences. Output elasticities are analysed for sub-samples of crop and animal producing farms. The reserarch findings show that budget transfers to the farms are inefficient and result in taxation of farms. Farms are operating under the soft budget constraints that have to be removed to improve farm production performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Ирина Безлепкина, Alfons Oude Lansink
2003
The Russian agricultural sector has experienced many problems since the beginning of the 1990s that resulted in a fall in farm output. Employing a production function approach and, unlike other studies, farmlevel data on more than 20,000 Russian large-scale farms for the period 1995-2000, this study analyzes the impact of both production (land, labour, capital, materials) and financial (debts and budget transfers) determinants on the productivity. Inter-regional differences such as weather conditions and farm-specific features such as geographical location, management and soil quality are taken into account employing the fixed-effect estimation. The findings show that Russian farms operate under liquidity constraints that lower their productivity.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Татьяна В. Блинова
2002
The objective of this paper is to study the link between rural regional development strategies and unemployment reduction in agricultural regions. Based on empirical data, the paper presents the assessment of the “diversification effects” for the regional labor demand achieved through the development of the non-state sector, small businesses and the service market on the regional labor markets’ behavior. By using the regression models we analyze how labor market performances depend on the patterns of the employment structure. Special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of agrarian and industrial regions. It is shown that high rates of employment in the agriculture weaken the position of the region on the labor market. However, diversification of the employment structure of the agricultural regions is a factor reducing the risk of rural unemployment. In rural regions the development of non-agricultural employment produces positive effects on the regional labor markets’ behavior. We study the relationships of the labor market performance with the key directions of the economic reform like changes in the ownership structure, development of small businesses and the service market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2004
Владимир Викторович Буев
Москва: НИСИПП, 2003, cерия "Бизнес-Тезаурус"
Данный доклад был представлен на Международной конференции “Модернизация экономики России: социальный контекст”, проведенной Государственным университетом - Высшая школа экономики при поддержке Всемирного банка и Бюро экономического анализа 2-4 апреля 2003 года.
Доклад подготовлен на основе 3 проектов, выполненных различными исследовательскими организациями (Национальный институт системных исследований проблем предпринимательства, информационно-консультационный центр “Бизнес-Тезаурус”, Международный институт гуманитарно-политических исследований) на средства грантов Московского общественного научного фонда.
Основные выводы:
Принятие трех законов из “пакета по дебюрократизации предпринимательской деятельности” в целом в 2002 году не снизило уровня административной нагрузки на предпринимательство (малый и средний бизнес).
Принятие законов породило ряд новых коллизий, к которым приходится адаптироваться предпринимательскому сообществу.
Принимаемое законодательство по дебюрократизации осваивает и адаптируется к нему не только (и даже не столько) малый и средний бизнес, но и регистрирующие и лицензирующие органы, органы государственного контроля (надзора).
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2004
Анатолий А. Кудинов
Санкт-Петербург, 1997
В докладе расматривается тема, достаточно актуальная в последние годы - реформирование предприятий реального сектора экономики различных регионов России и ближнего зарубежья.
Автор, сам принимавший участие в данных проектах, прежде всего, выделяет несколько основных причин, предопределивших кризисное или близкое к нему, состояние значительной части бывших государственных промышленных предприятий. Это причины:
1. неумение и нежелание руководителей предприятий производить и продавать то, чего ожидает платежеспособный потребитель, проще говоря, ориентироваться и выживать в конкурентной, рыночной среде
2. неспособность планировать, соизмерять свои доходы и расходы, в конечном итоге уметь финансово анализировать ситуацию на рынке
Автор убедительно показывает, что руководители предприятий еще очень далеки от понимания того, что грамотное управление стоит немалых денег, а безграмотное – еще больших.
Доказывает что – отсутствие управленческого инструментария и технологий для управления маркетингом, экономикой и финансами крайне отрицательно сказывается на всем, начиная от перспектив самого предприятия до откровенной дезориентации руководителей дилентантизмом многих, так называемых «консультантов по управлению».
Основной вывод доклада - нужны простые, рациональные и понятные большинству российских руководителей технологии управления.
Прежде всего управления маркетингом и продажами, экономикой и финансами.
Только после освоения этих необходимых технологий управления и наведения элементарного порядка можно задумываться над всевозможными реинжинирингами и другими модными теориями.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-04-2004
В книге « Межрегиональные барьеры в Российской Федерации, социально-экономические последствия и пути преодоления: европейский опыт и уроки для России » изложены материалы семинара 13 марта, 2000 г.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ольга Валерьевна Шик
2002
The conventional PSE’s methodology doesn’t provide adequate estimation of agricultural support for the economy in transition. In this paper we attempt to adjust PSE’s methodology for Russian economy, and also coefficients’ analysis and interpretations are adapted for transitional conditions. Investigation showed that the level of agricultural support in Russia is much lower than conventional methodology estimates.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Awudu I. Abdulai, Dominique Aubert
Zaragoza, 2002
This study employs both nonparametric and parametric methods to examine the influence of household expenditure and other demographic variables on household consumption of calories in Tanzania, using recent survey data. Under each estimation strategy we employ, we find significant and positive relationship between household expenditure and calorie consumption. Even with an estimation strategy that ensures consistent estimates in the presence of measurement error, the calorie-expenditure elasticity is 0.46, a finding that is consistent with the traditional view that, increases in household income will improve calorie intake and help alleviate inadequate nutrition.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Steffen Abele, Peter Voigt, Peter Weingarten
2002
Subsistence agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has only recently gained interest from agricultural economists. Their origin, their future and even their definition is still not well elaborated. This paper tries to throw light on the issue of subsistence farming in CEE. It first discusses the theoretical and empirical background of subsistence agriculture. This part is followed by a typology of subsistence farming as found in CEE. Analysis considers several hypotheses on the cause of subsistence agriculture, among them the structure of land ownership, market imperfections and lack of alternative income sources or low opportunity costs of labour respectively. Of all these hypotheses, only the latter can be proofed empirically, which is done by a nonlinear regression analysis. The paper concludes that this gives reason to argue that rather economic problems than specific problems related to the agricultural structure in CEE determine the degree of subsistence farming. Consequently, structural and social policies rather than agricultural policies like market intervention are to be considered.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Philip D. Adams, Lill Andersen, Lars-Bo Jacobsen
Zaragoza, 2002
We describe how an applied dynamic general equilibrium model of the Danish economy has been developed to generate structural forecasts. The forecasts provide a microeconomic picture that is consistent with a macroeconomic scenario and the other inputs. We provide an overview of the inputs required to generate the forecasts and of the forecast methodology. Finally, we present aspects of the forecasting results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Ana-Maria Aldanondo, Javier Puertolas
2002
In this paper we use a general equilibrium model to examine the effects of international quota transfer when a quota restricts world commodity production whilst the trade in an intermediate good is not regulated. The analysis shows that, when the quota regime is not internationally transferable, intermediate input trade substitutes for final good trade. In these circumstances, the distortions are lower than expected. International quota transfer increases world welfare proportionally to quota rent gap. Welfare distribution is also conditioned by commodity terms of trade and, particularly, by the outcome of the intermediate good price.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Arega D. Alene, Rashid M. Hassan
Durban, 2003
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar productive efficiencies. In the dry lands, apart from using homogeneous production technologies, the two groups do not have significantly different technical and allocative efficiencies and that they have similar productive efficiencies.

Therefore, we find no empirical evidence of a positive impact of NEP on overall productive efficiency in both agro-climatic zones. An investigation of the influence of several socioeconomic and institutional factors revealed that education, credit, previous participation in extension programs, off-farm income and the share of the leading cropping system have a positive impact on efficiency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Maria del Carmen Almansa-Saez, Javier Calatrava-Requena
2002
The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects of the Aljibe Basin (Almería) Spain, presented here. The results obtained show that, in this case study, application of Contingent Valuation ascribes greater social profitability of the project, with 5.23 % of IRR (Internal Rate of Return), compared to the value obtained using classic methodology of 2.25%, thus enabling us to draw closer to the true socio-environmental value of this type of project. In any case, both possibilities rather than alternatives can be considered as complementary, by focusing on the valuation from different perspectives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian M. Alston, Philip G. Pardey
Berlin, 2000
Estimated rates of return to research are distorted by problems of attributing the credit for particular research results, or for particular research-induced productivity increases, to research expenditures undertaken at different times, in different places, and by different agencies. A comprehensive assessment of the evidence from past economic evaluations of the returns to agricultural R&D indicates that studies generally report high rates of return, with enormous variation among studies, but that much of this evidence has been tainted by inadequate attention to attribution problems. br>
This paper raises these concerns in a general way, and illustrates their importance with reference to two particular types of attribution problem. First, we consider the problem of accounting for locational spillovers in attributing varietal improvement technology among research performers, using U.S. wheat varieties as an example. Second, we consider the temporal aspects of the attribution problem using the specification of research lags in econometric models to illustrate the problem of attributing aggregate productivity gains to research expenditures at different times.
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