Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 3
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2006Marshall C. Eakin
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, 288 с.
Tropical Capitalism traces the rise of Brazil’s second largest industrial center, a planned city created in the 1890s as the capital of Minas Gerais, the nation’s second most populous state. Marshall Eakin offers the industrialization of Belo Horizonte as an example of an extreme form of the pattern of Brazilian industrialization--a variation of capitalism characterized by state intervention, clientelism, family networks, and the lack of tehcnological innovation. At the core of the analysis are the webs of power formed by politicians, technocrats, and entrepreneurs who drove forward the process of industrialization. The first comprehensive analysis of Belo Horizonte, this book explores industrialization in Latin America, and looks beneath the larger, national economy to dissect a city and region.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Barry Eichengreen
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2006, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 504 с.
In 1945, many Europeans still heated with coal, cooled their food with ice, and lacked indoor plumbing. Today, things could hardly be more different. Over the second half of the twentieth century, the average European's buying power tripled, while working hours fell by a third. The European Economy since 1945 is a broad, accessible, forthright account of the extraordinary development of Europe's economy since the end of World War II. Barry Eichengreen argues that the continent's history has been critical to its economic performance, and that it will continue to be so going forward. Challenging standard views that basic economic forces were behind postwar Europe's success, Eichengreen shows how Western Europe in particular inherited a set of institutions singularly well suited to the economic circumstances that reigned for almost three decades. Economic growth was facilitated by solidarity-centered trade unions, cohesive employers' associations, and growth-minded governments--all legacies of Europe's earlier history. For example, these institutions worked together to mobilize savings, finance investment, and stabilize wages. However, this inheritance of economic and social institutions that was the solution until around 1973--when Europe had to switch from growth based on brute-force investment and the acquisition of known technologies to growth based on increased efficiency and innovation--then became the problem. Thus, the key questions for the future are whether Europe and its constituent nations can now adapt their institutions to the needs of a globalized knowledge economy, and whether in doing so, the continent's distinctive history will be an obstacle or an asset.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007Gosta Esping-Andersen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 218 с.
The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe that the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies takes a second, more sociological and more institutional, look at the driving forces of economic transformation. What, as a result, stands out is postindustrial diversity, not convergence. Macroscopic, global trends are undoubtedly powerful, yet their influence is easily rivalled by domestic institutional traditions, by the kind of welfare regime that, some generations ago, was put in place. It is, however, especially the family economy that hold the key as to what kind of postindustrial model will emerge, and to how evolving tradeoffs will be managed. Twentieth-century economic analysis depended on a set of sociological assumptions that, now, are invalid. Hence, to better grasp what drives today's economy, we must begin with its social foundations.