Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 15703
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Gerasimos T. Soldatos Labour. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 2. P. 433-443(11) .
An argument connecting human capital theory with the weak version of the signaling hypothesis, is advanced initially. It is an argument that helps methodologically the derivation of a work-incentives view of the complementarity between human capital theory and the strong version of the signaling theory. This view implies in turn that work incentives have only an income effect, which emerges as the solution to a moral hazard problem concerning the disclosure of productivity-augmenting capabilities to the employer. Thus, it is concluded that policy-induced disincentives, working against this effect and involving perhaps a substitution effect, too, would have serious repercussions on the productivity of labor unless employees and employers take measures to counteract the disincentives.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003James F. Tracy Journal of Communication Inquiry. 1999. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 374-389(16) .
This article analyzes the Walt Disney Company's adaptation of outsourcing and the relationship between the economics of outsourcing, the goods thus produced bearing Disney Company--licensed trademarks, and transnational corporations' use of a global division of labor. Taking Marxist and institutional approaches to capitalist labor practices and globalization, the author details Disney's outsourcing by examining the presence of Disney products in the Tucson market. Unlike most analyses of outsourcing, the author looks first at a local market and the array of Disney goods within that market and contextualizes the local array in terms of global business practices of contracting, subcontracting, and setting the conditions of labor. Results indicate that almost half of the products were produced by countries outside the United States and other industrialized countries, with an annual wage per worker of $3,955. This demonstrates one specific way in which a transnational media conglomerate uses the global division of labor to increase its profits.
The Effects of Financial Incentives in Experiments: A Review and Capital-Labor-Production Framework [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Colin F. Camerer, Robin M. Hogarth Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. 1999. Vol. 19. No. 1/3. P. 7-42(36) .
We review 74 experiments with no, low, or high performance-based financial incentives. The modal result has no effect on mean performance (though variance is usually reduced by higher payment). Higher incentive does improve performance often, typically judgment tasks that are responsive to better effort. Incentives also reduce presentation effects (e.g., generosity and risk-seeking). Incentive effects are comparable to effects of other variables, particularly cognitive capital and task production demands, and interact with those variables, so a narrow-minded focus on incentives alone is misguided. We also note that no replicated study has made rationality violations disappear purely by raising incentives.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Andres Velasco, Eric Parrado
Using an optimizing model we derive the optimal monetary and exchange rate policy for a small stochastic open economy with imperfect competition and short run price rigidity. The optimal monetary policy has an exact closed-form solution and is obtained using the utility function of the representative home agent as welfare criterion. The optimal policy depends on the source of stochastic disturbances affecting the economy, much as in the literature pioneered by Poole (1970). Optimal monetary policy reacts to domestic and foreign disturbances. If the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in consumption is less than one, as is likely to be the case empirically, the optimal exchange rate policy implies a dirty float: interest rate shocks from abroad are met partially by adjusting home interest rates, and partially by allowing the exchange rate to move. This optimal pattern may help rationalize the observed fear of floating.
Equilibrium Labor Market Flows [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Dale T. Mortensen
International Work, Wages and Mobility [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Robert S. Chase
This seminar will develop tools from labor economics to analyze international policy challenges pertaining to peoples work patterns, incomes, and job changes. It will seek to build awareness of how economics addresses these issues in industrialized, emerging and less developed economies. Specifically, in the seminar we will build understanding of the tools that economics uses to address these issues, examine particular elements of the economics research that use these tools, and then discuss appropriate possible responses. Given the seminar format, in the second part of the course there will be substantial opportunity to focus on issues of particular interest to class participants.
Economics 450: Wages and the Labor Market [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003James Montgomery
This course provides an introduction to labor economics. Students will learn the microeconomic models used by economists to understand the behavior of workers and firms. The course will cover the basics labor demand, labor supply, human capital, wage determination, unions as well as some additional topics including household production, matching, altruism, and bargaining.
Economics 5411: Special Topics in Labor Economics [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Mike Shannon
Labor Economics and Its Applications in Transition Economies [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Klara S. Sabirianova
This course introduces workshop participants to the theory and methods of Labor Economics with applications to transition economies.
Advanced Labor Economics [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003John S. Earle, Yoram Weiss
This course has two main purposes: to expose PhD students to some of the professional research in the field of labour economics, and to provide a foundation for future dissertation research on these and related topics, including with application to the economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Prerequisites for the course include graduate level microeconomics and econometrics; although the course is intended predominantly for PhD students, it is also open to MA students with the permission of the instructors. Relevant theory will be discussed, but the course material also includes applied work that tests or calibrates theories, that evaluates the impact of government policies, or that simply attempts to provide careful description of important labour market phenomena.
Labor Economics [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003John S. Earle
This course has two principal objectives. The first is to introduce students to the field of labor economics, applying microeconomic analysis in order to increase understanding of important social issues and public policies such as poverty, minimum wages, overtime rules, layoff restrictions, education, job safety, discrimination, migration, labor relations, unions and other institutions, unemployment, and income inequality. The second is to apply labor economics to the particular problems of labor markets in transition economies, with the aim of encouraging research in this field.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Andres Erosa, Luisa Fuster, Diego Restuccia Review of Economic Dynamics. 2002. Vol. 5. No. 4. P. 856-891.
A striking observation of the U.S. and other labor markets is the weak position of women in terms of job attachment, employment, and earnings relative to men. We develop a model of fertility and labor market decisions to study the impact of fertility on gender differences in labor turnover, employment, and wages. In our framework, individuals search for jobs and accumulate general (experience) and specific (tenure) human capital when they work. They can also increase their wage by moving to a job of higher quality. Labor market decisions (e.g., job acceptance and job mobility) may differ across genders: females that give birth may decide to interrupt their labor market attachment in order to enjoy the value of staying at home with their children. The model economy is successfully calibrated to match aggregate statistics in terms of fertility, employment, and wages. We find that fertility decisions generate important gender differences in turnover rates, with long lasting effects in employment and wages. These differences in labor turnover account for almost all the U.S. gender wage gap that is attributed to labor market experience by Blau and Kahn (2000, Journal of Labor Economics 15(1), 142). The model also implies a very small role of tenure capital in accounting for wage differences between males and females (gender gap), and between females with and without children (family gap).
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3/4. P. 333-352.
In the context of recent welfare reform efforts, researchers have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Data from the 1995 Nationwide Transportation Survey are utilized. Conforming to theoretical premises and logical expectations, I estimate that mean commute time of nonworkers is likely to be substantially lower than those currently working. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Carsten-Patrick Meier, Reiner Fehn Kyklos. 2002. Vol. 54. No. 4. P. 557-590.
This paper presents a positive model which derives the preferences of entrepreneurs, workers, and investors concerning investor and employment protection. It shows that institutional setups on capital and labor markets might be intertwined by politicoeconomic forces. Multiple politicoeconomic equilibria arise from our model. Some countries especially in continental Europe exhibit a corporatist politicoeconomic equilibrium with a substantial protection of insiders on both, capital and labor markets. The more important money is in political decision-making, the more divided the workforce is, and the more globalized capital markets are, the more likely is a capitalist politicoeconomic equilibrium with little employment and substantial investor protection. Our prediction of a negative crosscountry relationship between different measures of labor market rigidities and of competition on capital markets receives considerable empirical support, thus being potentially important for the current debate concerning structural reforms of labor markets and of corporate governance systems.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003David G. Blanchflower Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 364-402.
The paper studies the labor markets of 23 transition countries from eastern and central EuropeAlbania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. It uses new micro-data from a large number of surveys on over 200,000 randomly sampled individuals from these countries for the years 19901997. The microeconometric structure of unemployment regression equations in the nations of eastern Europe appears to be similar to the industrialised west. Estimation of east European wage curves produces a local unemployment elasticity of between 0.1 and 0.3. This is somewhat larger in absolute terms than has been found elsewhere. On a variety of attitudinal measures, eastern Europeans said they were less contented than their western European counterparts. The strongest support for the changes that have occurred in eastern Europe is to be found among men, the young, the most educated, students, and the employed and particularly the self-employed. Support for market reforms is particularly low amongst the unemployed who were found to be particularly unhappy on two well-being measures
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Информационно-образовательный портал AUDITORIUM.RU [интернет ресурс]
Портал Auditorium.ru создан Институтом "Открытое общество" фонда Дж. Сороса. В режиме онлайн на нем представлено множество образовательных и научных ресурсов по общественным и гуманитарным наукам - социологии, политологии, педагогике, психологии, филологии, философии, экономике и т.д. Наполнение портала осуществляется дифференцировано.
Monte Carlo Methods [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Art Owen
Monte Carlo methods are used in many application areas, including: finance, bioinformatics, computer graphics, discrete event simulation, physics, and statistical inference.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003James G. Scoville The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 3. P. 713-723.
Recent events have focused attention on international labor standards, with some special attention being paid to child labor. The diverse forms of child labor are often merged into one: a stereotype of children sewing Nikes, although the situation varies widely from that model. Certain forms of child labor are not substitutable by adult labor; others are more appropriately modeled as a form of apprenticeship. A simple family utility function helps elucidate the reasons. The ultimate purpose of the paper is to challenge the policy ambiguitywe cannot tell whether restrictions on child labor are good or badthat was a result in Basu and Vans earlier (1998) modeling of child labor.