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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 10



Опубликовано на портале: 07-09-2006
Health and illness are intensely personal matters. It seems self evident that health is a basic necessity of the 'good life', though it is often taken for granted. Illness, on the other hand challenges our sense of security and may introduce acute anxiety into our lives. Health and Illness in a Changing Society provides a lively and critical account of the impact of social change on the experience of health and illness. It also examines the different sociological perspectives that have been used to analyse health matters. While some of the ideas developed in the last twenty years remain relevant to social research in health today, many are in need of urgent revision.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
William Cockerham
London, New York: Routledge, 1999
For the first time, life expectancy is declining in an industrialized society. In this pioneering work, William C. Cockerham examines the social causes of the decline in life expectancy beginning in the 1960s including: Russia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and East Germany. "Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe" argues that the roots of this change are mainly social rather than biomedical - the result of poor policy decisions, stress and an unhealthy diet. Cockerham presents a theory of postmodern social change that goes beyond the borders of Eastern Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-09-2006
Данная книга Мишеля Фуко посвящена восприятию феномена безумия в европейской культуре XVII - XX веков. Анализируя различные формы опыта безумия - институт изоляции умалишенных, юридические акты и медицинские трактаты, литературные образы и народные суеверия, - автор рассматривает формирование современных понятий "сумасшествие" и "душевная болезнь", выделяющихся из характерного для классической эпохи общего представления о "неразумии" как нарушении социально-этических норм. В книге по-новому освещены истоки психологического опыта безумия в XX веке: позитивизм XIX века, психоанализ Фрейда, философия Ницше и т.д. Дополнительный интерес представляет привлеченный Фуко обширный материал искусства и литературы (от Эразма Роттердамского и Себастьяна Бранта до маркиза де Сада, от Босха до Ван Гога).
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Ann Hill Beuf
Philadelphia.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979, 212 с.
This book focuses on the social situation of the hospitalized child in twentieth-century America. It contends that the children's hospital has many of the characteristics of depersonalization and enforced helplessness that are associated with other "total institutions" in our society. The book also examines the interpersonal approaches employed by staff and patients in dealing with the tensions created by the reality of the total institution, on the one hand, and the more idealistic goals of the children's hospital, on the other. The observations that underlie this book were carried out by participant observation in two hospitals. In "County Hospital," where observations were carried out in 1971 and 1972, the researcher also acted as a visitor to ill children. At "Metropolis," observations were carried out in the admissions area, the waiting rooms, and on the floors, where the researcher acted both as a worker with the play-therapists and as a visitor. Extensive notes were made at the end of each day. Ongoing fieldnotes were maintained and written in unobtrusive areas such as in meetings or in the lobbies. This material was occasionally reinforced by notes taken in other hospital settings. Chapters include discussion of the role of person-in-a-total-institution, socialization for patienting, and coping strategies of children and hospital staff.

Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2007
Deborah Lupton
UK: Sage Publications Ltd, 2003, 202 с.
The book provides a broad overview of the way medicine is experienced, perceived and socially constructed in western societies. Drawing on the tradition of the sociology of health and illness, Deborah Lupton directs readers to an understanding of medicine, health care, illness and disease from a sociocultural perspective. At a time of increasing disillusionment with scientific medicine and the mythology of the beneficent, god-like physician, there is also - paradoxically - a growing dependence on biomedicine to provide the answers to social as well as medical problems. This book illuminates why attitudes to medicine are characterized by such strong paradoxes, and why issues of disease, illness and the medical encounter are surrounded by controversy, conflict, power struggles and emotion.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Ред.: David Mechanic, Marian Osterweis, Arthur Kleinman
USA: National Academy Press, 1987
Pain--it is the most common complaint presented to physicians. Yet pain is subjective--it cannot be measured directly and is difficult to validate. Evaluating claims based on pain poses major problems for the Social Security Administration (SSA) and other disability insurers. This volume covers the epidemiology and physiology of pain; psychosocial contributions to pain and illness behavior; promising ways of assessing and measuring chronic pain and dysfunction; clinical aspects of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation; and how the SSA's benefit structure and administrative procedures may affect pain complaints.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Ariela Royer
Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1998
Many healthcare professionals are focusing their concerns on controlling symptoms and minimizing physical distress while failing to deal with the social and psychological factors related to living with long-term chronic illness. Ariela Royer makes an important contribution to the study of health and illness behavior by showing the various strategies chronically ill people use to manage their symptoms and overcome the consequences of their particular illness, so they can live the most normal life possible and maintain their self-esteem. In spite of the popular belief linking chronic illness mainly to aging, most chronic problems extend across the life span. The author shows various strategies the chronically ill may use to live with the uncertainty inherent in chronic illness. She also discusses how one might try to overcome or to minimize the salient social consequences of chronic illness, such as stigma and social isolation, in order to get on with their lives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-09-2006
The author through discussions of her own experiences, shows how cultural heritage can affect delivery and acceptance of health care and how professionals, when interacting with their clients, need to be aware of these issues in order to deliver safe and professional care. Traditional and alternative health care beliefs and practices from Asian American, African American, Hispanic, and American Indian perspectives are represented.

First of all the author focuses on the background knowledge one must recognize as the foundation for developing cultural competency. In chapter 1 she explores the concept of cultural heritage and history and the roles they play in one's perception of health and illness. This exploration is first outlined in general terms: What is culture? How is it transmitted? What is ethnicity? What is religion? How do they affect a given person's health? What major sociocultural events occurred during the life trajectory of a given person that may influence their personal health beliefs and practices? Chapter 2 presents a discussion of the diversity—demographic, immigration, and poverty—that impacts on the delivery of and access to health care. The backgrounds of each of the U.S. Census Bureau's categories of the population, an overview of immigration, and an overview of issues relevant to poverty are presented. Chapter 3 reviews the provider's knowledge of his or her own perceptions, needs, and understanding of health and illness. After that R. Spector explores the domains of health, blends them with one's personal heritage, and contrasts them with allopathic philosophy. In chapter 4 she introduces the concept of health and develops the concept in broad and general terms. The Health Traditions Model is presented, as are natural methods of health restoration. Chapter 5 is devoted to the concept of healing and the role that faith plays in the context of healing, or magico-religious, traditions. This is an increasingly important issue, which is evolving to a point where the health care provider must have some understanding of this phenomenon. Chapter 6 discusses family heritage and explores personal and familial health traditions. It includes an array of familial health beliefs and practices shared by people from many different heritages. And chapter 7 focuses on the allopathic health care delivery system and the health care provider culture. Once the study of each of these components has been completed, the author moves on to explore selected population groups in more detail, to portray a panorama of traditional health and illness beliefs and practices, and present relevant health care issues.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Meira Weiss
Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1994
Questioning the myth of unconditional love between parents and children, this study examines the strength of the parental bond when children are born with physical defects. The author studied parents' behavior toward 1,450 children born with defects in three hospitals in Israel, and then conducted follow-up studies over a period of six years with 200 families in their homes. One of the major recurring patterns of parental behavior was a massive tendency toward rejection of deformed children. Rejection was manifested by parents' wishes for drastic separation from their children through abandonment, institutionalization, or giving up for adoption. If brought home, the children were isolated and hidden from view. Weiss found that half of the newborns with physically observable defects were abandoned by their parents in the hospital. Even when the parents were assured by doctors that their children would develop intellectually or would not require special care, the tendency to abandon remained strong. Normal children who suffered physical deformity due to burns or other accidents were similarly rejected by their parents. This study will take a major place in the literature on human behavior because through exhaustive and long-term observation of actual behavior in thousands of individual situations, it exposes the extreme importance of physical appearance in interpersonal relations. The author describes how the deformity causes confusion in the parents' cognitive system, labelling the child with a name such as monster or devil or creature, or another non-human category. Parents' reactions to their children's body image are discussed and the concept of body boundaries is analyzed. Children connected to medical apparatus or sickly children are the cause of much parental rejection. Also, territorial restrictions are placed on the deformed child in the home. These range from closeting or imprisoning in unfurnished surroundings separate from the family to demotion to servant status within the family. This study refutes most assumptions in the literature and shows that forming bonds with one's biological child is not necessarily spontaneous, automatic, or natural, and that every child undergoes a process of adoption or rejection based on external appearance and whether or not that appearance matches the parents' image of a "person." Hospital personnel, social workers, sociologists and anthropologists will be profoundly influenced by this work, as will be all others who read it.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-05-2004
Коллектив медиков-социологов, врачей-гигиенистов и экономистов освещает различные социальные аспекты здоровья населения страны. В работе обосновывается оперативная роль статистики заболеваемости, динамика заболеваний и связь этих явлений с условиями труда и быта. Дана характеристика отличительных особенностей в заболеваниях мужчин и женщин, а также отдельных возрастных групп. Анализируются основы планирования здравоохранения, пути развития социально-гигиенических исследований, применение статистики для изучения социальных явлений медицины. Большое внимание уделяется конкретным проблемам здоровья: болезням сердца, сосудов, их профилактике и пр.
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