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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 79

Авторы:
А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Э Ю Я
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
Названия:
все А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W XY Z
 

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Bernhard Brummer, Thomas Glauben, Wencong C. Lu
2003
The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Lire Ersado, Gregory Amacher, Jeffrey Alwang
Durban, 2003
The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our research examines the interaction between public investments, community health, and adoption of productivity and land enhancing technologies by households in the northern Ethiopian state of Tigray. Agricultural technology adoption decisions are modeled as a sequential process where the timing of choices can matter. We find that time spent sick and opportunity costs of caring for sick family members are significant factors in adoption. Sickness, through its impact on household income and labor allocation decisions for healthcare and other activities, significantly reduces the likelihood of technology adoption. Our findings suggest that agencies working to improve agricultural productivity and land resource conservation should consider not only the financial status of potential adopters, but also their related health situation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-10-2003
This collection of Barzel's articles and papers from the 1960s through the 1990s reveals how the economist's research in microeconomics has evolved, and features his work on production functions and productivity, optimal timing, economic analysis of slavery, and the rise and fall of Jewish lending in the Middle Ages. The collection includes an autobiographical sketch in which Barzel details his education, the development of his ideas, and his influences.

Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2003
These volume present empirical studies that have permanently altered professional debates over investment and productivity as sources of postwar economic growth in industrialized countries. The distinctive feature of investment is that returns can be internalized by the investor. The most straightforward application of this idea is to investments that create property rights, but these volumes broaden the meaning of capital formation to include investments in education and training.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2003
This volume present empirical studies that have permanently altered professional debates over investment and productivity as sources of postwar economic growth in industrialized countries. The distinctive feature of investment is that returns can be internalized by the investor. The most straightforward application of this idea is to investments that create property rights, but these volumes broaden the meaning of capital formation to include investments in education and training.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2006
Kerry Segrave
Москва: Et Cetera Publishing, 2004, 320 с.
Эта книга об истории зарождения союза между рекламой и кинематографом - от появления рекламных слайдов в 1890-х годах до product placement в начале XXI века. От первых опытов кинорекламы - короткометражек длиной в одну или две ленты - до более привычных для нас рекламных роликов. История взлетов и падений product placement как целенаправленного включения в сюжет развлекательного фильма продукции, ее идентификационных признаков, устных упоминаний за соответствующую компенсацию от эпохи немого кино до блокбастеров нашего времени. Маркетинговые войны и политические интриги, лобби и превращение product placement в образ жизни для голливудского кино.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Sanzidur Rahman
Zaragoza, 2003
Production inefficiency is usually analysed by its two components – technical efficiency and allocative efficiency. In this study we provide a direct measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers using a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model. The data, which is for 1996, includes seven conventional inputs and several other background factors affecting production of modern or high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice spread across 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh.

The results show that there are high levels of inefficiency in modern rice cultivation. The mean level of profit efficiency is 77% suggesting that an estimated 23% of the profit is lost due to a combination of both technical and allocative inefficiency in modern rice production. The efficiency differences are explained largely by infrastructure, soil fertility, experience, extension services, tenancy and share of non-agricultural income.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Wusheng Yu, Thomas W. Hertel, Paul Preckel, James Eales
2002
Projections of world food demands hinge critically on the underlying functional form used to predict future demands. Simple functional forms can lead to unrealistic projections by failing to capture changes in income elasticities of demand as consumer becomes wealthier. This paper compares several demand systems in the projection of disaggregated food demand across a wide range of countries with different income levels using a global general equilibrium model. We find that the recently introduced AIDADS system represents a substantial improvement over existing demand systems currently in use in CGE modeling. In particular, our projection results show that for relatively poor regions experiencing rapid income growth, the widely used LES and CDE demand systems tend to over-predict growth in consumer demand, and hence import and output requirements for food products and under-predict that for non-food products, compared to the AIDADS system. On the other hand, for high-income regions with modest income growth, the choice of functional form is less critical.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Philippe Martin
Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company, 1996, 440 с.
Offers a definitive study of agricultural labor in California and an overview of the subject in the Southwest. It explores the agricultural industry, immigration, ethnic relations, agribusiness, agricultural workers, and public policy as related to the region and to the agricultural sector of the U.S. economy.

Исследование труда в сельcком хозяйстве Калифорнии с обзором ситуации на юго-западе США. Рассматривается агроиндустрия штата, иммиграция, этнические проблемы, работники сельского хозяйства, и аграрная политика, как в отношении штата, так и для всего сельского хозяйства США.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003
Allan Schmid
New York: Praeger Publishers, 1987, 322 с.
Little can happen in economic life that does not have distributional impact. Whose interests then count in the economy and in politics? This book addresses that question and explores the determining factors and forces. The author is interested in here in what governs institutional and systemic performance and how we may, objectively and nonpresumptively, analyze and understand the variables governing performance. The underlying motivation is twofold: first, to enable readers to better know what is going on in the economy and the polity; and second, to enable us to better choose and effectuate meaningful and consequential institutional changes. The focus is on human interdependence and how alternative property rights affect its outcome.
ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 27-02-2004
Catherine Bidou-Zachariasen
Paris: Descartes & Cie, 1997, 211 с.
Книга Биду-Захариазен "Марсель Пруст - социолог: от аристократического дома к буржуазному салону" отличается своеобразием методологического подхода к исследованию аристократической и буржуазной культуры. Автор (социолог по образованию) предпринимает попытку совместить социологический и литературный анализ и проанализировать серию романов Марселя Пруста «В поисках утраченного времени», рассматривая их как источник информации о взаимоотношении аристократии и буржуазии в период с 1880х по 1920-е годы. В книге показывается, как буржуазия находит «ахиллесову пяту» у аристократии – ее антиинтеллектуализм. Культура становится оружием атаки буржуазии на аристократию.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Daniela Lohlein, Johannes Jutting, Peter Wehrheim
2002
The objective of the paper is to identify the determinants of access to health care in rural Russia. We started out with the observation that the transition process has affected the provision of social services in the Russian Federation in general, and in rural areas in particular, owing to the overlap with agricultural reforms. Based on this observation we asked how the reduced role of the state and the concomitant decentralization of policy making has affected access of the rural populace to social services. A review of the available literature on this topic resulted in the formulation of the following three hypotheses. Firstly, that income is a determinant of access to health care. Secondly, that informal payments play an important role in determining access, and thirdly that there are large differences in access to health care services between districts. The hypotheses were tested using household data from a survey conducted in two regions of Russia in 2000. The results indicate that in the study regions, contrary to expectations, neither income nor informal payments are important determinants of access. However, there are large differences in out-of-pocket expenditures between districts, indicating that access to health care varies between districts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-04-2004
Randall G. Holcombe
Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1996
The subject matter of public finance has evolved a great deal in the last half of the twentieth century. Earlier in the century, when government activity fell within limited and well-defined boundaries, public finance was primarily the study of taxation. As government has grown, public finance economists have become increasingly interested in public expenditures, both from the standpoint of analyzing the actual expenditures of governments and from the standpoint of developing a theory of public expenditures. Public expenditure theory provides a rationale for government activity and can help guide policymakers toward the design of more effective public programs. In the decades since World War II, the study of public finance has been extended to examine the public sector decision-making process to understand how resources are allocated within political institutions. Public policy, after all, is not the product of policy experts but rather is the result of democratic decision making. A complete understanding of the public sector must incorporate an understanding of those political institutions that actually produce public policy. This book attempts to integrate the study of the various aspects of public finance by viewing all the government's activities as a result of the democratic decision-making process. This theme manifests itself throughout the book. For example, the tax system is examined not only in terms of traditional equity and efficiency criteria but also as a product of a democratic decision-making process. The analysis of public expenditures is also developed within the context of the public sector decision-making process that produces expenditure programs. Likewise, government regulations and intergovernmental relations are viewed as products of collective decision making and are analyzed the same way. To provide a foundation for this approach, the book contains three chapters devoted specifically to an economic analysis of political institutions. Thorough coverage of these chapters is not necessary to understand the rest of the book, but, for those who are interested in studying the allocation of resources through political markets in the public sector in the same way that economics analyzes the private sector, these chapters should prove helpful. A distinguishing feature of this book is that it analyzes political institutions in much more detail than do most public finance books and therefore creates a closer tie between economic analysis and public policy.

The unifying theme of this text-that government activity is the result of a democratic decision-making process-is significant for two reasons. First, one’s understanding of public finance will be incomplete unless one understands the process by which democratic decision making has created the existing public sector institutions. Second, unlike the invisible hand of the market that is the result of human action but not of human design, the public sector of the economy is the result of conscious human design, so that every voter plays a part in the process. The better the process is understood, the more likely we are to design public sector institutions that behave as we intended. By analyzing public revenues and expenditures in the United States economy as a product of the democratic decision-making process, the many aspects of public finance can be presented as a unified body of knowledge rather than as a collection of different models of the public sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Jing Zhu
Durban, 2003
China’s accession to the WTO poses great challenges to the Chinese agricultural sector, especially to the grain producers. Compared with major grain exporters in the world, most grain crops in China are high in production cost and weak in market competitiveness. This can be partly attributed to the fact that Chinese farmers are facing with poorer agricultural production infrastructures and inadequate public investment in agricultural research and extension, which leads to the lower efficiency in private inputs and thus higher private cost per unit of product. After China joining the WTO, protective and administrative measures conflicted with the URAA cannot be utilized as before. Alternative measures should be explored to provide help to farmers to improve competitiveness of their product. Public investment in agricultural research and other production infrastructures should be considered with high priority as one of the policy alternatives.

This paper examines the effects of public investment in agricultural research on the reduction of production cost of major grain crops in China by using crop-specific data for the past 20 year. It is concluded that, increasing public investment in agricultural research, which is well within the ‘green box’ policy framework and allowed by the WTO rules, is a plausible and effective measure to reduce grain producer’s private input and to enhance the competitiveness of grain products. It is also of great significance to sustained food security in China.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Geir Wachler Gustavsen, Kyrre Rickertsen
Zaragoza, 2002
Increased consumption of vegetables may reduce obesity and the prevalence of cardiac diseases and cancer. Norwegians consume less vegetables than nutrition experts recommend and the per capita consumption is lower than in most European countries.

To investigate the causes of low consumption, a two-step approach is used to estimate the demand segmented by nine different household types. In the first step, a probit model is estimated to investigate the decision whether to purchase traditional vegetables, salad vegetables, and industrially processed vegetables. Conditional on purchase, an almost ideal demand model is used to model how much to purchase. The own-price elasticities and total expenditure elasticities are high for traditional and industrially processed vegetables for most household types. Especially households with children have elastic demand. Lower value added tax or lower import tariffs for traditional and industrially processed vegetables will increase the demand for these vegetables, while reducing the price of salad vegetables seem to have a limited effect. For households with children, increased incomes have large effects on the demand for traditional and industrially processed vegetables indicating that, for example, increased child support will result in increased vegetable consumption.
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