Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 38
Опубликовано на портале: 17-03-2008Ronald Philip Dore
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987, 264 с.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2007Carlota Perez
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002, 224 с.
Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital presents a novel interpretation of the good and bad times in the economy, taking a long-term perspective and linking technology and finance in an original and convincing way.
The Age of Access: The New Culture of Hypercapitalism, Where all of Life is a Paid-For Experience [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2000, 320 с.
Imagine waking up one day to find that virtually every activity you engage in outside your immediate family has become a "paid for" experience. It's all part of a fundamental change taking place in the nature of business, contends bestselling author Jeremy Rifkin. On the horizon looms the Age of Access, an era radically different from any we have known. In the hypercapitalist economy, buying things in markets and owning property become outmoded ideas, while "just-in-time" access to nearly every kind of service, through vast commercial networks operating in cyberspace, becomes the norm. We increasingly pay for the experience of using things-in the form of subscriptions, memberships, leases, and retainers-rather than for the things themselves. Already, millions of Americans have give up ownership of their automobiles in favor of leasing cars as a service and are renting everything from software to furnaces. Similarly, companies around the world are selling off real estate, shrinking inventories, leasing equipment, outsourcing activities, and becoming "weightless". Ownership of physical property, once considered a valued asset, is now regarded as a liability in the corporate world. Rifkin argues that the capitalist journey, which began with the commodification of goods and the ownership of property, is ending with the commodification of human time and experience. In the future, we will purchase enlightenment and play, grooming and grace, and everything in between. "Lifestyle marketing" is the buzz in the commercial world as more and more consumers become members of corporate-sponsored clubs and participate in corporate-sponsored activities and events. People are even living out their lifestyles in planned commercial residential communities. The business of business, therefore, is no longer about exchanging property but, rather, about buying access to one's very existence in small commercial time segments. In the Age of Access, Rifkin asks, will any time be left for relationships of a noncommercial nature? The changes taking place are part of even a larger transformation occurring in the nature of capitalism. We are making a long-term shift to a system based on the selling of cultural experiences. Global travel and tourism, theme cities and parks, destination entertainment centers, wellness, music, film, television, the virtual worlds of cyberspace, and even social causes are fast becoming the center of an economy that trades in cultural resources. The old giants of the industrial age, companies such as General Motors, Sears, USX, Boeing, and Texaco, are giving way to the new giants of cultural capitalism, Viacom, AOL Time Warner, Disney, Sony, and News Corporation. These transnational companies, with communications networks that span the globe, are mining cultural resources in every part of the world and repackaging them in the form of commodities and entertainments. The top one-fifth of the world's population, says Rifkin, now spends as much income accessing cultural experiences as buying manufactured goods and basic services. Rifkin warns that when the culture itself is absorbed into the economy, only commercial bonds will be left to hold society together. The critical question posed by The Age of Access is whether civilization can survive when only the commercial sphere remains as the primary arbiter of human life.
The Biotech Century [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 1998, 288 с.
In this provocative and far-reaching book, Jeremy Rifkin argues that the computer revolution is merely a prelude to a far more significant change taking place in the global economy. We are in the midst of a great historic transition into the Age of Biotechnology. Rifkin notes that after more than forty years of running on parallel tracks, the information and life sciences are fusing into a single powerful technological and economic force that is laying the foundation for the Biotech Century. The computer is increasingly being used to decipher, manage, and organize the vast genetic information that is the raw resource of the new global economy. Already, transnational corporations are creating giant life-sciences complexes from which to fashion a bio-industrial world. Our way of life, says Rifkin, is likely to be transformed more fundamentally in the next few decades than in the previous thousand years. Food and fiber may be grown indoors in giant bacteria baths, partially eliminating the farmer and the soil for the first time in history. Animal and human cloning could be commonplace, with "replication" increasingly replacing "reproduction". Millions of people could obtain a detailed genetic readout of themselves, allowing them to gaze into their own biological futures and predict and plan their lives in ways never before possible. Parents may choose to have their children gestated in artificial wombs outside the human body. Genetic changes could be made in human fetuses to correct deadly diseases and disorders and enhance mood, behavior, intelligence, and physical traits. The Biotech Century promises a cornucopia of genetically engineered plants and animals to feed a hungry world; genetically derived sources of energy and fiber to propel commerce and build a "renewable" society; wonder drugs and genetic therapies to produce healthier babies, eliminate human suffering, and extend the human life span. But with every step we take into this brave new world, the nagging question will haunt us: "At what cost?" The new genetic commerce raises more troubling questions than any other economic revolution in history. Will the artificial creation of cloned, chimeric, and transgenic animals mean the end of nature and the substitution of a "bio-industrial" world? Will the mass release of thousands of genetically engineered life forms into the environment cause catastrophic genetic pollution and irreversible damage to the biosphere? What are the consequences-for both the global economy and society-of reducing the world's gene pool to patented intellectual property controlled exclusively by a handful of life-science corporations? What will it mean to live in a world where babies are genetically engineered and customized in the womb, and where people are increasingly identified, stereotyped, and discriminated against on the basis of their genotype? What are the risks we take in attempting to design more "perfect" human beings? Rifkin explores these and many other critical issues in this ground-breaking book about the coming era. The biotech revolution will force each of us to put a mirror to our most deeply held values, making us ponder the ultimate question of the purpose and meaning of existence. This, Rifkin maintains, may turn out to be its most important contribution.
The Brave New World of Work [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2007Ulrich Beck
Oxford: Polity Press, 2002, 202 с.
In this important book, Ulrich Beck - one of the leading social thinkers in Europe today - examines how work has become unstable in the modern world and presents a new vision for the future. Beck begins by describing how the traditional work society, with its life-long job paths, is giving way to a much less stable world in which skills can be suddenly devalued, jobs obliterated, welfare cover reduced or eliminated. The West would appear to be heading towards a social structure of ambiguity and multiple activity that has hitherto been more characteristic of the developing world. But what appears to be the end of traditional working practices can also be seen as an opportunity to develop new ideas and models for work in the twenty-first century.Beck's alternative vision is centred on the concept of active citizens democratically organized in local, and increasingly also regional or transnational, networks. Against the threat of social exclusion, everyone can and must have a right to be included in a new definition and distribution of work. This will involve constant movement between formal employment (with a major reduction in working hours) and forms of self-organized artistic, cultural and political 'civil labour', providing equal access to comprehensive social protection. The aim must be to turn insecurity around, so that it becomes a positive and enriching discontinuity of life.Drawing on his earlier work on risk and reflexive modernization, The Brave New World of Work is also closely linked to his studies on globalization and individualization. These processes are part of the same challenge upon which a politics of modernity must now base itself. Not only the future of work, but also the very survival of democracy and the welfare state will depend on the development of a newly committed and 'multi-active' transnational citizenship.This book will be of great interest to second- and third-year students in sociology, politics, geography and the social sciences generally. It will also appeal to a broader audience interested in the issues and debates surrounding the changing nature of work.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley, Peer Hull Kristensen
Изд-во: Thomson Learning, 1996, 320 с.
Throughout Europe, governments have acted in accordance with the conviction that a larger and uniform market would enable greater economics of scale and the growth of large corporations. This is seen in terms of the spread of multinational, US-style companies, enforcing a uniform type of firm across countries. The contributions to this volume, in contrast, show how the nature of firms is embedded in the larger societal context of nations, preventing a homogenised firm-type spreading across European countries. It becomes clear that researchers should locate the firm in the social context in which it is rooted, rather than looking to economic science to explain a 'non-ideal type.' Areas covered by the contributors include the comparison of typical firms in Denmark adn Finland; the limited transformation of large enterprises in Hungary; and an analysis of supply networks in Britain and Germany. Through these essays and a discussion of the variations in the nature of the firm in Europe by leading Eur
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Jane Whittle
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, cерия "Oxford Historical Monographs", 376 с.
This is an important new scholarly study of the roots of capitalism. Jane Whittle's penetrating examination of rural England in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries asks how capitalist it was, and how and why it changed over the century and a half under scrutiny. Her book intelligently relates ideas of peasant society and capitalism to a local study of north-east Norfolk, a county that was to become one of the crucibles of the so-called agrarian revolution. Dr Whittle uses the rich variety of historical sources produced by this precocious commercialized locality to examine a wide range of topics from the manorial system and serfdom, rights to land and the level of rent, the land market and inheritance, to the distribution of land and wealth, the numbers of landless, wage-earners, and rural craftsmen, servants, and the labour laws.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2007Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Colin Crouch
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006, 260 с.
At a time when democratization and the state of democracy are at the forefront of attention in many parts of the world, this book examines the state-of-the-art on this vital political issue. Revisiting the now classical literature on neo-corporatism in the light of current research and theory, the contributors illustrate the enormous influence of the 'neo-corporatist debate' on modern political science, political sociology, and political economy. Reflecting on a major part of the recent history of social science, they shed light on some of its current core concepts, such as governance, policy networks, and types of capitalism. The book traces the evolution of political conflicts concerning social order; from the class conflicts of 1970s Europe to the subsequent Latin American and Eastern European battles over democratization and democratic transition, to the debate on the 'democratic deficit' of the European Union.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006Bruno Amable
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, 324 с.
This book considers why institutional forms of modern capitalist economies differ internationally, and proposes a typology of capitalism based on the theory of institutional complementarity. Different economic models are not simply characterized by different institutional forms, but also by particular patterns of interaction between complementary institutions which are the core characteristics of these models. Institutions are not just simply devices which would be chosen by 'social engineers' in order to perform a function as efficiently as possible; they are the outcome of a political economy process. Therefore, institutional change should be envisaged not as a move towards a hypothetical 'one best way', but as a result of socio-political compromises. Based on a theory of institutions and comparative capitalism, the book proposes an analysis of the diversity of modern economies - from America to Korea - and identifies five different models: the market-based Anglo-Saxon model; Asian capitalism; the Continental European model; the social democratic economies; and the Mediterranean model. Each of these types of capitalism is characterized by specific institutional complementarities. The question of the stability of the Continental European model of capitalism has been open since the beginning of the 1990s: inferior macroeconomic performance compared to Anglo-Saxon economies, alleged unsustainability of its welfare systems, too rigid markets, etc. The book examines the institutional transformations that have taken place within Continental European economies and analyses the political project behind the attempts at transforming the Continental model. It argues that Continental European economies will most likely stay very different from the market-based economies, and caat political strategies promoting institutional change aiming at convergence with the Anglo-Saxon model are bound to meet considerable opposition.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Richard N. Langlois
Изд-во: Routledge, 2007, cерия "The Graz Schumpeter Lectures", 144 с.
Co-winner of the 2006 Schumpeter Prize of the International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society. This book explains the shift of the organizational landscape away from vertically integrated firms and towards more specialized entities connected by markets and networks. In doing so, it places in a larger theoretical framework the work of Joseph Schumpeter and Alfred Chandler, two of the twentieth century's most important analysts of the modern corporation. Weaving together business history, economic theory and the history of ideas, Langlois - who won the Newcomen Award in 1992 - sorts through the competing understanding of the rise and (relative) eclipse of the multi-unit enterprise. Rather than rejecting the accounts of Schumpeter and Chandler, he offers his own nuanced and historically grounded account of the rise and success of the corporation and its subsequent unbundling. Topical and timely, Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism is a useful resource for postgraduates and academics interested in the economics of organization, business history, economic sociology, and the history of economic thought, as well as to the general reader interested in the place of the corporation in the new economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-08-2007Adam Szirmai
Изд-во: Cambridge University Press, 2005, 744 с.
Why are poor countries poor and rich countries rich? How are wealth and poverty related to changes in nutrition, health, life expectancy, education, population growth and politics? This modern, non-technical introduction to development studies explores the dynamics of socio-economic development and stagnation in developing countries. Taking a quantitative and comparative approach to contemporary debates within their broader context, Szirmai examines historical, institutional, demographic, sociological, political and cultural factors. Key chapters focus on economic growth, technological change, industrialisation, agricultural development, and consider social dimensions such as population growth, health and education. Each chapter contains comparative statistics on trends from a sample of twenty-nine developing countries. This rich statistical database allows students to strengthen their understanding of comparative development experiences. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics the book is suited for use in inter-disciplinary development studies programmes as well as economics courses, and will also interest practitioners pursuing careers in developing countries. A multidisciplinary approach drawing on a wide range of disciplines including economics, history, sociology, anthropology, demography and political science. Easily accessible for students with no prior knowledge of the field; it also exposes more advanced students to the latest state of ongoing theoretical and empirical debates on developmen. Rich statistical analysis of data from twenty-nine developing countries includes 75 tables with comparative time series on development indicators.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2009Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Marco Orrú, Gary G. Hamilton
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996, 426 с.
East Asia's dynamic entrance into the global economy has provided a fruitful avenue for research in economic sociology. In this perceptive and timely volume, the authors theorize Asian capitalism and analyze the economic organization of East Asia. Presenting differing dimensions of a Weberian perspective, the authors first provide a theoretical grounding, then consider capitalism in East Asia comparatively, and finally contrast the economies of East Asia and Europe. The book shows how radically different social and cultural institutions can lead to economies that are organized in remarkably similar ways.
The Embedded Corporation: Corporate Governance and Employment Relations in Japan and the United States [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Sanford M. Jacoby
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, 236 с.
Is there one best way to run the modern business corporation? What is the appropriate balance between shareholders, executives, and employees? These questions are being vigorously debated as layoffs, scandals, and restructurings rattle companies around the world. The common assumption is that globalization is merging the varieties of corporate capitalism. Yet, as this book shows, corporations in Japan and the United States are responding differently to the pressures unleashed by globalization. In The Embedded Corporation, Sanford Jacoby traces this diversity to national differences in economic history and social norms, and, paradoxically, to global competition itself. The book's vantage point for exploring the varieties of capitalism is the human resource departments of large corporations, where changes in markets and technology turn into corporate labor policies affecting millions of workers. Despite some cross-fertilization, Japanese and American corporations maintain distinctive approaches to human resource management, which has important consequences for how firms compete, for corporate governance, and even for the level of inequality in Japan and the United States. The Embedded Corporation is a major contribution to our understanding of comparative management and the relationship between business, society, and the global economy. Sanford M. Jacoby is the Howard Noble Professor of Management, Public Policy, and History at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Kozo Yamamura
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003, cерия "Cornell Studies in Political Economy", 401 с.
After the devastation of World War II, Germany and Japan built national capitalist institutions that were remarkably successful in terms of national reconstruction and international competitiveness. Yet both "miracles" have since faltered, allowing U.S. capital and its institutional forms to establish global dominance. National varieties of capitalism are now under intense pressure to converge to the U.S. model. Kozo Yamamura and Wolfgang Streeck have gathered an international group of authors to examine the likelihood of convergence—to determine whether the global forces of Anglo-American capitalism will give rise to a single, homogeneous capitalist system. The chapters in this volume approach this question from five directions: international integration, technological innovation, labor relations and production systems, financial regimes and corporate governance, and domestic politics. In their introduction, Yamamura and Streeck summarize the crises of performance and confidence that have beset German and Japanese capitalism and revived the question of competitive convergence. The editors ask whether the two countries, confronted with the political and economic exigencies of technological revolution and economic internationalization, must abandon their distinctive institutions and the competitive advantages these have yielded in the past, or whether they can adapt and retain such institutions, thereby preserving the social cohesion and economic competitiveness of their societies.
The End of Work. The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Maket Era. Updated edition [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2004, 400 с.
In this compelling, disturbing, and ultimately hopeful book, Jeremy Rifkin argues that we are entering a new phase of history — one characterized by the steady and inevitable decline of jobs. Worldwide unemployment is now at the highest level since the great depression of the 1930s. The number of people underemployed or without work is rising sharply as millions of new entrants into the workforce find themselves victims of an extraordinary high-technology revolution. Sophisticated computers, robotics, telecommunications, and other cutting-edge technologies are fast replacing human beings in virtually every sector and industry-from manufacturing, retail, and financial services, to transportation, agriculture, and government. Many jobs are never coming back. Blue collar workers, secretaries, receptionists, clerical workers, sales clerks, bank tellers, telephone operators, librarians, wholesalers, and middle managers are just a few of the many occupations destined for virtual extinction. While some new jobs are being created, they are, for the most part, low paying and generally temporary employment. More than fifteen percent of the American people are currently living below the poverty line. The world, says Rifkin, is fast polarizing into two potentially irreconcilable forces: on one side, an information elite that controls and manages the high-tech global economy; and on the other, the growing numbers of permanently displaced workers, who have few prospects and little hope for meaningful employment in an increasingly automated world. Rifkin suggests that we move beyond the delusion of retraining for nonexistent jobs. He urges us to begin to ponder the unthinkable-to prepare ourselves and our institutions for a world that is phasing out mass employment in the production and marketing of goods and services. Redefining the role of the individual in a near workerless society is likely to be the single most pressing issue in the decades to come. Rifkin says we should look toward a new, post-market era. Fresh alternatives to formal work will need to be devised. New approaches to providing income and purchasing power will have to be implemented. Greater reliance will need to be placed on the emerging "third sector" to aid in the restoration of communities and the building of a sustainable culture. The end of work could mean the demise of civilization as we have come to know it, or signal the beginning of a great social transformation and a rebirth of the human spirit.