Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 207
Comparing Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy and Political Economy in Europe, Japan and the USA [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-11-2008Ред.: Bernhard Ebbinghaus, Philip Manow
London: Routledge, 2001, cерия "Routledge/Eui Studies in the Political Economy of Welfare, 3", 352 с.
This book challenges the popular thesis of a downward trend in the viability of welfare states in competitive market economies. With approaches ranging from historical case studies to cross-national analyses, the contributors explore various aspects of the relationships between welfare states, industrial relations, financial government and production systems. Building upon and combining comparative studies of both the varieties of capitalism and the worlds of welfare state regimes, the book considers issues such as the role of employers and unions in social policy, the interdependencies between financial markets and pension systems, and the current welfare reform process. Comparing Welfare Capitalism sheds new light on the tenuous relationship between social policies and market economies.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Barry Eichengreen
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2006, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 504 с.
In 1945, many Europeans still heated with coal, cooled their food with ice, and lacked indoor plumbing. Today, things could hardly be more different. Over the second half of the twentieth century, the average European's buying power tripled, while working hours fell by a third. The European Economy since 1945 is a broad, accessible, forthright account of the extraordinary development of Europe's economy since the end of World War II. Barry Eichengreen argues that the continent's history has been critical to its economic performance, and that it will continue to be so going forward. Challenging standard views that basic economic forces were behind postwar Europe's success, Eichengreen shows how Western Europe in particular inherited a set of institutions singularly well suited to the economic circumstances that reigned for almost three decades. Economic growth was facilitated by solidarity-centered trade unions, cohesive employers' associations, and growth-minded governments--all legacies of Europe's earlier history. For example, these institutions worked together to mobilize savings, finance investment, and stabilize wages. However, this inheritance of economic and social institutions that was the solution until around 1973--when Europe had to switch from growth based on brute-force investment and the acquisition of known technologies to growth based on increased efficiency and innovation--then became the problem. Thus, the key questions for the future are whether Europe and its constituent nations can now adapt their institutions to the needs of a globalized knowledge economy, and whether in doing so, the continent's distinctive history will be an obstacle or an asset.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007Gosta Esping-Andersen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 218 с.
The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe that the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies takes a second, more sociological and more institutional, look at the driving forces of economic transformation. What, as a result, stands out is postindustrial diversity, not convergence. Macroscopic, global trends are undoubtedly powerful, yet their influence is easily rivalled by domestic institutional traditions, by the kind of welfare regime that, some generations ago, was put in place. It is, however, especially the family economy that hold the key as to what kind of postindustrial model will emerge, and to how evolving tradeoffs will be managed. Twentieth-century economic analysis depended on a set of sociological assumptions that, now, are invalid. Hence, to better grasp what drives today's economy, we must begin with its social foundations.
Бои за историю [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2009Lucien Febvre
Москва: Наука, 1991, cерия "Памятники исторической мысли", 630 с.
«Бои за историю» - сборник статей крупнейшего французского историка Люсьена Февра (1878-1956). В сборник вошли специально отобранные автором работы, наиболее ярко освещающие те нетрадиционные подходы к изучению истории, которые были сформулированы великим учёным, и которые показали свою удивительную плодотворность в свете последующего опыта науки. Постановка новых проблем, новое прочтение старых источников и в этой связи применение новых методов их исследования - таков важнейший вклад Февра в историографию. Всё это позволило Февру в течение значительного времени оставаться «властителем дум» передовых историков.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Giovanni Federico
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2005, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 416 с.
In the last two centuries, agriculture has been an outstanding, if somewhat neglected, success story. It has fed an ever-growing population with an increasing variety of products at falling prices, even as it has released a growing number of workers to the rest of the economy. This book, a comprehensive history of world agriculture during this period, explains how these feats were accomplished. Feeding the World synthesizes two hundred years of agricultural development throughout the world, providing all essential data and extensive references to the literature. It covers, systematically, all the factors that have affected agricultural performance: environment, accumulation of inputs, technical progress, institutional change, commercialization, agricultural policies, and more. The last chapter discusses the contribution of agriculture to modern economic growth. The book is global in its reach and analysis, and represents a grand synthesis of an enormous topic.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Ronald Findlay, Kevin O'Rourke
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 624 с.
International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends. They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago. Drawing extensively upon empirical evidence and informing their systematic analysis with insights from contemporary economic theory, Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth. Power and Plenty is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century. Ronald Findlay is the Ragnar Nurkse Professor of Economics at Columbia University. He is the author of Factor Proportions, Trade, and Growthand Trade, Development, and Political Economy. Kevin H. O'Rourke is professor of economics at Trinity College, Dublin. He is the coauthor of Globalization and History.
Новое индустриальное общество [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: АСТ, 2004, cерия "Philosophy", 602 с.
Джон Гэлбрейт, один из наиболее крупных и влиятельных современных американских экономистов, в своей работе "Новое индустриальное общество" исследует основные тенденции развития экономики второй половины XX века. Выдвигает концепцию "индустриального общества", где активная роль принадлежит государству, вводит понятия "техноструктура" и "зрелая корпорация". Книга Дж.Гэлбрейта, вышедшая в середине XX века, актуальна и сегодня, в современных экономических условиях, которые переживает Россия. Написанная живым, доступным языком, содержащая много ярких примеров и сравнений, она будет интересна как специалистам, так и широкому кругу читателей.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: Прогресс, 1976
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Elizabeth Gallagher
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, 256 с.
One of the core assumptions of recent American foreign policy is that China's post-1978 policy of "reform and openness" will lead to political liberalization. This book challenges that assumption and the general relationship between economic liberalization and democratization. Moreover, it analyzes the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalization on Chinese labor politics. Market reforms and increased integration with the global economy have brought about unprecedented economic growth and social change in China during the last quarter of a century. Contagious Capitalism contends that FDI liberalization played several roles in the process of China's reforms. First, it placed competitive pressure on the state sector to produce more efficiently, thus necessitating new labor practices. Second, it allowed difficult and politically sensitive labor reforms to be extended to other parts of the economy. Third, it caused a reformulation of one of the key ideological debates of reforming socialism: the relative importance of public industry. China's growing integration with the global economy through FDI led to a new focus of debate--away from the public vs. private industry dichotomy and toward a nationalist concern for the fate of Chinese industry. In comparing China with other Eastern European and Asian economies, two important considerations come into play, the book argues: China's pattern of ownership diversification and China's mode of integration into the global economy. This book relates these two factors to the success of economic change without political liberalization and addresses the way FDI liberalization has affected relations between workers and the ruling Communist Party. Its conclusion: reform and openness in this context resulted in a strengthened Chinese state, a weakened civil society (especially labor), and a delay in political liberalization. Mary Elizabeth Gallagher is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She is also a faculty associate of the Center for Chinese Studies and the Institute for Labor and Industrial Relations.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2007Gary Gereffi
Geneva: International Labor Organization, 2006, 65 с.
The volume contains the full text of the 7th ILO Nobel Peace Prize Social Policy Lectures organized by the International Institute for Labour Studies. The lectures given by Professor Gary Gereffi of the Duke University, USA were hosted by the University of West Indies and held at the Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica in December 2005. In all there were three lectures, dealing with the following topics: (i) An overview of the contemporary global labour market; (ii) Global consolidation and industrial upgrading: The promise and perils of development; and (iii) Globalization and the demand for governance.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2007Ред.: Gary Gereffi, David Spener, Jennifer Bair
Philadelphia.: Temple University Press, 2002, 384 с.
This volume addresses many of the complex issues raised by North American integration through the lens of one of the largest and most global industries in the region: textiles and apparel. In part, this is a story of winners and losers in the globalization process, especially if one focuses on jobs lost and jobs gained in different countries and communities within North America, defined here as: Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. However, it would be a mistake to view the industry solely in these zerosum terms. The North American apparel industry is an excellent illustration of larger trends in the global economy, in which regional divisions of labor appear to be one of the most stable and effective responses to globalization. The contributors to this volume are an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars who have all done detailed fieldwork at the firm and factory levels in one or more countries of North America. Taken together the essays offer theoretical and methodological innovations built around the intersection of the global commodity chains and industrial districts literatures, as well as innovative approaches to studying the impact of cross-national, interfirm networks in terms of production and trade issues, and local development outcomes for workers and communities.
The Limits of Convergence: Globalization and Organizational Change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Mauro F. Guillén
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2003, 304 с.
This book challenges the widely accepted notion that globalization encourages economic convergence--and, by extension, cultural homogenization--across national borders. A systematic comparison of organizational change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain since 1950 finds that global competition forces countries to exploit their distinctive strengths, resulting in unique development trajectories. Analyzing the social, political, and economic conditions underpinning the rise of various organizational forms, Guillén shows that business groups, small enterprises, and foreign multinationals play different economic roles depending on a country's path to development. Business groups thrive when there is foreign-trade and investment protectionism and are best suited to undertake large-scale, capital-intensive activities such as automobile assembly and construction. Their growth and diversification come at the expense of smaller firms and foreign multinationals. In contrast, small and medium enterprises are best fitted to compete in knowledge-intensive activities such as component manufacturing and branded consumer goods. They prosper in the absence of restrictions on export-oriented multinationals. The book ends on an optimistic note by presenting evidence that it is possible--though not easy--for countries to break through the glass ceiling separating poor from rich. It concludes that globalization encourages economic diversity and that democracy is the form of government best suited to deal with globalization's contingencies. Against those who contend that the transition to markets must come before the transition to ballots, Guillén argues that democratization can and should precede economic modernization. This is applied economic sociology at its best--broad, topical, full of interesting political implications, and critical of the conventional wisdom.
Wer beherrscht die Unternehmen? Shareholder Value, Managerherrschaft und Mitbestimmung in Deutschland [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-11-2008Martin Höpner
Frankfurt am Mein: Campus, 2003, 300 с.
Shareholder Value versus Wertschöpfung Wandel der politischen Ökonomie in Deutschland Die Praxis der Unternehmensführung ist in Deutschland seit den neunziger Jahren zunehmend aktionärsorientiert. Martin Höpner untersucht am Beispiel der vierzig größten deutschen Kapitalgesellschaften Ursachen und Konsequenzen dieser Entwicklung. Deutsche Großunternehmen bemühen sich in den neunziger Jahren verstärkt, ihre Unternehmenskontrollsysteme an den Interessen der Aktionäre auszurichten. In der öffentlichen Debatte wird dieser Vorgang unter dem Schlagwort »Shareholder Value« diskutiert – ein Begriff, der eine Unternehmenspolitik bezeichnet, die auf die Bedienung der Finanzinteressen der Aktionäre und damit auf die Steigerung der Aktienkurse zielt. Doch die Aktienkurse spiegeln nicht die Wertschöpfung des Unternehmens, sondern nur deren Verteilung wider. Aus der Sicht von z.B. Arbeitnehmern, Zulieferern, Abnehmern und Endverbrauchern ist der Shareholder Value quasi bedeutungslos, weil für diese Gruppen andere Unternehmenswerte von Belang sind. Martin Höpner diskutiert in seiner Untersuchung die Vereinbarkeit einer Shareholder-Value-Orientierung mit dem deutschen System der Arbeitsbeziehungen, das durch ein hohes Maß an Regulierung und Mitbestimmung gekennzeichnet ist. Er zeigt, dass aktionärsorientierte Unternehmensführung gerade nicht auf dauerhafte Steigerungen der Wertschöpfung (zum Beispiel durch Unternehmenswachstum) zielt, sondern auf dauerhafte Steigerungen des Aktionärsnutzens, der mit den Ansprüchen, die andere Gruppen an Unternehmen richten, durchaus in Konflikt geraten kann. Höpners wirtschaftssoziologische Studie interpretiert die zunehmende Managementorientierung an den Finanzinteressen der Aktionäre als einen Indikator dafür, dass sich in den zugrunde liegenden Spielregeln und Kräfteverhältnissen, unter denen die am Unternehmensgeschehen beteiligten Gruppen zusammentreffen, grundlegende Veränderungen vollzogen haben. Der Autor stellt seine Befunde in den Kontext der Theorie über Modelle des Kapitalismus und leistet so einen wichtigen Beitrag zur politisch-ökonomischen Theorie der gegenwärtigen Liberalisierungsprozesse.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-10-2007Peter A. Hall, David Soskice
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001
What are the most important differences among national economies? Is globalization forcing nations to converge on an Anglo-American model? What explains national differences in social and economic policy? This pathbreaking work outlines a new approach to these questions. It highlights the role of business in national economies and shows that there is more than one path to economic success.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-12-2009Gary G. Hamilton
London: Routledge, 2006, 322 с.
This informative book discusses the effects of the rise of Chinese capitalism on both China itself, and on its neighbours. Incorporating empirical data collated from interviews in several Asian societies and from historical Chinese sources, this renowned author analyzes, discusses and applies an institutional approach derived from the writings of Max Weber to explore the various aspects of Chinese economic practice. Consisting of sixteen articles that come together to provide historical, comparative and theoretically informed perspectives on the spread of Chinese capitalism, this collection emphasizes the difference between Western and Chinese forms of capitalism. Including sections on China's pre-industrial economy as well as the growth of modern Chinese capitalism, this collection will be a valuable resource for students of Asian and Chinese studies as well as those concerned with the economics of Chinese societies.