Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 207
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2009Edmond Pognon
Москва: Молодая гвардия, 2009, cерия "Живая история: Повседневная жизнь человечества", 368 с.
Согласно некоторым источникам, христиане в 1000 году ожидали конца света, тем более что в преддверии этой сакральной даты на Европу нагрянули апокалиптические беды - войны и голодомор, всевозможные природные катаклизмы. Но ужас перед Страшным судом, изображения которого покрыли все тимпаны соборов, вскоре вылился в бурное развитие религиозной архитектуры и расцвет монашества, и 1000 год стал точкой отсчета новой эпохи, известной нам как эпоха высокого Средневековья. Крупнейший французский историк-медиевист Эдмон Поньон воссоздает в своей книге повседневную жизнь Европы - во всем ее многообразии - в один из действительно переломных моментов мировой истории.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Karl Polanyi
Москва: Алетейя, 2002, cерия "Pax Britannica", 320 с.
Впервые публикуется русский перевод фундаментального исследования известного англо-венгерского социолога, экономиста и обществоведа Карла Поланьи, посвященного узловым проблемам формирования индустриального общества. Для социологов, экономистов и историков, а также всех тех, кто интересуется историей европейского общества нового времени.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Kenneth Pomeranz
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2000, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 392 с.
The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? As Ken Pomeranz shows, as recently as 1750, parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy, consumption, product and factor markets, and the strategies of households. Perhaps most surprisingly, Pomeranz demonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe. Core areas throughout the eighteenth-century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land-intensive products, shortages that were only partly resolved by trade. Pomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth-century divergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal, which substituted for timber. This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem, while allowing growth in energy-intensive industries. Another crucial difference that he notes has to do with trade. Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery. This allowed Northwest Europe to grow dramatically in population, specialize further in manufactures, and remove labor from the land, using increased imports rather than maximizing yields. Together, coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource-intensive, labor-saving paths. Meanwhile, Asia hit a cul-de-sac. Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750, both in population and in manufacturing, this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth-producing Yangzi Delta. As a result, growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped, and what growth did exist was forced along labor-intensive, resource-saving paths--paths Europe could have been forced down, too, had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Jonas Pontusson
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005, 256 с.
What are the relative merits of the American and European socioeconomic systems? Longstanding debates have heated up in recent years with the expansion of the European Union and increasingly sharp political and cultural differences between the United States and Europe. In Inequality and Prosperity, Jonas Pontusson provides a comparative overview of the two major models of labor markets and welfare systems in the advanced industrial world: the "liberal capitalist" system of the United States and Britain, and the "social market" capitalism of northern Europe. These two models balance concerns of efficiency and equity in fundamentally different ways. In the 1990s the much-heralded forces of globalization (together with demographic changes and attendant political pressures) seemed to threaten the very existence of the social-market economies of Europe. Were the social compacts of Sweden and Germany outmoded? Would varieties of capitalism remain possible, or were labor-market and social-welfare arrangements converging on the U.S. norm? Pontusson opposes the notion of inevitable convergence: he believes that social-market economies can survive and indeed flourish in the contemporary world economy. He bases his argument on an enormous amount of highly specialized research on eighteen countries, using national-level data for the last thirty years. Among the areas he explores are labor-market dynamics, income distribution, employment performance, wage bargaining, firm-level performance, and the changing possibilities for the welfare state.
Corporate Capitalism in Contemporary South Asia. Conventional Wisdoms and South Asian Realities [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2006Ред.: Ananya Mukherjee Reed
New-York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, cерия "International Studies in Demography", 216 с.
This volume presents a comparative and comprehensive discussion of corporate economies in South Asia today. It approaches the theme from a socio-historical perspective that examines corporate economies in relation to the state, state formation, globalization and economic reforms and the nature of corporate ownership. It also looks at some of South Asia's well-known but inadequately understood institutions such as caste, thus questioning some major tenets of the conventional wisdom that shape our thinking about contemporary Asia.
The Age of Access: The New Culture of Hypercapitalism, Where all of Life is a Paid-For Experience [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2000, 320 с.
Imagine waking up one day to find that virtually every activity you engage in outside your immediate family has become a "paid for" experience. It's all part of a fundamental change taking place in the nature of business, contends bestselling author Jeremy Rifkin. On the horizon looms the Age of Access, an era radically different from any we have known. In the hypercapitalist economy, buying things in markets and owning property become outmoded ideas, while "just-in-time" access to nearly every kind of service, through vast commercial networks operating in cyberspace, becomes the norm. We increasingly pay for the experience of using things-in the form of subscriptions, memberships, leases, and retainers-rather than for the things themselves. Already, millions of Americans have give up ownership of their automobiles in favor of leasing cars as a service and are renting everything from software to furnaces. Similarly, companies around the world are selling off real estate, shrinking inventories, leasing equipment, outsourcing activities, and becoming "weightless". Ownership of physical property, once considered a valued asset, is now regarded as a liability in the corporate world. Rifkin argues that the capitalist journey, which began with the commodification of goods and the ownership of property, is ending with the commodification of human time and experience. In the future, we will purchase enlightenment and play, grooming and grace, and everything in between. "Lifestyle marketing" is the buzz in the commercial world as more and more consumers become members of corporate-sponsored clubs and participate in corporate-sponsored activities and events. People are even living out their lifestyles in planned commercial residential communities. The business of business, therefore, is no longer about exchanging property but, rather, about buying access to one's very existence in small commercial time segments. In the Age of Access, Rifkin asks, will any time be left for relationships of a noncommercial nature? The changes taking place are part of even a larger transformation occurring in the nature of capitalism. We are making a long-term shift to a system based on the selling of cultural experiences. Global travel and tourism, theme cities and parks, destination entertainment centers, wellness, music, film, television, the virtual worlds of cyberspace, and even social causes are fast becoming the center of an economy that trades in cultural resources. The old giants of the industrial age, companies such as General Motors, Sears, USX, Boeing, and Texaco, are giving way to the new giants of cultural capitalism, Viacom, AOL Time Warner, Disney, Sony, and News Corporation. These transnational companies, with communications networks that span the globe, are mining cultural resources in every part of the world and repackaging them in the form of commodities and entertainments. The top one-fifth of the world's population, says Rifkin, now spends as much income accessing cultural experiences as buying manufactured goods and basic services. Rifkin warns that when the culture itself is absorbed into the economy, only commercial bonds will be left to hold society together. The critical question posed by The Age of Access is whether civilization can survive when only the commercial sphere remains as the primary arbiter of human life.
The Biotech Century [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 1998, 288 с.
In this provocative and far-reaching book, Jeremy Rifkin argues that the computer revolution is merely a prelude to a far more significant change taking place in the global economy. We are in the midst of a great historic transition into the Age of Biotechnology. Rifkin notes that after more than forty years of running on parallel tracks, the information and life sciences are fusing into a single powerful technological and economic force that is laying the foundation for the Biotech Century. The computer is increasingly being used to decipher, manage, and organize the vast genetic information that is the raw resource of the new global economy. Already, transnational corporations are creating giant life-sciences complexes from which to fashion a bio-industrial world. Our way of life, says Rifkin, is likely to be transformed more fundamentally in the next few decades than in the previous thousand years. Food and fiber may be grown indoors in giant bacteria baths, partially eliminating the farmer and the soil for the first time in history. Animal and human cloning could be commonplace, with "replication" increasingly replacing "reproduction". Millions of people could obtain a detailed genetic readout of themselves, allowing them to gaze into their own biological futures and predict and plan their lives in ways never before possible. Parents may choose to have their children gestated in artificial wombs outside the human body. Genetic changes could be made in human fetuses to correct deadly diseases and disorders and enhance mood, behavior, intelligence, and physical traits. The Biotech Century promises a cornucopia of genetically engineered plants and animals to feed a hungry world; genetically derived sources of energy and fiber to propel commerce and build a "renewable" society; wonder drugs and genetic therapies to produce healthier babies, eliminate human suffering, and extend the human life span. But with every step we take into this brave new world, the nagging question will haunt us: "At what cost?" The new genetic commerce raises more troubling questions than any other economic revolution in history. Will the artificial creation of cloned, chimeric, and transgenic animals mean the end of nature and the substitution of a "bio-industrial" world? Will the mass release of thousands of genetically engineered life forms into the environment cause catastrophic genetic pollution and irreversible damage to the biosphere? What are the consequences-for both the global economy and society-of reducing the world's gene pool to patented intellectual property controlled exclusively by a handful of life-science corporations? What will it mean to live in a world where babies are genetically engineered and customized in the womb, and where people are increasingly identified, stereotyped, and discriminated against on the basis of their genotype? What are the risks we take in attempting to design more "perfect" human beings? Rifkin explores these and many other critical issues in this ground-breaking book about the coming era. The biotech revolution will force each of us to put a mirror to our most deeply held values, making us ponder the ultimate question of the purpose and meaning of existence. This, Rifkin maintains, may turn out to be its most important contribution.
The End of Work. The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Maket Era. Updated edition [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2004, 400 с.
In this compelling, disturbing, and ultimately hopeful book, Jeremy Rifkin argues that we are entering a new phase of history — one characterized by the steady and inevitable decline of jobs. Worldwide unemployment is now at the highest level since the great depression of the 1930s. The number of people underemployed or without work is rising sharply as millions of new entrants into the workforce find themselves victims of an extraordinary high-technology revolution. Sophisticated computers, robotics, telecommunications, and other cutting-edge technologies are fast replacing human beings in virtually every sector and industry-from manufacturing, retail, and financial services, to transportation, agriculture, and government. Many jobs are never coming back. Blue collar workers, secretaries, receptionists, clerical workers, sales clerks, bank tellers, telephone operators, librarians, wholesalers, and middle managers are just a few of the many occupations destined for virtual extinction. While some new jobs are being created, they are, for the most part, low paying and generally temporary employment. More than fifteen percent of the American people are currently living below the poverty line. The world, says Rifkin, is fast polarizing into two potentially irreconcilable forces: on one side, an information elite that controls and manages the high-tech global economy; and on the other, the growing numbers of permanently displaced workers, who have few prospects and little hope for meaningful employment in an increasingly automated world. Rifkin suggests that we move beyond the delusion of retraining for nonexistent jobs. He urges us to begin to ponder the unthinkable-to prepare ourselves and our institutions for a world that is phasing out mass employment in the production and marketing of goods and services. Redefining the role of the individual in a near workerless society is likely to be the single most pressing issue in the decades to come. Rifkin says we should look toward a new, post-market era. Fresh alternatives to formal work will need to be devised. New approaches to providing income and purchasing power will have to be implemented. Greater reliance will need to be placed on the emerging "third sector" to aid in the restoration of communities and the building of a sustainable culture. The end of work could mean the demise of civilization as we have come to know it, or signal the beginning of a great social transformation and a rebirth of the human spirit.
The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2004
The American Dream is becoming ever more elusive. Americans are increasingly overworked, underpaid, squeezed for time, and unsure about their prospects for a better life. One third of all Americans say they no longer even believe in the American Dream. While the American Dream is languishing, says bestselling author Jeremy Rifkin, a new European Dream is capturing the attention and imagination of the world. Twenty-five nations, representing 455 million people, have joined together to create a United States of Europe. The European Union's GDP now rivals the United States', making it the largest economy in the world. The EU is already the world's leading exporter and largest internal trading market. Moreover, much of Europe enjoys a longer life span and greater literacy, and has less poverty and crime, less blight and sprawl, longer vacations, and shorter commutes to work than we do in the United States. When one considers what makes a people great and what constitutes a better way of life, observes Rifkin, Europe is beginning to surpass America. More important, Europe has become a giant laboratory for rethinking humanity's future. In many respects, the European Dream is the mirror opposite of the American Dream. While the American Dream emphasizes unrestrained economic growth, personal wealth, and the pursuit of individual self-interest, the European Dream focuses more on sustainable development, quality of life, and the nurturing of community. We Americans live (and die) by the work ethic and the dictates of efficiency. Europeans place more of a premium on leisure and even idleness. America has always seen itself as a great melting pot. Europeans, instead, prefer to preserve their rich multicultural diversity. We believe in maintaining an unrivaled military presence in the world. Europeans, by contrast, emphasize cooperation and consensus over go-it-alone approaches to foreign policy. All of this does not suggest that Europe has suddenly become a utopia. Its problems, Rifkin cautions, are complex and its weaknesses are glaringly transparent. And, of course, Europeans' high-mindedness is often riddled with hypocrisy. The point, however, is not whether Europeans are living up to the dream they have for themselves. We have never fully lived up to the American Dream. Rather, what's crucial, notes Rifkin, is that Europe is articulating a bold new vision for the future of humanity that differs in many of its most fundamental aspects from America's. Rifkin draws on more than twenty years of personal experience working in Europe, where he has advised heads of state and political parties, consulted with Europe's leading companies, and helped spur grassroots environmental and social justice campaigns. The author delves into the history of Europe, from the medieval era to postmodernity, to capture the soul of the new European consciousness. Two hundred years ago, America's founders created a new dream for humanity that transformed the world. Today, suggests Rifkin, a new generation of Europeans is creating a radical new dream - one better suited to meet the challenges of a globalizing world in the 21st century.
The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of the World-Wide Energy Web and the Redistribution of Power on Earth [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Jeremy Rifkin
New-York: Tarcher, 2002, 304 с.
In The Hydrogen Economy, best-selling author Jeremy Rifkin takes us on an eye-opening journey into the next great commercial era in history. He envisions the dawn of a new economy powered by hydrogen that will fundamentally change the nature of our market, political and social institutions, just as coal and steam power did at the beginning of the industrial age. Rifkin observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. While experts had been saying that we had another forty or so years of cheap available crude oil left, some of the world's leading petroleum geologists are now suggesting that global oil production could peak and begin a steep decline much sooner, as early as the end of this decade. Non-OPEC oil producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. In desperation, the U.S. and other nations could turn to dirtier fossil-fuels - coal, tar sand, and heavy oil - which will only worsen global warming and imperil the earth's already beleaguered ecosystems. Looming oil shortages make industrial life vulnerable to massive disruptions and possibly even collapse. While the fossil-fuel era is entering its sunset years, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radical new lines, according to Rifkin. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe. It is the stuff of the stars and of our sun and, when properly harnessed, it is the "forever fuel." It never runs out and produces no harmful CO2 emissions. Commercial fuel-cells powered by hydrogen are just now being introduced into the market for home, office and industrial use. The major automakers have spent more than two billion dollars developing hydrogen cars, buses, and trucks, and the first mass-produced vehicles are expected to be on the road in just a few years. The hydrogen economy makes possible a vast redistribution of power, with far-reaching consequences for society. Today's centralized, top-down flow of energy, controlled by global oil companies and utilities, becomes obsolete. In the new era, says Rifkin, every human being could become the producer as well as the consumer of his or her own energy - so called "distributed generation." When millions of end-users connect their fuel-cells into local, regional, and national hydrogen energy webs (HEWs), using the same design principles and smart technologies that made possible the World Wide Web, they can begin to share energy - peer-to-peer - creating a new decentralized form of energy use. Hydrogen has the potential to end the world's reliance on imported oil and help diffuse the dangerous geopolitical game being played out between Muslim militants and Western nations. It will dramatically cut down on carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming. And because hydrogen is so plentiful and exists everywhere on earth, every human being could be "empowered," making it the first truly democratic energy regime in history.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2007Jeremy Rifkin
Изд-во: Секрет фирмы, 2006, 416 с.
Мы все понимаем, что с энергетикой что-то происходит. Дешевого бензина больше не будет, перебои в снабжении электричеством учащаются, а прогнозы - один катастрофичнее другого. Как отличить правду от шарлатанства, можно ли в этой нестабильной ситуации оставаться беспечным оптимистом или пора бить тревогу? Разобраться в хитросплетениях глобальной энергетической политики помогает всемирный бестселлер известного американского футуриста Д.Рифкина. Эта книга беспощадна и одновременно оставляет небольшой шанс человечеству. Шанс заключается в возможности перехода экономики всех стран на экологически чистую энергию водорода. Вероятность удачного перехода невелика, и она существенно повысится, если эту книгу прочитают все руководители бизнеса - и малого, и большого. Им в первую очередь делать энергетическую революцию во благо следующих поколений.
Work and Politics [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-02-2007Charles F. Sabel
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, cерия "Cambridge Studies in Modern Political Economies", 320 с.
Work and Politics develops a historical and comparative sociology of workplace relations in industrial capitalist societies. Professor Sabel argues that the system of mass production using specialized machines and mostly unskilled workers was the result of the distribution of power and wealth in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Great Britain and the United States, not of an inexorable logic of technological advance. Once in place, this system created the need for workers with systematically different ideas about the acquisition of skill and the desirability of long-term employment. Professor Sabel shows how capitalists have played on naturally existing division in the workforce in order to match workers with diverse ambitions to jobs in different parts of the labor market. But he also demonstrates the limits, different from work group to work group, of these forms of collaboration.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-02-2007Ред.: Charles F. Sabel, Jonathan Zeitlin
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, cерия "Studies in Modern Capitalism", 524 с.
This book retells the history of Western industrialization, revealing possibilities unexplored in the nineteenth century, variants of which have come to transform present day economies. It shows that economic actors have historically been more aware of the great strategic choices they faced than standard theory credits them with being, and this surprising acuity allows them to imagine and put into practice solutions which current theories of industrial organization have scarcely anticipated. The book is therefore at one and the same time a contribution to a substantive revision of the history of mechanized production and a propaedeutic in a form of explanation that approximates the knowledge of the actor to the knowledge of the theorist. The volume groups essays presented by a multinational team of historians and social scientists drawing on intensive primary research on a wide range of firms, regions, sectors and national economies in Western Europe and the United States from the eighteenth century to the 1990s.
Опубликовано на портале: 07-03-2008Ред.: Yves Saillard, Robert Boyer
London: Routledge, 2001, 352 с.
Robert Boyer and Yves Sailard's "Theorie de la Regulation" introduced the Francophone public to one of the most important new currents in social science of the past half-century. This long-awaited translation will help broaden its impact still further. "Regulation" "Theory" focuses on the structural features of a given model and has helped enliven the examination of core economic concepts.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006Mari Sako
Oxford: Open University Press, 2006, 320 с.
All firms wrestle with restructuring, involving consolidation of mergers and acquisitions on the one hand, and fragmentation through outsourcing and spin-offs on the other. Through an in-depth investigation into the organizational strategies of Japanese corporate management and union leaders in Japan, Mari Sako explores the issue of 'organizational boundaries' that arises from such restructuring. Examining the strategy and structure of both businesses and trade unions, the book draws upon empirical evidence drawn from interviews conducted at Toyota and Matsushita and their respective unions. It examines their respective strategies in coping with organizational boundaries against the backdrop of changing labour markets, and, in the process, challenges widely held notions about Japanese corporate and union structures. Mari Sako goes on to explore the implications of these relationships in other advanced industrial countries for corporate restructuring, jobs, and labour market flexibility.