Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 79
Опубликовано на портале: 19-02-2004Burghart Schmidt
Изд-во: Suhrkamp, 1994, cерия "Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft", 327 с.
В своей книге, посвященной феномену постмодерна, проявления которого исследуется в философско-эстетическом и социологическом измерениях, Бургхард Шмидт ставит и пытается решить сложную задачу по разработке и выявлению различных «стратегий забывания», за счет которых культура постмодерна, постоянно заигрывая с возвращением прошлого, заменяет серьезную работу по освоению и осмыслению прошлого его доступностью. В исследовании наглядно демонстрируется, как работа памяти в культуре подменяется свободной произвольной игрой. В то же время, как показывает автор, постмодерн актуализирует такие важные проблемы, как возвращение в культуру иррационального, возвращение мифа, критика Просвещения и др. Также в работе обсуждается проблема истории в постмодернистской культуре.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-01-2004Andreas Huyssen, Klaus R. Scherpe
Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbeck bei Hamburg, 1997, cерия "Rowohlts Enzyklopadie", 348 с.
Настоящая книга, впервые изданная в 1986 году немецкими авторами (Андреас Гуиссен и Клаус Р. Шерпе), представляет собой монографию, включающую научные работы различных авторов из Франции, Англии, Германии, в центре внимания которых находится проблема соотношения «модерн-постмодерн» в различных областях искусства: в архитектуре, кинематографе, литературе и литературной критике, а также в теории искусства. Также рассматривается отношение постмодерна к феминизму, эстетической теории и к постструктурализму. Книга дает представление о различных культурно-политических и национальных контекстах постмодернизма.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-05-2003Ред.: Hans-Peter Meier-Dallach, Jacob Juchler
Huntington: Nova Science Publishers, 2003
Центральной проблемой книги является развитие и функционирование гражданского сектора в постсоциалистических странах Восточной Европы. Другой важной проблемой является вопрос о характере постсоциалистических трансформаций и различии путей развития. Затрагиваетсявопрос о роли регионов, проблема борьбы между центробежными и центростремительными силами, проблема социальной идентичности в новых государствах.
Potential adoption of genetically modified rapeseed in France, effects on revenues of farmers and upstream companies: an ex ante evaluation /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Marion Desquilbet, Stephane Lemarie, Fabrice Levert
In this paper, we conduct an empirical investigation of potential adoption of herbicide-tolerant (HT) genetically modified (GM) rapeseed in France. Our aim is to study ex ante the potential impact of their adoption in France, in terms of adoption level, economic gains, and distribution of these gains between farmers and input suppliers. We use French survey data about current plant protection practices, in order to compute pesticide costs with conventional (i.e., non GM) crops for individual farms. Then, based on results of technical studies about GM variety trials in France, we compute a predicted pesticide cost with the GM variety. Next, we study adoption rates and gains or losses of farmers (adopters and non adopters) and upstream companies (sellers of conventional herbicides, of the total herbicide to which GM rapeseed is tolerant, of GM seed), depending on the GM seed license price, the margin rate on herbicide sales and the price of conventional herbicides.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2003Amartya Sen
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984, 416 с.
The Nobel Laureate (1998) Amartya Sen needs no introduction. But poverty and starvation are better known than he is. Better still, the author is in full realization of this fact. So, no self-elevating adjectives or poignant criticism can be found in the book. The book focuses on starvation in general and famines in particular. At the very outset, Amartya comes out to be a Keynesian in approach rather than a classicist. As his critics would put it - "This paper is not concerned with long-term food policy". This is true to some extent but the author here is trying to fit in a jigsaw puzzle with two or more puzzles thrown in at once. The book can be further divided into three parts for reading purposes: * For layman [Chapter 1-5,10] * Case Studies [Chapter 6-9] * For the erudite economist [Appendix A-D] This is what sets the book apart - a simple treatment of such a complex subject! For an issue as basic as hunger, you do require a simple treatment that masses can understand and not only a Master at some reputed economic school. The first and second section can be read by anyone slightly concerned with the word - Poverty while appendices are for the more learned. Chapter I introduces the elementary concepts of his approach to starvation - "The Entitlement Approach". He clearly distinguishes between the food availability and the relationships between a person and the food available. According to him, a person can get food to which he is legally or socially entitled. He can exchange his owned entitlements for other entitlements. Thus, even if plenty is available in author's words - "Starvation is seen as the result of his inability to establish entitlement to enough food". The second and the third chapter deal with concept of poverty, its identification and aggregation. He presents various methods of poverty evaluation and a critique of each- 1. The most usual head count method (i.e. relative number of poor) 2. Biological and nutritional approach (i.e. minimum amount of nutrition required). The aggregation is dealt with by advocating the axiom of "Ranked Relative Deprivation". This deals with the relative poverty amongst the 'poor'. Chapter III brings out the difference between starvation and famines. It sets a stage for discussion of famines in particular. He distinguishes both on - 1. Time Contrast (Long term and Short Term) 2. Group Contrast (Endemic and Specific Community) Chapter IV critically examines the entitlement approach with explanations of endowment and exchange. He examines the limitations of entitlement approach. The author seems to be very much aware of this e.g. '....some transfers that include violation of entitlement approach as looting'. The Case Studies cover the- * Bengal Famine of 1943 * Ethiopian famine of 1972-4 * Sahel Drought and Famine of 1968-73 * Famine of Bangladesh in 1974. The case studies chosen are of widely different nature and lend credit to his work. He goes about justifying the entitlement approach both in times of low food availability and adequate food availability. The Bengal famine case has been taken to illustrate the failure of FAD (Food Availability Decline). From the data of Famine Inquiry Commission of 1945, he proves that actually per capita availability rose about 9% form 1941-43. Since rural workers were as a community affected the most, exchange entitlement could have been a reason. The 'class-basis of destitution' further corroborates the food entitlement approach. The causes of sharp movements of exchange entitlements in this case can be briefed as- 1. Printing of currency leading to inflationary pressures 2. Speculation and Hoarding (A typical Keynesian!) 3. 'Indifferent' winter crop 4. Prohibition of cereal export 5. An uneven expansion of income and purchasing power 6. Impoverishment of groups not directly related to food production He further examines the bad policy of Bengal govt. at that time. The policy was largely FAD approach based and believed in merely creating supplies of food in the affected region, which, obviously, did not help much. The critics have strongly challenged the validity of Famine Commission report (Sen too is aware of that) and actually contend that crop availability was less than that reported (a large upward bias). This hits at the root of his analysis as he works on the initial analysis that there was actually a rise in food available. Also, the critics lay claim to inefficiency of PDS used to funnel the food into Bengal. To quote-"...and what was put on the market vanished without a ripple". They further proved that the inflation was pretty much the same throughout India. So why this should have only hit Bengal. Sen has neglected the infrastructural breakdown. The Ethiopian Famine, again, according to him proved the validity of entitlement approach, as there was little price rise of commodities. But in Sahel famine decrease in food availability was the causal factor. Sen analysed region wise food output to declare that the effect of famine was actually lower in food deprived areas. The approach of Sen seems to be of a short-term nature but does, indeed, subtly propose a long-term vision too. The focus of govt. should not only be to concentrate on food availability but as Sen points out towards ensuring no sudden changes in exchange entitlements. He advocates govt. intervention in these situations (Keynesian approach!). The critics who oppose the above may please note that that at no time does he propose to completely eliminate the FAD approach. Rather, in opening lines of Chapter I he says- "Starvation is characteristic of some people not having enough to eat. It is not the characteristic of there being not enough to eat. While the latter can be a cause of the former, it is but one of many possible causes". In conclusion, the book is a must read for everyone. This is a simply written book with lots of conviction and healthy refute of the theories he disposes of.
POVERTY, RESOURCE SCARCITY AND INCENTIVES FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION: ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS WITH A BIO-ECONOMIC MODEL / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Bekele Shiferaw, Stein Holden
The paper examines the interlinkages between population pressure and poverty, possible impacts on household welfare and land management, and the consequent pathways of development in a low potential rural economy. A dynamic non-separable bio-economic model, calibrated using data from the Ethiopian highlands, is used to trace key relationships between population pressure, poverty and soil fertility management in smallholder agriculture characterized by high levels of soil degradation. Farm households maximize their discounted utility over the planning horizon. Land, labor and credit markets are imperfect. Hence, production, consumption and investment decisions are jointly determined in each period. The level of soil degradation is endogenous and has feedback effects on the stock and quality of the resource base. This may in turn influence land management choices. Under high population pressure, land becomes dearer relative to labor. This is likely to induce conservation investments, especially when conservation technologies do not take land out of production. When markets are imperfect, poverty in vital assets (e.g., oxen and labor) limits the ability or the willingness to invest in conservation and may lead to a less sustainable pathway. Boserup-type responses are more likely when (privately) profitable technologies exist and market imperfections do not limit farm-households' investment options.
Poverty, Subsistence Production, and Consumption of Food in Russia: Policy Implications / Russia’s Agro-Food Sector: Towards Truly Functioning Markets. Edited by P. Wehrheim, K. Frohberg, E. Serova, J. von Braun. [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004Joachim Braun, Matin Qaim
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 301-321 с.
Falling real incomes, inequality in income distribution and the increased incidence of poverty have led to a both qualitative and quantitative deterioration in the average Russian’s diet. This analysis, which is based on a comprehensive household survey conducted in the mid-1990s, reveals that 19 percent of Russian families are poor according to at least two of the different poverty indicators used. It shows that, for the majority of rural and urban households, subsistence production of food is an important private mechanism for coping with the transformation risks of market failures. The subsistence sector is likely to be a long-term reality in Russia, that will continue to exist at least until the economy stabilizes and a sound social-security system supersedes this private insurance mechanism.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Ronald Findlay, Kevin O'Rourke
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 624 с.
International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends. They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago. Drawing extensively upon empirical evidence and informing their systematic analysis with insights from contemporary economic theory, Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth. Power and Plenty is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century. Ronald Findlay is the Ragnar Nurkse Professor of Economics at Columbia University. He is the author of Factor Proportions, Trade, and Growthand Trade, Development, and Political Economy. Kevin H. O'Rourke is professor of economics at Trinity College, Dublin. He is the coauthor of Globalization and History.
Whiting S.H. Power and wealth in rural China: The political economy of institutional change / S.H. Whiting. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 348 p. (Cambridge modern China series). [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 27-10-2003
This book focuses on China's rural industries, offering an innovative, theoretical framework to explain insitutional change. Susan Whiting explores the complex interactions of individuals, institutions, and the broader political economy to examine variation and change in property rights and extractive institutions in China's rural industrial sector. Whiting explains why public ownership predominated during the early years of reform and why privatization is now taking place. This book will be of interest not only to students and scholars of Chinese economic development, but also of comparative politics and political economy more generally.
Power & Conflict Between Doctors and Nurses: Breaking Through the Inner Circle in Clinical Care [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2006Maureen A. Coombs
New-York: Routledge, 2004, 148 с.
Through observations in three intensive care units, this book draws on the reality of practice to explore how nurses and doctors work in intensive care settings. It examines: the power held by the competing knowledge bases; the roles of the different professions; the decision-making process; the sources of conflict; the need for change. Drawing together sociological theories and clinical practice, Power and Conflict Between Doctors and Nurses explores the role of nurses in delivering contemporary health care. It makes a strong case for interdisciplinary working and is particularly timely when health care policy is challenging work boundaries in health care.
Morris D. Power plays [Текст] : win or lose-- how history's great political leaders play the game / D. Morris. New York : ReganBooks, 2002. 360 p. [книга]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-05-2004
Дик Моррис посвятил свою книгу "Властные игры: победить или проиграть. Как действуют великие политические лидеры" описанию наиболее драматических моментов в политической истории США. В результате получилась книга, являющаяся хорошим пособием для стратегического планирования как политических, так и бизнес кампаний. На американских и международных примерах автор описывает 5 типов политических игр, рассказывает об успешных и провальных применениях стратегий.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-05-2003Ray C. Fair
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003
Книга демонстрирует силу и возможности социальной науки и статистических методов, ясно и просто показывая, каким образом различные социальные и политические события могут быть объяснены с использованием инструментов социальных наук и статистики.
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF FARM ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIONS IN EUROPE UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF AGENDA 2000 /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003Giovanni Signorello, Gioacchino Pappalardo
In this paper we report on preliminary results of a research aimed to examine the content of farm animal biodiversity conservation actions currently under implementation in the European Union in the framework of EU Agenda 2000. In particular, we surveyed sixty-three Rural Development Plans (RDPs) set up in twelve countries in application of EEC regulations 1257/99 and 1750/99. Our analysis focused on endangered breeds of six major livestock species included in the RDPs. This analysis, which is based on the comparison with the indicator’s status of the DAD-IS FAO database, allowed to identify priorities in conservation efforts in each country, and estimate the level of expected public expenditure needed to ensure the moving of breeds from at-risk (of extinction) status to not-at-risk status over the period 2000-2006.
Preservation of Bio-Diversity, Heterogeneity of Farm Practices and Payments for Cultural Landscapes under Inhomogeneous Natural Conditions /доклад на 10 конгрессе ЕААЕ, Exploring Diversity in the European Agri-Food System, Zaragoza, Spain, 28-31 August 2002 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003Ernst-August Nuppenau
The paper explores the question of diversity in agricultural practice as related to bio-diversity and landscape appearance. It starts with the observation that, in the past, diverse natural conditions have considerably impacted on adapted modes of agricultural production, more than today, and that previously performed farm practices were strongly affiliated with specific natural conditions. These practices positively contributed to a modified, diverse and man-made environment which is frequently considered a beautiful landscape. This has changed dramatically. Particularly, where the European countryside is regarded a natural heritage, today, the public seems to be worried about modern farm practices. After the adoption of modern techniques, farmers prefer to apply unified production technologies and tend to set-up uniform farm structures and product mixes as well as land cultivation practices based on purchased inputs. Farm operations equalise natural conditions and contribute to uniform land rents. However, a rising public concern for the preservation of bio-diversity is asking for change and new measures. Additional to regulations on farm practices governments seek to compensate farmers for nature preservation and production of bio-diversity. Presuming that high biodiversity is dependent on diversity in agricultural practice and landscape appearance due to preserved natural conditions, the paper develops a model that links payments to diversity in farm practice and natural conditions. The applied model is landscape-oriented and classifies farm behaviour according to agronomic conditions. A reference system for a unified technology is presented and implications for payments are discussed using a behavioural approach. This behavioural approach focuses on regional dynamics in natural condition as major determinants for bio-diversity and payments as determinants for farm practices. Payments are directed to re-establish diversity in farm practices, counteract current technology dominance, and assure a new exposure to nature, though only partly. Diversity becomes prevalent; notably according to an economic calculus of costs and benefits from taxpayers' point of view.
PRICE INCENTIVES, NON-PRICE FACTORS, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS / доклад на 25 конференции IAAE, Reshaping Agriculture’s Contribution to Society, International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa, 16-23 August 2003 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003Rainer Thiele
This paper deals with the question of how responsive farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are to changes in incentives. Employing Johansen's multivariate cointegration approach and covering the period 1965.99, it investigates for ten selected SSA countries the long-run effect of pricing policies, macroeconomic distortions, and certain non-price factors on agricultural production. It turns out that - in those cases where cointegration relationships are found - estimated supply elasticities tend to lie between 0.20 and 0.50. Among the non-price factors, drought episodes have significantly impaired agricultural growth in six out of ten sample countries. Technical progress as measured by a simple deterministic time trend has only had a minor impact on output.