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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 358

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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Denis A. Nadolnyak, Ian M. Sheldon
In the paper, a dynamic model of diffusion of genetically modified crop technology is developed and simulated using the U.S. soybean market data. The model accounts for factors specific to agricultural markets, such as oligopsony power and strategic interaction among crop processors, growers’ characteristics such as adoption behavior, and identity preservation requirements. Simulation results show how these factors affect the magnitude and distribution of the potential gains from genetically modified crops.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
K.N. Ninan, Jyothis Sathyapalan
This paper analyses the economics of biodiversity conservation in the context of a tropical forest ecosystem in India, where coffee is the main competitor for land use. Using primary data covering a cross-section of coffee growers, the study notes that the opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in terms of coffee benefits foregone are quite high. Even after including external costs due to wild life damages and defensive expenditure to protect against wild life, the NPVs and IRRs from coffee for all land holding groups were high. Even if the expected benefits were to decrease by 20% and costs rise by a similar proportion, still the IRRs from coffee were quite high (19.5 to 20.1 per cent). The study notes that the external costs accounted for between 7 to 15 per cent of the total discounted costs of coffee cultivation, and smaller holdings proportionately incurred higher external costs as compared to large holdings. The study also notes high transaction costs incurred by the growers to claim compensation for wild life damages. Notwithstanding these disincentives, the study notes that the local community were willing to pay in terms of time for participatory biodiversity conservation, and they preferred a decentralized government institution for this purpose.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
George W. Norton, Scott M. Swinton
Berlin, 2000
Producers in industrialized countries have been inundated with ideas and information about precision agriculture (PA) and how new site-specific management (SSM) technologies will revolutionize their farm operations. Conjuring up Star Wars-imagery, farmers and their computerized machinery communicate with satellites while speeding up and down the information highway. The farm press has hailed the advent of these technologies as a win-win situation with higher farm profits and improved environmental quality. Certainly the potential is there for greater economic returns and better environmental stewardship. But what exactly is precision agriculture, who is applying it, and where? Is the technology only relevant for developed countries and are there implications for markets? What is the likelihood that environmental benefits will be realized?

This paper addresses these questions by drawing on literature, data, and expert opinion to explore what technologies have been developed and which ones have been or are likely to be adopted, by whom, and where. It considers the environmental implications of this host of new information technologies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2003
Emily A. Ouma, Gideon A. Obare, Steven J. Staal
Durban, 2003
This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle keeping households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio- economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of livestock, these non - market functions are often ignored since they are difficult to value, yet they may contribute to a better understanding of livestock production systems. The use of contingent valuation method is employed in this study to elicit these non-market values. Econometric estimations are then used to assess the factors influencing the non - market benefits function. The results indicate that these benefits are highly valued by cattle keepers and comprise approximately 20% of the animal.s total value across the three systems. They are influenced by various production system and household related factors. Implications for policy are drawn.
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Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2007
Keri E. Pearlson, Carol S. Saunders
Изд-во: John Wiley & Sons, 2006, 384 с.
Now updated and revised, this Third Edition of Managing and Using Information Systems by Pearlson and Saunders arms you with the insights and knowledge you need to become an active participant in information systems decisions. Taking a strategic approach to information systems, the authors show how to manage information as a resource and use information for competitive advantage.
This brief, yet complete, paperback provides a basic framework for understanding the relationships among business strategy, information systems, and organizational strategies. You'll learn how IT relates to organizational design and business strategy, how to recognize opportunities in the work environment, and how to apply current technologies in innovative ways.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
John Pender, Ephraim Nkonya, Pamela Jagger, Dick Sserunkuuma, Henry Ssali
Durban, 2003
This paper estimates a structural econometric model of household decisions regarding income strategies, participation in programs and organizations, crop choices, land management, and labor use, and their implications for agricultural production and land degradation; based upon a survey of over 450 households and their farm plots in Uganda. The results generally support the Boserupian model of population-induced agricultural intensification, but do not support the .more people-less erosion. hypothesis, with population pressure found to contribute to erosion in the densely populated highlands. Agricultural technical assistance programs have location-specific impacts on agricultural production and land degradation, contributing to higher value of crop production in the lowlands, but to soil erosion in the highlands. By contrast, NGO programs focusing on agriculture and environment are helping to reduce erosion, but have mixed impacts on production. We find little evidence of impact of access to markets, roads and credit, land tenure or title on agricultural intensification and crop production, though road access appears to contribute to land degradation in the highlands. Education increases household incomes, but also reduces crop production in the lowlands. We do not find evidence of a poverty-land degradation trap, while poverty has mixed impacts on agricultural production: smaller farms obtain higher crop production per hectare, while households with fewer livestock have crop production. These findings suggest that development of factor markets can improve agricultural efficiency. Several other factors that contribute to increased value of crop production, without significant impacts on land degradation, include specialized crop production, livestock and nonfarm income strategies, and irrigation. In general, the results imply that the strategies to increase agricultural production and reduce land degradation must be location-specific, and that there are few .win-win. opportunities to simultaneously increase production and reduce land degradation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 19-04-2007
Stephen J. Perkins, Susan M. Shortland
Philadelphia.: Kogan Page, 2006, 272 с.
This book provides an excellent and refreshing critical perspective to many of the issues under continued debate and ongoing research in the field of international HRM. This must be one of the best researched and referenced books on international human resource management that has been written in a long time. The research is both academic and practical… [and] deals with the subject at a very high level looking at the choices and consequences that organizations face when operating in an international market
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Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002
Sophia Philippidou, Klas Eric Soderquist, Gregory P. Prastacos
Building on coevolution theory and existing knowledge about strategic and organizational change, this paper develops a conceptual framework for studying change in organizations as coevolution. The focus is on how organizations create constructed environmental conditions, hence forming the context for themselves and other organizations and their environment. The paper illustrates this problematic by focusing on the interplay between public and private organizations. A set of propositions and an integrated framework laying the ground for future empirical research are developed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2006
Michael J. Piore, Charles F. Sabel
Изд-во: Basic Books, 1986, 368 с.
Two MacArthur Prize Fellows argue that to get out of its current economic crisis industry should abandon its attachment to standardized mass production for a system of flexible specialization
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-08-2005
The modern corporation is an institution of enormous economic power and social impact. Corporations have grown in size and numbers all over the world because of their ability to mobilize productive resources and create new wealth. The evolution of the corporation has given rise to new opportunities and challenges that require a redefinition of the corporation and its objectives.

The legitimacy of the corporation as an institution, its “license to operate” within society, depends not only on its success in wealth creation but also on its ability to meet the expectations of diverse constituents who contribute to its existence and success. These constituencies and interests are the corporation’s stakeholders—resource providers, customers, suppliers, alliance partners, and social and political actors. Consequently, the corporation must be seen as an institution engaged in mobilizing resources to create wealth and benefits for all its stakeholders.

This book presents a stakeholder view of the corporation in both theoretical and practical terms. Its central proposition is that organizational wealth is created (or destroyed) through a corporation’s interactions with its stakeholders. Effective stakeholder management develops and utilizes relationships between a corporation and its stakeholders for mutual benefit, thereby accomplishing the fundamental purpose of wealth creation.

Following the empirical maxim that “Corporations are what they do,” the authors examine the stakeholder management practices of three major corporations: Cummins Engine Company, Motorola, and the Royal Dutch/Shell Group. These companies are very different, and their current stakeholder management policies and practices have evolved in very different ways. However, they share a common commitment to humanistic values and to continuous learning. Their varied experiences illustrate some of the opportunities and challenges of stakeholder management, and confirm the appropriateness of the stakeholder view of the corporation as a basis for strategy and policy.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит графическое изображение (иллюстрацию)

Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Albino Prada, Jose Manuel Gonzalez, Maria Xose Vazquez, Mario Solino
This article presents results from an experiment into attribute perception and relevant levels for management of woodland and mountain areas typical of the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. The aim, which the authors argue has been robustly reached, was to identify those aspects of forestry policy clearly perceived by citizens. This is useful for defining enlargement of areas protected under Natura 2000 Network. Results show clear preference for an increase in woodland to over half the current surface area, with replanting of traditional trees, in woodlands of low density and trees of different age and, preferably in irregular shaped plots.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-12-2003
Nataliya Pustovit, P. Michael Schmitz
Durban, 2003
Agricultural protection in industrialized countries and price distortions in developing countries are accused to hamper economic and agricultural development and are partly responsible for poverty and hunger in the Third World. A multi-commodity multi-country comparative static trade model is used to simulate the impact of different policy scenarios in this typical second best world for the case of South Africa.

Special emphasis is given to the disincentive effect of production and to endogenous policy responses in South Africa. In conclusion South Africa could benefit a lot by liberalizing trade and agricultural policies world wide, although it is an importer for most of the considered commodities.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Emmanuelle Raynaud, Loic Sauvee, Egizio Valceschini
For many agricultural products, the quality of the final products strongly depends on different stages of the productive chain. This stresses the importance of relationships between quality signal owners and suppliers in the vertical chain. Based on a New Institutional Economics analysis, the goal of this paper is twofold:
(i) to design a framework to study the links between quality signaling, coordination in the supply chains and the institutional environment,
(ii) to conduct a comparative analysis to identify, compare and explain the modes of organization implemented for the governance of different quality signs.
The general hypothesis is that, in order to assure the credibility of a quality signal, there must be an efficient alignment between quality characteristics and governance of the supply chain. To test this general hypothesis, we have conducted a comparative analysis of 42 case studies in 3 sectors (processed meat, cheese, fruit and vegetable sectors) from 7 European countries. This diversity allows us to compare the organizations designed to govern different quality signals in different institutional environments and to test the matching between quality signals and governance structures.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2003
Assaf Razin, Efraim Sadka, Elhanan Helpman
Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1988, 355 с.
The effects of a government's budget on society and the political economy are of considerable concern to economists as well as to consumers and taxpayers. The original contributions in this book analyze all of the budget's components expenditures, revenues, the deficit - with a special emphasis on issues that have assumed increasing importance over the last decade or so, such as intergenerational transfers of debt and declines in corporate tax revenues.

Chapters deal with both microeconomic and macroeconomic aspects of the effects of budgets, and demonstrate how budgetary policies affect inflation, efficiency, the balance of payments, exchange rates, and the decision-making process.

The contributions are grouped into five sections. The first covers the revenue side of the budget - taxation policy and its interaction with emigration, corporate tax revenues, personal income taxes, and fiscal policies. The second takes up intergenerational transfers, consumption decisions, and Ricardian equivalence and neutrality. Budget deficits and optimal policies, inflation and its relationship to budget deficits are examined in parts three and four.

The book concludes by looking at stabilization in open economies, and includes treatments of the consequences of balance-of-payments crises, exchange rate management under uncertainty, and foreign exchange operations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 09-06-2004
Massimilliano Gallina, Hans-Siegfried Grunwaldt, Bruno Massoli, Gualtiero Schirinzi, Hans-Theo Speth, Heinrich Strodtmann, Domenico Ciaccia
Ред.: Utz-Peter Reih, Rudolph Janke
Stuttgart: Mettzler-Poeschel, 1996
Статистика сельского хозяйства известна тем, что она - одна из самых первых и самых точных областей статистики. Предлагаемая книга - третий сборник серии "Статистические очерки" - подтверждает это, несмотря на достаточно жёсткие рамки каждой статьи. Кроме того, рецензируемая книга показывает, что благодаря сближению европейских государств и благодаря возможностям новой электронно-вычислительной техники, созданы благоприятные условия для дальнейшего совершенствования этой отрасли статистики, в том числе и в странах с переходной экономикой.
В целом, следует отметить, что ценность и актуальность рецензируемого сборника повышается в связи с отсутствием в России учебника по статистике сельского хозяйства и соответствующего курса в подавляющем большинстве российских вузов. В то же время, адекватное решение на государственном уровне аграрного вопроса невозможно без подготовки специалистов, владеющих методами анализа в указанной области, а также навыками использования имеющейся здесь информации.
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