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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 78

все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я

Опубликовано на портале: 30-05-2004
В книге « Логика экспрессивного выбора » Александр Шуслер провел впечатляющее исследование: он соединил теорию рационального выбора, социальную теорию и антропологический подход для объяснения того, почему голосуют избиратели. « Парадокс участия » - почему граждане опускают бюллетени, когда они лично не влияют на результаты выборов – долгое время озадачивал многих ученых. Особенно трудно это было объяснить сторонникам теории рационального выбора, которые любят описывать политическую активность в терминах стимулов. Решение Шуслера проблемы голосования - это « логика экспрессивного выбора ». Он утверждает, что люди голосуют не потому, что они верят в то, что их голос, в конечном счете, повлияет на результаты, а потому, что таким образом выражают себя и свои предпочтения.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Thomas Heckelei, Hendrik Wolff
The paper introduces a general methodological approach for the estimation of constrained optimisation models in agricultural supply analysis. It is based on optimality conditions of the desired programming model and shows a conceptual advantage compared to Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of well posed estimation problems. Moreover, it closes the empirical and methodological gap between programming models and duality based functional models with explicit allocation of fixed factors. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with a maximum entropy estimator to evaluate the functionality of the approach as well as the impact of empirically relevant prior information in small sample situations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-08-2003
Geoffrey M. Hodgson
Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2002
In the 1990s, institutional and evolutionary economics emerged as one of the most creative and successful approaches in the modern social sciences. This timely reader gathers together seminal contributions from leading international authors in the field of institutional and evolutionary economics including Eileen Appelbaum, Benjamin Coriat, Giovanni Dosi, Sheila C. Dow, Bengt-Еke Lundvall, Uskali Mдki, Bart Nooteboom and Marc R. Tool. The emphasis is on key concepts such as learning, trust, power, pricing and markets, with some essays devoted to methodology and others to the comparison of different forms of capitalism.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
W. Dunne, John J. O'Connell
For decades the CAP has been the major influence in shaping EU agriculture and food production. The economic and policy environment in the EU is now very different from that which prevailed in the earlier decades. The future economic, social and geographic diversity of the EU will be further increased by enlargement. Agricultural policies and the related operational frameworks will inevitably change to accommodate this added diversity and the changing societal and consumer values. This paper evaluates how the current shape of EU agriculture has been influenced by the reforms to date. It also attempts to focus on where EU farming may be, or wish to go, over the next decade. The evaluation is restricted to the beef sector as it has been to the forefront in the policy reforms of the last decade and because the adjustments were inevitably complex due to the scale of the oversupply problems, the biological and market intricacies involved.

This evaluation concluded that the current EU beef policy is severely constrained with poor targeting of the income supports, high production costs, based on an administratively complex and expensive control system without any clear benefit to either society or taxpayer for a rather large expenditure. In the past, agricultural policy in the EU was primarily driven by the need for a secure food supply and with the objective of sustaining the economic and social needs of farmers. But, in the well fed and affluent EU society of the 21 st century, agricultural policy will be mainly driven by the economic and social goals which are rapidly changing. This society places a declining value on extra units of food production, but an increasing value on any public goods consumed in the production process. As a consequence, the mix of agricultural production and public goods that this society is prepared to support financially is changing rapidly. The level and components of farm incomes in the EU in the 21 st century will reflect these changes. Farm revenue will likely consist of a mix of payments for conventional agricultural products and public goods. The public good payments will be conditional on the level and type of inputs used, farming practices, types of products produced and a societal vision of the role of farming. This will affect production costs, scale of operation and the future configuration of agriculture and rural society. To meet this evolving situation the paper also develops and outlines a multi-commodity framework by which the EU could reorient its direct payment (DP) system to incorporate a range of public good values to the mutual benefit of consumers, taxpayers and farmers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Istvan Feher, Zsolt Papp
Based on the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) approach this paper provides an assessment of the competitive position of the Hungarian agro-food industry in view of EU integration. The situation in the food processing sector is assessed with the use of actual cost data from representative Hungarian companies. The paper presents an assessment of the current situation prior to EU integration as well as a future outlook under various scenarios with regard to the expected policy environment and the rate of technological change. The actual measurement of competitiveness in this study focuses mainly on Private Resource Cost (PRC) which indicates competitiveness under real market conditions and Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) which gives an assessment on the social or economic efficiency of an activity, i.e. whether domestic resources are really used efficiently in current production. In the food processing sector 21 different food products have been investigated which fall into four industries: meat, poultry, dairy, and fruits and vegetables. Under current conditions only some products are competitive in private terms. The situation would improve after EU integration especially for poultry, fruits and vegetables, because agricultural policy conditions are more favourable under the CAP. If additional FDI(Foreign Direct Investments) would flow into the country after EU membership, this would boost profitability. As far as DRC values are concerned, it must be stated that only some of the production activities are clearly efficient. Dairy, fruits and vegetables, and roast goose production show relatively weak social competitiveness, while other poultry and fruit and vegetables products are more favourable from the economic point of view. As EU policies provide on average higher protection levels, the competitiveness of Hungarian food processing on world markets would deteriorate for most products after EU accession. However, these effects can be offset by additional technological change due to FDI inflows or otherwise induced technological progress.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006
Alan Carling
Изд-во: Routledge, 2002, 336 с.
While the family and its role continues to be a key topic in social and government policy, much of the literature is concerned with describing the dramatic changes that are taking place. By contrast, this text directly addresses the social processes responsible for these changes - how social policy interacts with what families actually do. Topics covered include: the relationship between morality and rationality in the family context; the variety of contemporary family forms; the purposes and assumptions of government interventions in family life; the relationship between different welfare states and different ideas about motherhood; third way thinking on families; divorce and post-divorce arrangements; lone parenthood and step-parenting; the decision to have children; the economic approach to understanding family process; and the legitimacy of state intervention in family life. With contributions from the UK, and North America, "Analysing Families" provides the framework within which to understand an increasingly important element in social policy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-07-2004
Fundamental topics and new methods in time series analysis. Analysis of Financial Time Series provides a comprehensive and systematic introduction to financial econometric models and their application to modeling and prediction of financial time series data. It utilizes real-world examples and real financial data throughout the book to apply the models and methods described. The author begins with basic characteristics of financial time series data before covering three main topics: analysis and application of univariate financial time series; the return series of multiple assets; and Bayesian inference in finance methods. Timely topics and recent results include: Value at Risk (VaR); High-frequency financial data analysis; Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods; Derivative pricing using jump diffusion with closed-form formulas; VaR calculation using extreme value theory based on a non-homogeneous two-dimensional Poisson process; Multivariate volatility models with time-varying correlations; Ideal as a fundamental introduction to time series for MBA students or as a reference for researchers and practitioners in business and finance, Analysis of Financial Time Series offers an in-depth and up-to-date account of these vital methods.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-07-2004
Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

"Cheng Hsiao has made many significant and important contributions to panel data econometrics, both methodological and applied, beginning with his 1972 dissertation, in numerous articles, and in his masterful and magisterial 1986 monograph, long a standard reference and popular graduate text. (cont.)

Not only has Hsiao significantly revised the material covered in his original monograph, he has added major new chapters on nonlinear panel models of discrete choice and sampl selection, and included new material on the Bayesian treatment of models with fixed and random coefficients, pseudopanels, simulation methods of estimation, and more extensive treatment of dynamic models. Throughout, Hsiao provides applied examples, which greatly enhance the reader's understanding and intuition. The clarity of his exposition and organization is exemplary. All of us who work in the field of panel data econometrics have been, and will now more than ever continue to be in Hsiao's debt." Marc Nerlove, University of Maryland

"The literature on panel data modeling has seen unprecendented growth over the past decade and Cheng Hsiao, himself one of the leading contributors to this literature, is to be congratulated for providing us with a comprehensive and timely update of his classic text. This version not only presents a substantial revision of the 1986 edition, but also offers major additions covering non-linear panel data models dealing with useful overviews of unit root and cointegration in dynamic heterogeneous panels. It should prove invaluable to students and teachers of advanced undergraduate and graduate economic courses." Hashem Perasan, Trinity College, Cambridge

"The first edition of Analysis of Panel Data by Cheng Hsiao has been necessary reading and a landmark for 15 years. The revised and much expanded second edition splendidly integrates the important new developments in the field. One can be sure it will stay a landmark for 15 years to come." Jacques Mairesse, ENSAE, France

"Cheng Hsiao has done a great service to the profession by expanding his highly successful first edition to include the important results that have been obtained by him and other researchers since the publication of the first edition. Escpecially noteworthy in this edition is the application of panel data analysis to qualitative response and sample selection models. Cheng has admirably succeeded in presenting the mathematical results both rigorously and lucidly. Many theoretical results are illustrated by interesting empirical examples. This edition should prove to be an extremely useful reference for the experts in the field as well as graduate students." Takeshi Amemiya, Stanford University
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Regina Birner
Participatory approaches in natural resource management are increasingly being criticized for their tendency to neglect power relations and conflicts of interests. Negotiation approaches have been proposed as a strategy to overcome such shortcomings. The increasing practical relevance of negotiation in natural resource management requires the development of theoretical concepts for analyzing the nature and outcome of such negotiation processes. Using the case of negotiations concerning crop-livestock conflicts in Sri Lanka as an empirical example, this paper applies the concept of political capital in combination with game theoretical modeling for an analysis of negotiation processes in natural resource management. An extended form game is used to examine the incentive structure of the resource users and the political decision-makers involved in the negotiation process. The pay-off of the resource users is measured in economic terms, while the pay-off of the political decision-makers is expressed in terms of political capital. The modeling exercise shows how the incentives of the resource users and the politicians depend on the probability that the public administration enforces a negotiated outcome. The paper discusses potential extensions of the model and concludes that the concept of political capital, in combination with game theoretical modeling, provides a useful tool for the analysis of negotiation approaches in natural resource management.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
A. Kenneth Shepsle, Mark S. Bonchek
USA: W.W. Norton, 1997, 472 с.
Двое ученых из Гарварда в своей работе обращают внимание читателей на вопросы, связанные с рациональностью, моделями поведения индивидов и групп. Эти вопросы рассматриваются в контексте анализа систем голосования, коллективных действий в политике, бюрократии. Все рассматриваемые в книге проблемы авторы иллюстрируют с помощью примеров (case studies).
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Roel Jongeneel
This paper analyses the impact of the dairy quota scheme on the size distribution of the Dutch dairy industry. A non-stationary Markov model approach is used, where the transition probabilities are explained by a set of exogenous (policy) variables. Using an information theoretical approach, a model is estimated for The Netherlands and used to simulate the impacts of alternative EU dairy policies. Several results emerged:
a) There is an autonomous over time decline in farm numbers (implying increase in farm size).
b) The dairy quota regime positively influences 'small' and 'medium' farm sizes;
c) Abolition of the dairy quota will negatively affect the total number of active farms and favours further increase of farm scale.
d) Targeting support according to needs increases the number of active dairy farms as compared with the status quo.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan, Bhavani Shankar, Garth Holloway
Under the TRIPs Agreement, all member-countries of the World Trade Organization are required to provide an "effective" system of plant variety protection within a specific time frame. In many developing countries this has led to a divisive debate about the fundamental desirability of extending intellectual property rights to agriculture. But empirical studies on the economic impacts of PVP, especially its ability to generate large private sector investments in plant breeding and facilitate the transfer of technology, have been very limited.

This paper examines two aspects of the international experience of PVP legislation thus far (i) The relationship between legislation, R&D expenditures and PVP grants, i.e., the innovation effect, and (ii) The role of PVP in facilitating the flow of varieties across countries, i.e., the transferability effect.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2003
An Entrepreneurial Theory of the Firm makes a thorough and comprehensive enquiry into the nature of the of the relationship that exists between firms and markets, with separate, in-depth explorations of the issues of both the existence and inner organisations of the firm. Sautet develops a model that explains the emergence of the firm in the market process as the result of entrepreneurial activity in the context of genuine uncertainty.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Leigh J. Maynard, Jason Hartell, A. Lee Meyer, Jianqiang Hao
Durban, 2003
An experimental store was created to evaluate initial demand for locally-produced and guaranteed tender steak products as a more realistic alternative to contingent valuation (CV) and dichotomous-choice experimental methods. Strengths of the approach are incentive compatibility, a realistic consumption set, and a familiar choice environment. Consumers selected among USDA Choice, premium quality, lean, guaranteed tender, and locally-produced strip steaks. Double-hurdle count data model indicated initial willingness-topay for locally-produced steak comparable to prior CV results, but demand was highly elastic. Demand for premium quality steak crowded out demand for the guaranteed tender product, contrasting with prior dichotomous-choice experimental results.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2004
Adam Smith
London: Methuen, 2002
Возможно, это самая известная и самая широкоцитируемая книга по экономике, которая когда-либо была издана. В этом трактате проницательный и наблюдательный экономист конца 18 в. изложил практически все экономические идеи о функционировании хозяйства, которые были накоплены к тому времени в работах общественных мыслителей и практических деятелей. Уникальная особенность этой книги заключается в творческой и логичной систематизации, которая сильно продвинула экономическую науку как самостоятельную дисциплину, а также в большом количестве наблюдений из реального хозяйства, подтверждающих и расширяющих теоретические концепции. "Богатство народов" переводилось несколько раз на русский язык, но его оригинальный текст имеет большую ценность для всех исследователей экономической науки и просто любителей хорошей литературы.
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