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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 78

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
7 AB C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 16-02-2006
Ред.: Chris Newbold, Oliver Boyd-Barrett
London: Arnold, 1995, cерия "Foundations in Media", 562 с.
Хрестоматия рассчитана на студентов всех курсов гуманитарных вузов и содержит около семидесяти отрывков из классических и современных текстов по теории массовой коммуникации, сыгравших важную роль в развитии этой дисциплины, или представляющих одно из ее наиболее важных направлений. Задача хрестоматии – определить и проиллюстрировать основные теоретические традиции теории коммуникаций, начиная с 1940-х годов. В хрестоматии представлены тексты по таким направлениям как: функционализм и теории массового общества, медиа-эффекты, политэкономия и теории культурной гегемонии, феминизм, новые исследования аудитории, исследования медиа-профессий и медиа-профессионалов и др. Книга содержит тексты таких известных теоретиков массовой коммуникации как: Г.Лассуэлл, Т. Адорно, М.Хоркхаймер, Ч.Райт, П.Лазарсфельд, Э. Кац, Дж. Гербнер, Г.Мёрдок, П.Голдинг, Дж.Б.Томпсон, Ф.Эллиотт, С.Холл, Дж.Кейри, Г.Такман, Д.Морлей, Т.Либс, Й.Анг и др. Хрестоматия представляет собой первую книгу серии «Основы исследований медиа», в которой вышли еще две книги: Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi, Dwayne Winseck,  Jim McKenna,  Oliver Boyd-Barrett,  «Media in Global Context» (1997) [21] и Roger Dickinson,  Olga Linne,  Ramaswami Harindranath  «Approaches to Audiences» (1998). [22]

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tassew Woldehanna, Arie Oskam
2002
There is some confusion in the literature on the consumption behaviour of farmers. We try to clear up some of the issues surrounding this confusion by elaborating and testing a model. Euler equations have been derived from a constant relative risk aversion utility function for total consumption expenditure, household expenditure and other expenditure, which includes durable goods. According to a test of Euler equations, farm households are not simply optimising lifetime utility. Rather, these households follow simple consumption rules, strongly influenced by habit formation. In line with most of the literature, we find that farm households are not borrowing constrained in their consumption expenditures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2006
Colin Crouch, David Finegold, Mari Sako
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 296 с.
This study of vocational education in advanced industrial countries contributes to two different areas of debate. The first is the study of the diversity of institutional forms taken by modern capitalism, and the difficulties currently surrounding the survival of that diversity. Rather than analysing economic institutions and governance in general, the authors specifically focus upon the key area of skill creation. The second theme is that of vocational education and training in its own right. While sharing the consensus that the advanced countries must secure competitive advantage in a global economy by developing highly-skilled work forces, the authors draw attention to certain awkward aspects of this approach that are often glossed over in general debate: 1. The employment-generating power of improvements in skill levels is limited: employment policy cannot depend fully on education policies; 2. While the acquisition of skills has become a major public need, there is increasing dependence for their provision on individual firms, with government action being restricted to residual care for the unemployed, rather than contributing at the leading edge of advanced skills policy. Covering France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK, and the USA, this book provides a unique approach to education and training within the broader political and economic environment. As such, it will appeal to students, teachers, and practitioners concerned with vocational training, human resource management, industrial relations, and the sociology of the economy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Rajeev Ahuja, Johannes Jutting
2003
Community based micro insurance has aroused much interest and hope in meeting health care challenges facing the poor. In this paper we explore how institutional rigidities such as credit constraint impinge on demand for health insurance and how insurance could potentially prevent poor households from falling into poverty trap. In this setting, we argue that the appropriate public intervention in generating demand for insurance is not to subsidise premium but to remove these rigidities (easing credit constraint in the present context).

Thus from insurance perspective as well, our analysis highlights the importance of having appropriate savings and borrowing instruments for the poor.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ulrich Koester
2003
In contrast to expectations held by western observers in 1990, the farm structure in the Central and Eastern European Countries and the Countries of Independent States has not converged to the one prevailing in the West. In particular, remarkable changes in Russian agriculture in recent years have let to the emergence of new agricultural holdings combining under one umbrella many large farms. Does this unexpected development, unprecedented even in the West, contradict conventional wisdom about the determinants of farm size in agriculture? This paper argues that in transition economies external institutions seem to be more important than economies of scale and transaction costs on the farm in determining farm size. Whilst the birth of family farms in Russia seems to have been mainly constrained by embedded institutions of could-be family farmers and partly by second level institutions, the survival and the creation of holdings has been strongly supported by second and third level institutions, but embedded institutions have played also a role. Consequently, recent developments in Russia do not support the view that large farms or even holdings are more efficient than small or medium size family farms in an environment, which prevails in western market economies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Christos Pantzios, Stelios Rozakis, Vangelis Tzouvelekas
2002
Utilizing the stochastic frontier approach, this paper estimates output and input-oriented technical and scale efficiency levels for a sample of cotton-growing farms in Thessaly, Greece. The empirical results suggest that Greek cotton farm operations are technically and scale inefficient. There is a considerable scope for improvement in resource use and thereby in farm income of cotton farms; Greek cotton farmers could reduce production costs by 20.4%, making more efficient utilization of the existing production technology. Factors responsible for the technical efficiency differentials observed among cotton-growers include the farmer’s age and education as well as the farm’s land fragmentation and output specialization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Chittur S. Srinivasan
2003
Many developing countries are attempting to address the inequities of plant breeders' rights by incorporating farmers' rights provisions in their Plant Variety Protection legislations to reward the role of farmers as conservers and enhancers of agro-biodiversity. Developing countries expect to generate substantial revenues for biodiversity conservation or for community reward schemes through the application of farmers' rights provisions. This paper applies a patent-renewal model to assess the economic returns appropriated by plant breeders from new (protected) varieties in developed countries. The estimates confirm a widely held view in the literature that plant variety protection is a relatively weak form of IPR protection which allows plant breeders to appropriate only limited returns from their innovations. Consequently, the application of farmers' rights provisions in a manner akin to breeders' rights is unlikely to be a source of significant revenue to developing countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Ernst Berg
2002
This paper investigates the farm level impacts of multiple peril yield and revenue insurance in an expected value-variance framework. The analysis is conducted using stochastic simulation jointly with numerical optimisation. Simulation is used to compute the means and variances of revenues as affected by the insurance schemes under consideration. In a second step these results are incorporated in a whole-farm programming approach, which optimises a portfolio that consists of crop production and insurance activities. The results of a case study indicate that from the farmer's point of view there is an incentive to buy multiple peril crop insurance, because it significantly reduces the variability of income. The risk reduction through insurance in turn leads to a specialisation of the production program. The farm level benefit of crop insurance strongly depends on the decision maker's degree of risk aversion. Furthermore, risk free parts of the total income reduce the economic attractiveness of insurance schemes. This applies e.g. to the area payments under the European agricultural policy, which therefore limit the potential demand for crop insurance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Arne Tostensen, Inge Tvedten, Mariken Vaa
Изд-во: Nordic Africa Institute, 2001, 320 с.
The book contains 17 chapters with material from 13 African countries, from Egypt to Swaziland and from Senegal to Kenya. Most of the authors are young African academics. The focus of the volume is the multitude of voluntary associations that has emerged in African cities in recent years. In many cases, they are a response to mounting poverty, failing infrastructure and services, and more generally, weak or abdicating urban governments. Some associations are new, in other cases, existing organizations are taking on new tasks. Associations may be neighbourhood-based, others may be city-wide and based on professional groupings or a shared ideology or religion. Still others have an ethnic base. Some of these organizations are engaged in both day-to-day matters of urban management and more long-term urban development. Urban associations challenge the monopoly of local and central government institutions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Julian Binfield, Gary Adams, Robert Young, Patrick Westhoff
Zaragoza, 2002
Most of the large scale modeling systems used in the analysis of agricultural policies produce deterministic projections. In reality, however, the agricultural sector is subject to a high degree of uncertainty as a result of fluctuations in exogenous factors such as the weather or macroeconomic variation. A stochastic approach can provide additional information to policy makers regarding the implications of this uncertainty, through the use of stochastically generated projections.

This paper also shows how deterministic analysis may result in systematic errors in the projection of some variables. As an applied example, the FAPRI model of the US agricultural sector is simulated stochastically to analyse the impact of proposals for the new US farm bill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-12-2003
Jean Tirole, Jean-Jacques Laffont
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1993, 705 с.
More then just a textbook, A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation will guide economists' research on regulation for years to come. It makes a difficult and large literature of the new regulatory economics accessible to the average graduate student, while offering insights into the theoretical ideas and stratagems not available elsewhere. Based on their pathbreaking work in the application of principal-agent theory to questions of regulation, Laffont and Tirole develop a synthetic approach, with a particular, though not exclusive, focus on the regulation of natural monopolies such as military contractors, utility companies, and transportation authorities.

The book's clear and logical organization begins with an introduction that summarizes regulatory practices, recounts the history of thought that led to the emergence of the new regulatory economics, sets up the basic structure of the model, and previews the economic questions tackled in the next seventeen chapters. The structure of the model developed in the introductory chapter remains the same throughout subsequent chapters, ensuring both stability and consistency. The concluding chapter discusses important areas for future work in regulatory economics.

Each chapter opens with a discussion of the economic issues, an informal description of the applicable model, and an overview of the results and intuition. It then develops the formal analysis, including sufficient explanations for those with little training in information economics or game theory. Bibliographic notes provide a historical perspective of developments in the area and a description of complementary research. Detailed proofs are given of all major conclusions, making the book valuable as a source of modern research techniques. There is a large set of review problems at the end of the book.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 31-08-2003
Michael C. Jensen
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000
This collection examines the forces, both external and internal, that lead corporations to behave efficiently and to create wealth.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-01-2003
Yoram Barzel
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002
This book models the emergence and evolution of the rule-of-law state. The protector or ruler is assumed to be self-seeking. Individuals will install a protector only after they create institutions to control him. Organized protection engenders legal institutions that enforce rights. A "state of nature" then gradually turns into a rule-of-law state. Individuals employ both the state and other third parties for enforcement. The fraction of agreements that the state enforces determines its scope. Rule-of-law states encourage market transactions and standards that facilitate trade. The larger the domain of the state's ultimate enforcer, the greater the advantage of scale economies to contracting. This force may explain the creation of rule-of-law empires.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Alastair Bailey, Xavier Irz, Kelvin Balcombe
Durban, 2003
The measurement of the impact of technical change has received significant attention within the economics literature. One popular method of quantifying the impact of technical change is the use of growth accounting index numbers. However, in a recent article Nelson and Pack (1999) criticise the use of such index numbers in situations where technical change is likely to be biased in favour of one or other inputs. In particular they criticise the common approach of applying observed cost shares, as proxies for partial output elasticities, to weight the change in quantities which they claim is only valid under Hicks neutrality. Recent advances in the measurement of product and factor biases of technical change developed by Balcombe et al (2000) provide a relatively straight-forward means of correcting product and factor shares in the face of biased technical progress.

This paper demonstrates the correction of both revenue and cost shares used in the construction of a TFP index for UK agriculture over the period 1953 to 2000 using both revenue and cost function share equations appended with stochastic latent variables to capture the bias effect. Technical progress is shown to be biased between both individual input and output groups. Output and input quantity aggregates are then constructed using both observed and corrected share weights and the resulting TFPs are compared. There does appear to be some significant bias in TFP if the effect of biased technical progress is not taken into account when constructing the weights.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003
Hartmut Wendt, Andreas Heigl
Berlin: BiB, 2000
Tagung des Arbeitskreises "Migration Integration Minderheiten" der Deutschen Gesellschaft fьr Bevцlkerungswissenschaft (DGBw) fand im Oktober 1999 in Berlin statt. Die Organisatoren hatten sich zum Ziel gesetzt, nach einer thematischen Ьberblicksveranstaltung im Vorjahr (verцffentlicht in den Materialien zur Bevцlkerungswissenschaft, Band 94) das Themenfeld der Integration zu behandeln und luden dazu gezielt Referenten ein, um aus der Sicht ihrer Disziplin Probleme und Chancen der Integration von Zuwanderungspopulationen zu beleuchten. Dabei sollten bewusst die nationalen Grenzen ьberschritten werden um vergleichende Aspekte der Integrationsprozesse zu behandeln. Mit der Gewinnung von Referenten aus Frankreich und der Schweiz ist dies auch ein Stьck weit gelungen.Das Einleitungsreferat von Hartmut Wendt erörtert bezugnehmend auf die aktuelle politische Diskussion und ausgehend von der demographischen Situation in Deutschland - die Notwendigkeit einer regulierten Zuwanderung, die auch stets die Integration der Einwanderer zu implizieren hat. Der Beitrag der Ausländerbeauftragten von Berlin, Frau Barbara John, stellt das Berliner Konzept der Ausländerintegration vor. Sie veranschaulicht am Beispiel Berlin Integrationsmaßnahmen, die den Einstieg in den Arbeitsmarkt erleichtern und ein kulturelles Miteinander sowie die Teilhabe am politischen Leben ermöglichen. Hartmut Häußermann postuliert aus der Sicht des Stadtsoziologen eine Krise der "europäischen Stadt" und diskutiert neue bzw. "vormoderne" Formen urbaner Integration. Er erörtert zwei theoretische Ansätze der Integration (Simmel und Park) und hebt abschließend die Bedeutung der sozialen Integration für die Zukunft der Stadt hervor. Die empirisch ausgerichtete Analyse von Alois Weidacher ist auf die soziokulturellen und politischen Orientierungen ausgewählter ethnischer Gruppen fokussiert und kommt zu dem Schluss, dass eine hohe Ähnlichkeit in politischen Einstellungen der Befragten unterschiedlicher Nationalitäten festzustellen ist, die sich insbesondere in der Zustimmung zu demokratischen Prinzipien einer politischen Ordnung zeigen würde. Allerdings sind Mehraufwendungen gerade im Bildungsbereich notwendig, um eine statusgleiche Eingliederung für die Kinder von Migrantenfamilien zu ermöglichen. Die Integration der Türken in Deutschland ist das Thema des Beitrages von Andreas Goldberg. Die Ergebnisse einer Telefonbefragung von türkischstämmigen Migranten weisen auf die Widersprüchlichkeit, ja Gegensätzlichkeit der Ergebnisse der Integrationsprozesse hin. Während auf der negativen Seite vor allem die schlechte Bildungs- und Ausbildungssituation und damit der niedrige sozioökonomische Status stehen, sind die ausgeprägten Kontakte der Türken zu Deutschen sowie die hohe Zahl an Einbürgerungsinteressierten als positive Aspekte der Integration zu werten. Oliver Hämming stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Telefonbefragung unter türkischen und italienischen jungen Erwachsenen der zweiten Ausländergeneration sowie schweizerischer junger Erwachsener im Kanton Zürich vor. Auch hier wird deutlich, dass junge Erwachsene der zweiten Einwanderergeneration im Vergleich mit gleichaltrigen "Einheimischen" schlechter abschneiden. Gerade die zweite Ausländergeneration ist als strukturell unterprivilegiert und desintegriert zu bezeichnen. Die Folge ist erhöhte individuelle Anomie, die mit Statusfrustration, Deprivation sowie normativer Desorientierung einhergeht und sich in Aggressivität, Depressivität sowie geringem Selbstwertgefühl äußert. Einen interessanten Einblick in das Verhältnis Frankreichs zu seinen Immigranten gewährt Frau Anne Dumasy. Unter dem Aspekt eines Vergleichs zwischen Frankreich und Deutschland wird das französische Staatsbürgerschaftsrecht in seiner rechtsgeschichtlichen Tradition erläutert. Trotz Staatsbürgerschaft seit 1973 wird die Staatsbürgerschaft automatisch bei der Geburt gewährt sind Ausländer, und hier wiederum insbesondere Maghrebiner (die so genannten "Beurs"), oft Zielgruppe der Ausgrenzung. Die Folgen dieser Ausgrenzung, die Gewalt in den Vorstädten (La violence urbaine) werden anschaulich geschildert.