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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 90

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А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И ЙК Л М Н О П Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш ЩЭ Ю Я
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
2003
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-10-2004
Hal R. Varian
New York: W.W. Norton, 1992
Microeconomic Analysis has been a fixture of graduate programs in economics for fifteen years. It has held this position because it has the authority, the clarity, and the breadth necessary for a classic text. This new Third Edition continues to supply the building blocks of microeconomic analysis: a thorough treatment of optimization and equilibrium methods, coupled with numerous examples of their application. The Third Edition expands on the earlier editions in two ways. First, the existing coverage has been rewritten and rearranged. Second, new chapters have been added on game theory, oligopoly, asset markets, and information economics. The rearrangement follows the model of Hal Varian's Intermediate Microeconomics: a number of short chapters, each devoted to a single topic. In fact, the topical division is as close as possible to that of the undergraduate text. This makes it easy to review undergraduate material before moving on to graduate material. The new chapters highlight significant developments in microeconomic theory in the last ten years at a level that is accessible for first-year graduate students.

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003
Pavel Vavra, Nobunori Kuga, Jesus Anton-Lopez, Joe Dewbre
Durban, 2003
Milk producers in virtually every OECD country, and in many non-OECD countries as well, benefit from government interventions. Indeed, government support and protection for milk producers is more widespread than for any of the other commodities for which the OECD calculates producer subsidy equivalents. The purpose of the analysis reported in this paper was to investigate the relative market effects of these two varieties of government intervention in milk pricing: 1) interventions through trade measures applied to dairy products and 2) discriminatory pricing arrangements. Which kind of policy creates ‘dollar-for-dollar’ the greater effects? This paper shows the answer to that question is – it depends. Neither economic theory by itself, nor economic theory combined with ‘plausible’ ranges of numerical values for key parameters is enough to say definitely one way or another. In some plausibly real-life situations domestic milk pricing arrangements can be, at the margin, more distorting than explicit trade measures. The key determining parameters include the usual suspects – the relative elasticities of fluid and manufacturing milk demand, as well as initial price gap between fluid and manufacturing milk provided by various measures and the proportion of domestic milk production used to manufacture tradable dairy products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-10-2003
Terry G. Vavra
USA: McGraw-Hill, 1995
Thoroughly updated, Aftermarketing offers a theory-based, yet pragmatic plan for building an effective customer retention program. The book unites the important fields of database development, customer satisfaction research, customer service and direct marketing, showing how to use them together to maximize their power in strengthening relationships with customers. Aftermarketing tells how to: construct a customer database, manage it and use it wisely; make customer satisfaction programs more responsive to customer retention; establish information dialogues with customers by actively answering their complaints and compliments; build formal communication programs dialoging with customers through magazines, newsletters, and correspondence. A relevant guide for managers (in large and small companies), retailers, educators and students, Aftermarketing is applicable to product and services, consumer and industrial markets, and both the profit and non-profit sectors.
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Andres Velasco
2003
This paper develops a political-economic model of fiscal policy one in which" government resources are a common property' out of which interest groups can finance" expenditures on their preferred items. This setup has striking macroeconomic implications. First, fiscal deficits and debt accumulation occur even when there are no reasons for intertemporal smoothing. Second deficits can be eliminated through a fiscal reform, but such a reform may only take place after a delay during which government debt is built up.

Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
Andres Velasco, Eric Parrado
2003
Using an optimizing model we derive the optimal monetary and exchange rate policy for a small stochastic open economy with imperfect competition and short run price rigidity. The optimal monetary policy has an exact closed-form solution and is obtained using the utility function of the representative home agent as welfare criterion. The optimal policy depends on the source of stochastic disturbances affecting the economy, much as in the literature pioneered by Poole (1970). Optimal monetary policy reacts to domestic and foreign disturbances. If the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in consumption is less than one, as is likely to be the case empirically, the optimal exchange rate policy implies a dirty float: interest rate shocks from abroad are met partially by adjusting home interest rates, and partially by allowing the exchange rate to move. This optimal pattern may help rationalize the observed fear of floating.

Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
Jackeline Velazco
2003
Is it feasible to increase income and generate employment in the context of a traditional labour intensive rural industry with strong linkages to an agriculturally backward economy? In order to address this issue, primary data from four villages of Peruvian North Sierra was used. The case of the hat making activity, employing exclusively family labour, purchasing the main input (straw, paja de palma) from Ecuador, and with consumers concentrated on villages and small towns, was investigated. The analysis was made at the market level. Considering the context of a self-employment activity, a theoretical framework was developed to explain the determinants of labour demand, input demand, hat output and labour return. Demand and supply constraints to the expansion of hat making activity were found. Important differences in the value of labour marginal product across the sample were identified. These were mainly associated with the use of varied input quality. Growth based on local demand would not be viable given falls in consumer incomes - mainly farmers - and expected changes in consumer preferences; therefore the growth motor would rest more in market expansion and product diversification to urban consumers.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Anthony J. Venables, Masahisa Fujita, Paul R. Krugman
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999, 384 с.
Книга «Пространственная экономика – города, регионы и международная торговля» рассматривает экономику с точки зрения экономической географии – через определение, где и почему развился тот или иной вид экономической деятельности. Это новая глава в развитии экономической географии. Авторами предлагаются новые методы для моделирования, получившие начало в теориях экономического роста, международной торговли и промышленной организации. Более того, через многофакторный анализ «эффект повышения отдачи - транспортные издержки - движение продуктивных факторов» открываются возможности для новой экономической географии при решении проблем в городской, региональной и международной экономике.

Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Maria Raquel Ventura-Lucas, Maria de Lurdes Ferro Godinho, Rui Sousa Fragoso
2002
Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agrienvironmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lead to serious problems of water pollution; high levels of soil erosion; nitrate losses and lost of biodiversity. The semi decoupeted income support policies and the introduction of the agrienvironmental schemes under the 1992 CAP reform were the first attempts to correct the negative aspects of the production-orientated policies. For the first time farmers were regarded as countryside and landscape keepers and as environmental conservationists. Under the 2000 Agenda similar emphasis was given to the sustainability of agriculture. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the different agri-environmental policies on typical farming systems and consequently their effects on water pollution, soil erosion and bio-diversity/landscape. A bio-economic model, integrating a mathematical programming model and crop growth simulation model, is applied to estimated the changes in the levels of nitrogen leaching and soil erosion, and in the degree of bio-diversity under the current and proposed agricultural policy scenarios. The following farming systems are studied: dry land cereal farming systems (intensive and extensive), livestock and irrigated farming systems using conventional and conservation farming technologies. The results show The results show that the main changes on water pollution, soil erosion levels and biodiversity are mainly due to changes in price and arable compensatory payments. The agri-environmental measures are more important as farm income source than as a policy instrument to influence environmental parameters.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Tom Vernimmen, Marie Bourgeois, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Henk Meert, Etienne Van Hecke
2002
One of the common strategies in rural development programmes is to support the adoption of new on-farm activities. The rationale behind this is that farm diversification is a way to assure an appropriate level of income for the farmers. Through interviews with 49 relatively small farmers, the possibilities for diversification as a survival strategy are assessed. The analysis is mainly based on a classification of development pathways by Bowler (1992). Few forms of diversification appear to be successful as a survival strategy in case of economic problems. Only off-farm employment seems to be effective in this respect. The introduction of new activities on marginal farms is hampered by lack of financial and human capital. On the other hand, diversification is often found on small farms without financial problems. This is an indication that on-farm diversification is able to stabilize the household income and to avoid financial problems when it is used as a preventive strategy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2005
Raymond Vernon, Louis. T. Wells
Изд-во: Prentice-Hall, 1981, 434 с.
The authors bridge the gap between strategies of businesses and the actions of governments in international environments. They use economic concepts to help explain the international environment to students and executives. Contains Text and Cases.

Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2009
Stella Vettori
Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007, 198 с.
How is the contract of employment to remain relevant in the changed world of work? Stella Vettori brilliantly shows that the implied duty of good faith is the ideal vehicle for adapting the contract to changing conditions. Mr Justice A A Landman High Court of South Africa. In light of the global decline in trade unions other means of protecting legitimate worker interests are explored. These include: (i)The socialisation of the law of contract; (ii)the constitutional right to fair labour practices; and (iii)the role of good corporate governance and corporate social responsibility. The conclusion arrived at is that these alternative means of addressing legitimate worker interests could play a valuable role in filling the vacuum left by the worldwide decline of trade unions. The world of work has undergone major changes in the last two decades. This book examines these changes in their international context. It is argued that collective bargaining should no longer be viewed as the most important means of regulating the employment relationship. In the changed world of work such an approach is becoming less relevant. Instead, other means of protecting legitimate worker interests are explored. These include: an adaptation and extension of the general principles of the law of contract; a constitutional right to fair labour practices; and the pursuit of good corporate governance and corporate social responsibility. The conclusion is that these alternative means of addressing legitimate worker interests can play a valuable role in filling the vacuum left by the worldwide decline of trade unions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2002
Jose Angel Zuniga Vicente, Jose David Vicente Lorente
2002
In this exploratory study, the authors set out to develop and test a dynamic and integrative framework on strategic change. On the basis of theoretical arguments and prior empirical evidence from the adaptation and inertial perspectives, the researchers propose an original empirical model to examine whether potential determinants of strategic change remain stable over time in a hypercompetitive environment. The authors look for an answer to this question in the Spanish private bank industry during a period of high strategic mobility as consequence of continuous and drastic environmental transformations. The results strongly support that the effect of potential determinants of strategic mobility in this industry did not remain stable over the whole period of analysis. From this point of view, the study sheds new light on major debates and dilemmas in the field of strategy regarding why firms change theirs competitive patterns over time, and hence whether the adaptation and inertial views really must be considered as complementary perspectives. Furthermore, the paper introduces two important methodological innovations which facilitate future empirical replies. First, the definition and measurement of strategic change by employing a new grouping method, the MCLUST. Second, the control of the non-observable heterogeneity using panel data models for logit regression.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-03-2004
Данная публикация представляет нобелевскую лекцию американского экономиста Уильяма Викри по случаю получения им в 1996 году премии памяти Альфреда Нобеля по экономике за фундаментальный вклад в экономическую теорию стимулов при наличии асимметричной информации. В докладе автор описывает основные свои исследования и подводит итог проделанной им работе. Лекция написана простым английским языком и находится в открытом доступе на официальном сайте.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-11-2006
Arthur J. Vidich, Joseph Bensman
Изд-во: University of Illinois Press, 2000, 560 с.
"First published in 1958, "Small Town in Mass Society" set community studies on a new course by placing the small town within the framework of large-scale, bureaucratic mass society. Drawing attention to the dynamics of class and ethnicity in relation to economics and politics, this landmark work was among the first to document the consequences of centralized administration on life in American communities. Through a close study of ""Springdale, New York,"" Arthur J. Vidich and Joseph Bensman depict the small town as continuously and increasingly drawn into the central institutions and processes of the total society. Vidich and Bensman based their conclusions on extensive interviews with and close observation of the inhabitants of one community. The original publication of the book caused a sharp response among the town's citizens who felt their trust had been violated and their town misrepresented. The present volume includes the editorials and correspondence evoked by that controversy, the authors' articles describing their methodology, a new foreword by Michael W. Hughey, and a new afterword in which Arthur J. Vidich recounts the creation and history of the book."
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