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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 18

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АБ ВГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОПРСТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A B C D E F G H IJ K L M N O P QRS T UV W XYZ
 
Названия:
АБВГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОПРСТУФХЦЧШЩЭЮЯ
A BC DE FGHIJKLMNOP QR S T UVW XYZ
 

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Татьяна В. Блинова
2002
The objective of this paper is to study the link between rural regional development strategies and unemployment reduction in agricultural regions. Based on empirical data, the paper presents the assessment of the “diversification effects” for the regional labor demand achieved through the development of the non-state sector, small businesses and the service market on the regional labor markets’ behavior. By using the regression models we analyze how labor market performances depend on the patterns of the employment structure. Special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of agrarian and industrial regions. It is shown that high rates of employment in the agriculture weaken the position of the region on the labor market. However, diversification of the employment structure of the agricultural regions is a factor reducing the risk of rural unemployment. In rural regions the development of non-agricultural employment produces positive effects on the regional labor markets’ behavior. We study the relationships of the labor market performance with the key directions of the economic reform like changes in the ownership structure, development of small businesses and the service market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Oliveira Amimo, Donald W. Larson, Mauricio Bittencourt, Douglas H. Graham
2003
Many policy makers and businesses erroneously believe that rural populations, particularly in Africa, have no margin for savings over consumption needs. This study examines the potential for financial savings in rural Mozambican households by looking at the determinants of savings behavior. An econometric model for a household.s saving behavior was estimated using data from 113 rural households from Nampula province in Mozambique. Results indicate that income, physical wealth, household size, and years of schooling affect a household.s savings behavior. The study also finds that Mozambican rural households use their own grassroots associations for many financial services due to the lack of access to formal financial intermediaries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Ayalneh Bogale, Konrad Hagedorn, Benedikt Korf
Durban, 2003
This paper seeks to address the question: why does poverty persist in rural Ethiopia? We argue that it is largely a lack of entitlements to fundamental livelihood assets which urges poor rural farmers into livelihood diversification to make a living. We base our findings on empirical work, which is based on information gathered from a three-round survey of 149 rural households in Ethiopia during 1999/2000 cropping season. The FGT poverty index is employed to examine the extent and severity of rural poverty and reveals that nearly 40% of the sample households live below poverty line with average poverty gap of 0.047. The binary logit estimates shed light on factors behind the persistence of poverty and indicates that rural poverty is strongly linked to entitlement failures to crucial assets such as land, human capital and oxen. The study also reveals that poor households attempt to smooth their consumption and income through livelihood diversification, among which petty trading, charcoal making and fuelwood gathering for sale, brewing and
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2003
Hannah Chaplin, Sophia Moissey Davidova, Matthew Gorton
Durban, 2003
Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation is investigated. The results indicate that the level of diversification is relatively small and enterprise diversification by farmers is unlikely to generate sufficient new jobs and solve the problem of high rural unemployment. The attempt to transpose the Western European model of agricultural diversification to the acceding countries via the SAPARD programme is questionable, as non-farm centric rural policies appear to be more appropriate.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Paul Dorosh, Moataz El-Said, Hans Lofgren
2003
In Uganda, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, poverty is concentrated in rural areas. Because agriculture accounts for a large share of incomes for these households, policies and external shocks that affect agriculture, including shifts in world prices, changes in agricultural productivity, and reductions in marketing costs, may have significant effects on rural poverty. In this paper, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of the Ugandan economy, explicitly designed to capture regional variations in agricultural production and household incomes, to examine the implications of these policy changes and shocks.

Simulation results suggest that a doubling of area planted to coffee (the government.s target) would increase rural consumption by less than 2.0 percent, because of an estimated 10 percent decline in the world price of robusta coffee and an 11.3 percent real exchange rate appreciation of the Ugandan shilling. Smaller productivity increases in food crops may have greater potential to raise rural incomes, provided that markets perform well and producer incentives are maintained. A five percent increase in agricultural productivity raises consumption by 1.3 to 2.1 percent among rural households and lowers food prices by 3.4 to 3.8 percent relative to the CPI, thus benefiting households with high food consumption shares. Reducing agricultural marketing margins by 30 percent leads to increases of 2.3 to 4.1 percent in consumption of farm households, with the largest gains in regions where consumption out of own production is lower.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Eli Feinerman, Marinus H.C. Komen
2002
The new Rural Development Regulation of the EU reflects the shift of attention within rural areas from agricultural production towards rural development and embraces both, farmers and non-farm residents. While agricultural production is required to comply with environmental standards, rural areas also have to fulfil the growing demand for landscape, outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation. This paper develops a model of a rural area where farmers and non-farm residents live together. A central government uses a combination of two-policy instruments - direct compensation payments and public services - aimed at encouraging farmers to adopt environmentally beneficial practices and at the same time to increase the provision of country-side amenities and the sustained vitality of the rural area. The optimal mix of the policy instruments is evaluated under various governmental objectives. The analysis suggests that a combination of direct payments to farmers with the supply of local public services is a promising tool for rural policy development initiatives in the EU.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bruce L. Gardner
2003
My aim is to follow Yair Mundlak's recommendation, which concluded his Elmhirst Lecture, to identify sources of and constraints upon economic growth in agriculture. I come to the subject not as a long-time researcher on international agricultural development, but rather as a follow-up to studies of the development of U.S. agriculture. The story of U.S. agriculture led me, as many before, to consider possible lessons for countries where sustained growth in the real incomes of rural people has not yet occurred. Moreover, my U.S. research led into questions of how the relatively poorest farm people have fared in the growth process (Gardner, 2000), a topic which fits well with the emphasis of President von Braun’s address.

I begin by revisiting some fundamentals of agricultural development economics, the literature concerning it, and data measurement issues. In the second major section, empirical evidence is reviewed on the growth of agriculture as an industry. The third section turns to welfare consequences of agricultural growth as measured by real household incomes. The final section discusses conclusions about the causes of sector growth and real income growth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emilio Gatto, Beatriz E. Velazquez, Roberto Henke
2002
The set of policy tools that the EU puts under the heading of Rural Development is extremely heterogeneous, such heterogeneity translates into a different degree of coupling support with agriculture production and also brings out the need to discuss the actual consistency of such tools with the UE position on NTCs at WTO. Examined in the present work are the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) and the Regional Operative Plans (ROPs) recently approved by the European Commission for the Italian Regions. The analysis is of a purely qualitative type and is based on currently available information, that is, the measures and the relative project typologies approved within the Plans. Taking into account the EU position on NTCs and their relation with multifunctionality we look at the tools applied for Rural Development in Italy with respect to their degree of de-coupling, production of externalities/non marketable goods and consistency with the EU position on NTCs. Financial allotment by measure typology is also examined. We found out that the present set of actions that fall under rural development is still dominated by a sector-based intervention, even in the case of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment, the least contestable ones. Paradoxically, the measures aimed at the promotion of Rural Development and at training, that better respond to the NTC objectives, are those for which the least resources are located.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Jason Hartell, Maureen Kilkenny, Johan Swinnen
2002
In this paper, we attempt to shed some light on the state of current thinking in Europe about rural development and policy. To do so, the priorities and preferences of European agricultural economists who work in the area of rural development policy were identified using a survey that asked the following questions: who do we believe needs help, what are the problems and objectives, which policies are likely to be effective, who is able to deliver, and where do we get these ideas? The paper documents the diversity in rural development problems and favored tactics across Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Johannes Jutting
2002
Community based health insurance schemes are becoming increasingly recognized as an instrument which help farmers in rural areas of low income countries to better manage health. Health risks present a permanent threat to the income earning capacity of poor people. Beside direct economic cost for treatment and lost working time, indirect cost such as a reduction in labor supply materialize which increases the vulnerability of the household. It is often hypothesized that community based health insurance improve social protection, but quantitative analysis is largely missing. Against this background, this paper analyzes if members in a mutual health insurance scheme have a better access to health care than non-members taking “les mutuelles de santés” (mutual health organization) in rural Senegal as an example. Limited dependent and log linear regressions are used to capture the impact of health insurance on the probability of visiting a health care provider and the out-of-pocket expenditure at the point of use . The results of the analysis show that while community based health insurance schemes reach otherwise excluded people, the poorest of the poor in the communities are not covered. Regarding the impact on the access to health care, members have a higher probability of using hospitalization services compared to non-members and pay substantially less when they need care. Given the results from this study, community financing schemes have the potential to improve the risk management capacity of rural households.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Simon Maxwell
Durban, 2003
Rural development has not received the priority and attention warranted by the present and future concentration of poverty in rural areas. Is this perhaps because rural development agencies present conflicting narratives? A framework is presented within which to answer that question, and is then applied to the recent policy statements of the EU, FAO, IFAD and the World Bank. Each policy statement is compelling in its own way, but the strategies are not consistent. A narrative is needed which: recognises the rapid pace of change in rural areas; acknowledges the overriding need for diversification out of agriculture; builds market institutions for growth; and works effectively within the current international consensus on poverty reduction, emphasising opportunity, empowerment and security.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Elisa Montresor
2002
The purpose of this work is to contribute with some reflections to the debate that has flourished in recent years around two issues: rural development and systemic reading of the territorial articulation of agricultural development. In the numerous investigations conducted in Italy and elsewhere, the analytical approach adopted (institutional level and investigation units, choice of indicators and of the analytical instruments) has profound repercussions on rural policies, according to its wider or narrower formulation. After a brief reflection on the approaches to rural development, highlighting the contradictions of institutional intervention, the study proposes a critical description of some results of the Italian investigations. The aim is to contribute to the definition of an analytical approach for evaluating the dynamics in progress in the agricultural and rural development at different decisional levels (EU, national, regional). The proposed instruments satisfy some requirements: the repeatability of the investigation at different times and in a variety of contexts, the flexibility for the adaptability to the mosaic of situations in the rural world, the applicability at different territorial levels.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Yasuo Ohe
2002
Understanding the demand profile of rural tourism is a necessary condition for the successful diversification of any rural economy. Although descriptive analyses have been conducted on this issue, a more generalized framework is required that allows us to explore economic analyses. This paper evaluates the leisure behavior of households that have a preference for rural tourism in Japan. First, we give conceptual consideration to the notion that leisure behavior should be regarded as a form of a home production and explain that households that undertake rural tourism have undergone an upward shift in the home production function to realize a higher utility level. We propose that a preference for rural recreation causes this shift by improving the efficiency of the home production of leisure. Second, as an actual behavior of rural tourism, the characteristics of visitors to pick-your-own farms were statistically tested using data from a nation-wide survey on tourism. Finally, the rural preference function was estimated. The results revealed that the profile of households showing a preference for rural tourism demonstrated both up-market and niche market characteristics, which mirrored findings in European countries emphasizing the importance of a higher academic background, stronger orientation towards outdoor recreation, and greater discrimination with respect to the quality of services and goods received. Preference for rural recreation can be enhanced through the provision of authentic, high quality service and goods and the preservation of the rural environment. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for a farm policy that integrates both agricultural and rural measures.
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