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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 51


Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2003
Solveig Wikstrom, Richard Normann
London: Routledge, 1994
This is an intriguing book, which weaves together ideas from organization theory, strategic management and marketing to explore the implications of viewing the company as a knowledge processing system. In developing this perspective, the authors describe different types of knowledge and knowledge processes, using their classification to elucidate processes for value creation, organizing for knowledge, and the company as a knowledge system. They argue that much knowledge-and thus value-inheres and accumulates in the complex web of relationships between suppliers and customers. Such a view highlights the significance of durable relations in extended networks as an important route to value creation. The authors describe organizations as knowledge-producing systems and divide the concept of knowledge into categories of 1.information, 2.skill or know-how, 3.explanation, and 4.understanding. The knowledge-creating process is described in terms of: generative processes, creating new knowledge productive processes that form the basis for offerings and commitments to customers, and representative processes that transmit these offerings to customers, often in an interactive mode of joint value-creation. The message dovetails with Richard Normann's writings (with Rafael Ramirez) in the early 90s on the shift from value chains (Porter) to value constellations (value stars) and combines the concepts of competence, customer base, and offerings into an evolutionary model of business growth. The authors delineate a model of the interactive enterprise-an organization where interaction and the forming of relationships are core activities in developing markets, developing products, and shaping and stabilizing partnerships. The value constellation (Normann and Ramirez) is a good illustration of this perspective. Organizations combine their own and their partners' customer bases and competencies into offerings to customers. And customers are invited to share in the value-creation process. A well-functioning value constellation is indeed a learning organization. Central to the organizational learning process is the notion of the client-driven organization and the interactive process of value-creation with the customer. Also the other end of the organizational domain, the production system, is seen as a partnering system with the overriding goal to excel in value-creation. The authors describe the four elements of the industrial system; centralization, standardization, mechanization, and division of labor. They then continue to discuss how current developments change this formation and lead up to the four corresponding elements of information technology production, decentralization, multiplicity, information technology, and integration. The transition from one to the other is not an easy one. It is, however, necessary for those companies that want to survive in turbulent markets and in ever more complex economies. They simply have to exploit the potentials of information technology. They have to develop their core systems into knowledge-creating enterprises. The collapsed model combines the notion of value constellation which integrates partners in the production system and value constellations in the interaction with the final customer and places the three organizational knowledge-creating processes (generative, productive, and representative) as mediators between the two value centers. The value constellations thus serve as complex interfaces between the company and its supply and demand markets. On the one side is purchasing. On the other side is marketing, or perhaps rather market communication. And in between is the knowledge-creating company. The frame of reference pronounces evolutionary growth and the industrial setting and point of reference is first of all service-producing companies. The handling of discontinuities, turnarounds, and the acquisition of new customers, or new competencies, are not in the authors' focus.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2003

Europe: OECD, 1998
This publication contains a summary report of the presentations and discussions held at the Seminar. It has been prepared by the Rapporteurs, Jack Martens, a consultant based in the United States, and Alexander Dynkin, Deputy Director of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) in Moscow. It also includes a background document prepared by the Russian Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies on the role of the state in creating a favourable environment for innovation. The reports show that, in spite of considerable achievements in the recent past in building the groundwork for Russias innovation system, the innovation climate still needs drastic improvements. Comprehensive institutional reforms are required, including in areas outside the remit of policy makers in technology and innovation. A lot can be learned, in that respect, from the experience of other countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-11-2004

Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1996, cерия "Доклады CSTB", 176 с.
Отчет Совета по информатике и телекоммуникациям (Computer Science and Telecommunications Board - CSTB), опубликованный в июле 1996 года. В отчете представлены результаты ряда семинаров по проблемам кризисного управления. Объясняется текущая и перспективная роль информационных технологий в этой области, даны рекомендации по дальнейшим исследованиям. Проект привел к изменениям в направлениях исследований многих специалистов и прагматическим тенденциям в правительстве. Он стал обоснованием концепции государственной программы «Цифрового правительства», нацеленной на мотивированные исследования в области информационных технологий и направленные на решение задач государственного управления.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-01-2003

Europe: OECD, 2002
This report presents a synthesis of the main findings of the OECD project on National Innovation Systems. This project has spanned some seven years and three phases of project implementation. It was carried out under the auspices of the Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (CSTP) and its working party on Technology and Innovation Policy (TIP). The synthesis covers the full project, but concentrates on the most recent outcomes. It is based mainly on the work of three Focus Groups which undertook analytical work on three areas in the last phase of the project: Clusters, innovative firms and networks, and human resource mobility. The Focus Groups have reported their work in a series of OECD proceedings published during the summer and fall of 2001. The NIS approach rests on the interactive model of the innovation process that puts an emphasis on market and non-market knowledge transactions among firms, institutions and the human resources involved. Innovation performance depends on the scope and efficiency of such transactions, themselves influenced by framework conditions governing capital, products and labour markets and by institutional set ups and policy actions addressing market and systemic failures specific to knowledge transactions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-03-2005

Europe: OECD, 1998
This report prepared by the Austrian Institute for Economic Research (WIFO) and the Vienna Institute for Comparative Economic Studies (WIIW) provides a timely and very useful piece of empirical evidence. Indeed, as one of the major economic flaws of the socialist system was its lack of openness, understanding how trade flows interact with the transition process is a key issue. Export growth has already played a crucial role in the recovery from the transition shock. Moreover, ensuring sustainable growth is closely related to the capacity of each transition country to reap the benefits of the openness to international trade and foreign investment. Concerning these aspects, however, the Central and Eastern European countries have been revealing a strong heterogeneity. By adopting a comparative approach and combining several approaches, the report sheds light on different interactions between trade, FDI and the process of economic transformation. As a result, it gives a comprehensive view on the strong and weak points of each countrys competitive position, and interesting conclusions are drawn on the extent of economic restructuring that probably still needs to take place. Compared with the existing literature, these are real original points to be stressed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-01-2003

Москва, 2001
Рассматриваются современное состояние и тенденции в отдельных дисциплинах учения об управлении предприятием, делается попытка выяснить, в каких направлениях пойдет их возможное развитие в будущем. В области стратегического менеджмента отмечаются ослабление ориентации на плановость стратегических систем и усиление акцента на компенсирующих организационных методах. Институциональный и ресурсные подходы все более ориентируют маркетинговые исследования на экономическую суть рыночных процессов, в то же время формирование сетевых образований ведет к распространению интерактивного и виртуального маркетинга. В условиях динамизации внешней среды особое значение приобретает вопрос, каким образом управление персоналом может стимулировать способность предприятия к изменениям и содействовать расширению базы знаний. В ходе организационных преобразований, направленных на снижение различного рода координационных издержек, постепенно складывается тенденция концентрации усилий предприятий на ключевых видах деятельности, что ведет либо к созданию стратегических альянсов, либо к использованию сетевых организационных форм. Главная задача контроллинга заключается в обеспечении рациональности управления, а основными направлениями развития предприятия, значимыми для него, являются усиление рыночной ориентации, расширение кооперационных связей, управление знаниями, устремленность в будущее. Издание предназначено для студентов, аспирантов и преподавателей вузов и факультетов экономического и управленческого профиля, слушателей школ бизнеса и менеджмента. Оно полезно также предпринимателям, управленцам-практикам и научным работникам.
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