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Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 15617

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
David A. Mott Pharmaceutical Research. 2001.  Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 224-233. 
The objectives of this study were to develop a theoretically derived model of hours worked by pharmacists and estimate the model separately for male and female pharmacists. Methods. A systematic random sample of 1,600 pharmacists from four states was mailed a survey asking about current and past employment information. Two dependent variables were studied: weekly hours worked and annual hours worked. Independent variables were categorized as economic variables (hourly wage rate, other income, total debt) and demographic variables (employment position, age, degree earned, marital status, number of children at home). A two equation multiple regression model was estimated with two-stage least squares regression. Results. A total of 541 pharmacists responded to the survey and data from 442 of the respondents were used in the analysis. Hourly wage rates were negatively associated with weekly hours worked for males. Other income and total debt were significantly negatively and positively associated, respectively, with annual hours worked by female pharmacists. The number of young children at home significantly reduced weekly and annual hours worked by female pharmacists. Female pharmacists earning a Pharm.D. degree worked significantly more hours weekly and annually. Age was significantly negatively associated with male pharmacists weekly and annual hours worked. Conclusions. Economic variables had a relatively small effect on hours worked by male and female pharmacists suggesting that increased wage rates may not increase hours worked. Strategies to increase hours worked by females likely should focus on benefits to help females handle childcare issues.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Maria Victoria Murillo
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001
Why do labor unions resist economic restructuring and adjustment policies in some countries and in some economic sectors while they submit in other cases? And why do some labor leaders fashion more creative and effective roles for labor unions? This work addresses these critical questions in an in-depth elegant comparative study of Argentina, Mexico, and Venezuela in the 1990s. In each case, this book studies both the role of national confederations as well as individual unions in specific economic sectors in each country. It demonstrates the importance of the presence and nature of alliances between political parties and labor unions as well as the significance of competition between labor unions for the representation of the same set of workers. This book opens new horizons for appreciating the intellectual and practical importance of the variation in the interactions between workers, unions, political parties, and economic policies.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Bruce A. Rayton
The rent-sharing literature and the agency literature both predict a link between pay and performance. The rent-sharing literature relies on short-term market power to explain this link, and the agency literature bases its prediction on the importance of incentives in principal-agent relationships. Annual data from an unbalanced panel of U.S. manufacturing firms indicate that the performance-elasticity of average employee pay is approximately 0.127271 in small firms while it not significantly different from zero in large firms. The relative lack of incentive pay in the group of large firms demonstrates that the link between pay and performance evident in U.S. manufacturing firms is inconsistent with the exclusive truth of the rent-sharing hypothesis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Pierre Cahuc
In this paper, we investigate whether unemployment benefits should decrease with the unemployment spell in a model where both job search intensity and wages are endogenous. Wages are set by collective agreements bargained by insiders. It is shown that a more declining time sequence of unemployment benefits leads to wage increases when the tax rate is given. Such an effect may imply an increase in unemployment and counteracts the response of job search intensity that can be found in standard job search models with a given wage distribution. Calibration exercises suggest that it costs twice more in terms of welfare loss for the long-term unemployed workers to reduce the unemployment rate of one percent when wages are endogenous than in the standard job search model.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Marthe Nyssens, Bruno Van der Linden
This paper is motivated by empirical observations on popular-economy firms (PEFs) in the informal sector of Santiago de Chile. These are labor-managed firms embedded in popular milieu where cooperation between their members plays a central role. This paper develops a (partial equilibrium) microeconomic theory of PEFs. First, it endogeneizes the level of cooperation between the workers. Second, it develops a static and a dynamic model to analyze whether embeddedness influences the behavior of the PEF. Embeddedness is assumed to be captured by three different characteristics suggested by the empirical observations. Most of them influence the employment and income levels in the PEF.
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Labor Economics 236B [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2002
Julian Betts
Spring 1997
The course will provide a blend of theoretical labor economics and applied research.We will cover four broad themes:
1) Empirical Estimates of the Returns to Education
2) Labor Supply
3) Contract Theory, Turnover and Wage Profiles
4) Theories of Unemployment
Topics 1 and 2 will be mostly empirical/applied econometrics, while topics 3 and 4 will be a blend of theoretical and empirical work emphasizing recent work on imperfect information in labor markets.
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Обновлено: 09-12-2010

Американская федерация труда - Конгресс промышленных организаций (The American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) объединяет более 65 отраслевых профсоюзов, членами которых являются более 13 млн. чел. Федерация призвана оказывать информационную и юридическую поддержку своим членам в ходе их трудовой и социально-экономической деятельности.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Helyette Geman, Marc Yor, Dilip B. Madan Finance and Stochastics. 2002.  Vol. 6. No. 1. P. 63-90. 
Stochastic volatility and jumps are viewed as arising from Brownian subordination given here by an independent purely discontinuous process and we inquire into the relation between the realized variance or quadratic variation of the process and the time change. The class of models considered encompasses a wide range of models employed in practical financial modeling. It is shown that in general the time change cannot be recovered from the composite process and we obtain its conditional distribution in a variety of cases. The implications of our results for working with stochastic volatility models in general is also described. We solve the recovery problem, i.e. the identification the conditional law for a variety of cases, the simplest solution being for the gamma time change when this conditional law is that of the first hitting time process of Brownian motion with drift attaining the level of the variation of the time changed process. We also introduce and solve in certain cases the problem of stochastic scaling. A stochastic scalar is a subordinator that recovers the law of a given subordinator when evaluated at an independent and time scaled copy of the given subordinator. These results are of importance in comparing price quality delivered by alternate exchanges.
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Seminar in Corporate Finance [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
John S. Howe
Fall 1999
FIN 403:  Seminar in Corporate Finance   + denotes a primary reading * denotes a reading that appears in The Modern Theory of Corporate Finance   1. Theory of investment and financing under certainty (Week of Aug. 30) +Fama, E.F. and M.H.
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Corporate Governance in Russia [интернет ресурс]
Обновлено: 09-12-2010

This web site is the joint project of the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE) and the Investor Protection Association (IPA), implemented within the framework of the OECD/World Bank - Russian Corporate Governance Roundtable. Here

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Paul Schreyer Review of Income and Wealth. 2002.  Vol. 48. No. 1. P. 15-32. 
Methodologies to derive price indices for information and communication technology (ICT) products vary between national statistical offices. This may lead to significant differences in measured price changes for these products and there has been concern about the international comparability of volume growth rates of GDP between several OECD countries. This article discusses the possible consequences for measures of economic growth of replacing one set of price indices by another one in the framework of national accounts. It is argued that the issue of ICT deflators cannot be dealt with in isolation and several other factors have to be taken into account, in particular whether ICT products are final or intermediate products, whether they are imported or domestically produced and whether national accounts are set up with fixed or chain weighted index numbers. Overall, results point to modest effects at the aggregate GDP level but may be more significant when it comes to component measures such as volume growth of investment, or of output in particular industry.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Esben Dalgaard, Christopher Eff, Annette Thomsen Review of Income and Wealth. 2001.  Vol. 47. No. 2.
The paper raises three questions. Firstly, it is warranted that a significant part of primary (property) income is not shown in the national accounts as being distributed to the owners of the assets to which it accrues but ends up as capital gains in the revaluation account? Secondly, why has the SNA chosen not to record reinvested earnings of corporations as flows of property income with the exception of foreign direct investment, and thirdly why the asymmetrical recording of stock investments constituting more than 10 percent of equity capital depending on whether domestic or foreign transactions are concerned? Reinvested earnings on domestic equity investment above 10 percent of a corporation are not recorded as property income in the system. The paper looks at these three questions from the perspective of the analytical uses of national accounts. The consequences for the analysis of income distribution both between nations and within nations are examined.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Jean Olson Lanjouw, Peter Lanjouw Review of Income and Wealth. 2001.  Vol. 47. No. 2.
Poverty rates calculated on the basis of household consumption expenditures are routinely compared across countries and time. The surveys which underlie these comparisons typically differ in the types of food and non-food expenditures included, often in ways which are easily overlooked by analysts. With several examples we demonstrate that these commonly occurring variations in expenditures definitions can give rise to marked differences in poverty rates where there are no real differences in well-being. We show that one approach to calculating poverty lines, used with headcount measurement of poverty, can allow comparisons based on data with different definitions of consumption. In addition to allowing comparative poverty analysis using existing survey data, the results suggest that poverty monitoring could be done effectively at lower cost by alternating detailed expenditures surveys with far more abbreviated surveys.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Branko Milanovic, Shlomo Yizhaki Review of Income and Wealth. 2002.  Vol. 48. No. 2.
Using the national income/expenditure distribution data from 111 countries, we decompose total inequality between the individuals in the world, by continents and regions. We use Yitzhakis Gini decomposition which allows for an exact breakdown of the Gini. We find t hat Asia is the most heterogeneous continents; between-country inequality is much more important than inequality in incomes within countries. At the other extreme is Latin America where differences between the countries are small, but inequalities within the countries are large. Western Europe/North America is fairly homogeneous both in terms of countries mean incomes and income differences between individuals. If we divided the world population into three groups: The rich (those with incomes greater than Italys mean income), the poor (those with income less than Western countries poverty lie), and the middle class, we find that there are only 11 percent of people who are world middle class; 78 percent are poor, and 11 percent are rich.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Eric Schulte Nordholt Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 2001.  Vol. Volume 18. Number 4. P. 321 - 328 . 
The paper describes how two related software packages can be applied for producing safe data. The package - ARGUS is used for tabular data and its twin w-ARGUS for microdata. The main techniques used to protect sensitive information are global recoding and local suppression. Bona fide researchers who need more information have the possibility to visit Statistics Netherlands and work on-site in a secure area within Statistics Netherlands. Some examples are given of official statistics that have benefited from statistical disclosure control techniques.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Harry X. Wu Review of Income and Wealth. 2001.  Vol. 47. No. 2.
This study critically evaluates alternative estimates of China's GDP level and growth, as well as its PPP GDP conversions, and, based on this evaluation, it draws important implications for the understanding of China's economic performance in both historical and international perspectives. It finds that although almost all empirical results have supported the downward-bias hypothesis for China's GDP level and the upward-bias hypothesis for China's GDP growth, they vary greatly, and that PPP estimates for China are also diversified. These estimates, if accepted, may substantially alter the existing views on the Chinese economy, particularly, its size, TFP level and catch-up performance. The discusion docuses on the theories, methodologies and data used in these studies, and particularly, the possible biases in their results thereby. It argues, however, that despite differences in estimates, they could still provide sensible boundaries for researchers to gauge the "real" values and hence assess China's "real" living standard and growth performance.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
Simo Vahvelainen Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 1970.  Vol. Volume 19. Number 1. P. 65 - 78 . 
Statistics Finland has compiled waste statistics since the mid-1980s. The data material included administrative registers, surveys and research results. Waste was initially classified according to a 'Finnish' classification based on composition of waste until the mid-1990s, and later according to the European Waste Catalogue (EWC). A Guide to Waste Classification was drafted to facilitate classification in 1999. The Standard Industrial Classification (NACE) has been employed as a background classification for waste statistics. Waste statistics have been and are being used especially for preparing the national waste strategy and the waste management guidelines, in the planning stage of waste treatment plants, for research, and as supplementary material for compilation of material flow accounting.

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2002
John Greenlees Statistical Journal of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 2000.  Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 59-74. 
This paper describes the major methods used by statistical agencies to adjust for differences in the quality of a good or service when one item replaces another in a sample used to construct a Consumer Price Index. The methods are categorized as either direct, including the production-cost and hedonic approaches, or indirect, such as linking or class-mean imputation. The paper also presents simplified example calculations showing how the methods are applied in practice.

Stata [компьютерная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-12-2002

Stata is an environment for manipulating and analyzing data using statistical and graphical methods. Stata is an integrated package not a collection of separate modules. You can intersperse data management, statistical, and graphical commands. Stata, an integrated statistical package for Windows, Macintosh, and Unix, is designed for research professionals and is distributed in 124 countries.
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International Journal of Forecasting [интернет ресурс]
Обновлено: 09-12-2010

The International Journal of Forecasting is the leading journal in its field. It is the official publication of the International Institute of Forecasters (IIF) and shares its aims and scope. More information about