Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 308
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Maristella Botticini, Zvi Eckstein IZA Discussion Papers. 2004. No. 1224.
This paper documents the major features of Jewish economic history in the first millennium to explain the distinctive occupational selection of the Jewish people into urban, skilled occupations. We show that many Jews entered urban occupations in the eighth-ninth centuries in the Muslim Empire when there were no restrictions on their economic activities, most of them were farmers, and they were a minority in all locations. Therefore, arguments based on restrictions or minority status cannot explain the occupational transition of the Jews at that time. Our thesis is that the occupational selection of the Jews was the outcome of the widespread literacy prompted by a religious and educational reform in the first century ce, which was implemented in the third to the eighth century. We present detailed information on the implementation of this religious and educational reform in Judaism based on the Talmud, archeological evidence on synagogues, the Cairo Geniza documents, and the Responsa literature. We also provide evidence of the economic returns to Jewish religious literacy.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Maristella Botticini, Zvi Eckstein IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 670.
Since the Middle Ages the Jews have been engaged primarily in urban, skilled occupations, such as crafts, trade, finance, and medicine. This distinctive occupational selection occurred between the seventh and the ninth centuries in the Muslim Empire and then it spread to other locations. We argue that this transition was the outcome of the widespread literacy among Jews prompted by an educational reform in the first century CE. Based on the growing nexus between education and Judaism in the first half of the millennium, we build a model in which Jewish men choose education, occupation, religion, and location. The model predicts that when urbanization expands (as it did in the Muslim Empire), Jews move to new cities due to their comparative advantage in urban, skilled occupations. Furthermore, before urbanization a proportion of Jewish farmers are predicted to convert to other religions. The predictions of the model regarding conversions, migrations, and reduction in the size of the Jewish population are consistent with the historical evidence about the first millennium provided by the historians. Hence, our study presents evidence for the long-term economic implications of changes in social norms.
Improving Credibility by Delegating Judicial Competence : the Case of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Stefan Voigt, Michael Ebeling, Lorenz Blume Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge. 2004. No. 67/04.
It is argued that government credibility is an important resource and that it can be improved by delegating decision-making competence beyond the nation-state. It is hypothesized that such delegation should result in higher income and growth. Some former British colonies retained the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as their final court of appeals even after independence. This court is thus taken as a natural experiment to test our hypothesis. It turns out that retaining the jurisdiction is indeed significant for explaining economic growth.
In-Group Cooperation in a Hostile Environment: An Economic Perspective on Some Aspects of Jewish Life in (Pre-Modern) Diaspora [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Hillel Rapoport, Avi Weiss IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 483.
The demographic history of the Jews in the Middle Ages may be characterized by two main phenomena: i) a sharp drop in the number of Jews until the beginning of the modern period, due mainly to conversions; and, ii) early urbanization. Until now, these features have been analyzed as primarily resulting from persecution and restrictions initiated by the political and religious authorities in the host countries. Economic historians have recently proposed an explanation based on mandatory education in the Jewish tradition (Botticini and Eckstein, 2001). We propose a supplementary explanation based on the incentives to switch affiliation and/or location in a dual environment, where potential gains from in-group cooperation for the Jewish minority may well be offset by losses due to intergroup hostility. Our model generates the two results described above (i.e., a decrease in the total number of Jews, and their concentration in urban areas), without having to rely either on discrimination policies or on investment in human capital, as in previous research.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007R. Daniel Wadhwani, Geoffrey Jones Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
This paper builds on the recent efforts of a number of scholars to reintroduce entrepreneurship into the research agenda of business historians. We consider the role of entrepreneurship in the history of multinational business and globalization. The paper examines the value and limitations of adapting recent social scientific theories and methods on entrepreneurship to research on international business history. Specifically, we focus on three recent areas of social scientific work on entrepreneurship and weigh their value to business history research. First, we consider research on entrepreneurial cognition and the extent to which it can be employed to understand the historical ownership advantages of multinational firms. Second, we draw on concepts from entrepreneurial strategy and finance and examine the extent to which they can be used to understand the history of how firms allocated resources to uncertain international ventures. Finally, we focus on the question of the diffusion of the benefits of globalization and their impact on entrepreneurship within host economies. We conclude that the cautious adoption of some of these recent conceptual developments offers fertile opportunities for further research in international business history.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Dimitry Anastakis Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
This paper attempts to situate Lee Iacocca's role in the Chrysler bailout within a broader automotive entrepreneurial community, and to understand how his actions in helping Chrysler stave off bankruptcy in the 1979-1981 period helped to reshape not only the automotive industry, but business-government relations, and the very nature of "brink management" in a post-industrial America. In short, the paper attempts to answer the question of whether Iacocca fundamentally changed how automotive management operated in Detroit, or whether his actions in saving Chrysler remain an isolated, unique case within auto business history. It argues that one cannot understand Iacocca without understanding the changing pre-1980 milieu and its impact on the wider automotive industry and economy of the post-1980, post-Chrysler bailout period. Iacocca and the Chrysler situation were unique, yet they remain essential to understanding the direction of the US auto industry, and the end of American industrial hegemony more broadly.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Mark Billings Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
In this paper, I explore a hitherto largely neglected area of business history: the corporate treasury. Most business or corporate historians consider the corporate treasury function a specialized aspect of the finance function and give it little explicit attention. I argue that this neglect is undeserved, and consider how and why treasury has evolved as a discipline distinct from other aspects of the finance function. We can attribute the rise of the professional corporate treasurer to a number of factors: changes in the organization and financing of companies, including change and innovation in financial markets; the wider professionalization of management; and the internationalization of business. These factors affected different countries at different times. In Europe, economic and financial uncertainties in the 1970s acted as a major stimulus, whereas treasury, in common with other aspects of the "managerial revolution," developed earlier in the United States.
The Individual in the Community: American Entrepreneurs in the Australian Colonies, 1850–1890 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Deborah Breen Business and Economic History. 2007.
Following the discovery of gold in the Australian colonies in the 1850s, commercial adventurers from around the world made their way to the antipodes. Among these were a number of young American entrepreneurs. This paper examines the American entrepreneurs who made their mark in the Australian colonies in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and considers how individuals achieved success within intersecting communities. Individual entrepreneurs found support in communities based on family connections, associations through friendship and experience, and shared nationality. They also found support through informational networks created in the commercial world, including consular reports, trade magazines, and International Exhibitions. Primary sources of the era, including family letters, newspaper and magazine accounts, and consular records, reveal the complex communities within which entrepreneurs in Australia operated to achieve their commercial goals.
Business and Economic History [интернет ресурс]
This archives contains the published proceedings of the Business History Conference from 1975 through 1999. Prior to 1975 the proceedings were published irregularly with varying titles and formats; the first volume appeared in 1962.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Борис М. Штопов Проблемы теории и практики управления. 2002. № 6. С. 109-113.
Генри Форд (1863 — 1947 гг.) вошел в историю не только как один из пионеров автомобилестроения и основатель Ford Motor Company, но и как инициатор многих проектов в различных областях. К числу наиболее крупных можно отнести социальную программу 1914 — 1920 гг., центральным пунктом которой было установление самой высокой в то время оплаты труда промышленных рабочих при соблюдении ими определенных условий, и строительство малых предприятий в сельской местности (1919 - 1945 гг.).
Генри Форд: жизнь и бизнес [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Борис М. Штопов
Москва: Книжный дом "Университет", 2007
Книга доктора исторических наук Б. М. Шпотова посвящена уникальному сюжету - жизни и деятельности основателя и владельца Ford Motor Company, "автомобильного короля" Америки Генри Форда. На ее страницах представлено все, что способствовало мировой популярности имени и марки "Ford": новаторские идеи и решения, талант менеджеров, передовые технологии, безупречное качество продукции, "служение бизнеса обществу" и многое др. Увлекательно описано создание массового автомобиля, организация продаж и обслуживания, управление компанией и взаимоотношения в ней, знаменитая программа "пять долларов за рабочий день", "американизация" иммигрантов, круг интересов Форда и интригующие подробности его личной жизни. Освещены положение компании в годы Великой депрессии и двух мировых воин, ее бизнес в Европе, в царской и Советской России. Раскрыты причины утраты компанией в 1930-е годы лидирующего положения в отрасли. Российский читатель впервые ознакомится с архивными материалами и фотографиями из коллекций Всемирной штаб-квартиры Ford Motor Company и музея Генри Форда в штате Мичиган. Книга предназначена для историков, экономистов, менеджеров и для всех, кого интересуют дела и судьбы творцов цивилизации XX века.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: Прогресс, 1976
Новое индустриальное общество [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007John Kenneth Galbraith
Москва: АСТ, 2004, cерия "Philosophy", 602 с.
Джон Гэлбрейт, один из наиболее крупных и влиятельных современных американских экономистов, в своей работе "Новое индустриальное общество" исследует основные тенденции развития экономики второй половины XX века. Выдвигает концепцию "индустриального общества", где активная роль принадлежит государству, вводит понятия "техноструктура" и "зрелая корпорация". Книга Дж.Гэлбрейта, вышедшая в середине XX века, актуальна и сегодня, в современных экономических условиях, которые переживает Россия. Написанная живым, доступным языком, содержащая много ярких примеров и сравнений, она будет интересна как специалистам, так и широкому кругу читателей.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Karl Polanyi
Москва: Алетейя, 2002, cерия "Pax Britannica", 320 с.
Впервые публикуется русский перевод фундаментального исследования известного англо-венгерского социолога, экономиста и обществоведа Карла Поланьи, посвященного узловым проблемам формирования индустриального общества. Для социологов, экономистов и историков, а также всех тех, кто интересуется историей европейского общества нового времени.
Lectures on Economic Growth [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Robert E. Lucas
Chicago: Harvard University Press, 2002
In this book the Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert Lucas collects his writings on economic growth, from his seminal "On the Mechanics of Economic Development" to his previously unpublished 1997 Kuznets Lectures. The chapters progress from a general theory of how growth could be sustained and why growth rates might differ in different countries, to a model of exceptional growth in certain countries in the twentieth century, to an account of the take-off of growth in the Industrial Revolution, and finally to a prediction about patterns of growth in this new century. The framework in all the chapters is a model with accumulation of both physical and human capital, with emphasis on the external benefits of human capital through diffusion of new knowledge or on-the-job learning, often stimulated by trade. The Kuznets Lectures consider the interaction of human capital growth and the demographic transition in the early stages of industrialization. In the final chapter, Lucas uses a diffusion model to illustrate the possibility that the vast intersociety income inequality created in the course of the Industrial Revolution may have already reached its peak, and that income differences will decline in this century.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Ред.: James Mahoney, Dietrich Rueschemeyer
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, cерия "Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics", 468 с.
This book systematically investigates the past accomplishments and future agendas of contemporary comparative-historical analysis. Its core essays explore three major issues: the accumulation of knowledge in the field over the past three decades, the analytic tools used to study temporal process and historical patterns, and the methodologies available for making inferences and for building theories. The introductory and concluding essays situate the field as a whole by comparing it to alternative approaches within the social sciences. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences will serve as an invaluable resource for scholars in the field, and it will represent a challenge to many other social scientists - especially those who have raised skeptical concerns about comparative-historical analysis in the past.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Giovanni Arrighi
London: Verso, 1994, 400 с.
The Long Twentieth Century traces the epochal shifts in the relationship between capital accumulation and state formation over a 700-year period. Giovanni Arrighi masterfully synthesizes social theory, comparative history and historical narrative in this account of the structures and agencies which have shaped the course of world history over the millennium. Borrowing from Braudel, Arrighi argues that the history of capitalism has unfolded as a succession of “long centuries” — ages during which a hegemonic power deploying a novel combination of economic and political networks secured control over an expanding world-economic space. The modest beginnings, rise and violent unravel-ing of the links forged between capital, state power, and geopolitics by hegemonic classes and states are explored with dramatic intensity. From this perspective, Arrighi explains the changing fortunes of Florentine, Venetian, Genoese, Dutch, English, and finally American capitalism. The book concludes with an examination of the forces which have shaped and are now poised to undermine America's world power.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Jane Whittle
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000, cерия "Oxford Historical Monographs", 376 с.
This is an important new scholarly study of the roots of capitalism. Jane Whittle's penetrating examination of rural England in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries asks how capitalist it was, and how and why it changed over the century and a half under scrutiny. Her book intelligently relates ideas of peasant society and capitalism to a local study of north-east Norfolk, a county that was to become one of the crucibles of the so-called agrarian revolution. Dr Whittle uses the rich variety of historical sources produced by this precocious commercialized locality to examine a wide range of topics from the manorial system and serfdom, rights to land and the level of rent, the land market and inheritance, to the distribution of land and wealth, the numbers of landless, wage-earners, and rural craftsmen, servants, and the labour laws.
Chinese Capitalism, 1522-1840 [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Ред.: Xu Dixin, Wu Chengming
Изд-во: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999, cерия "Studies on the Chinese Economy", 560 с.
This book is a unique contribution by China's leading economic historians to the study of the country's economic history. It is an impressive summing-up of the evidence, collected over a period of more than twenty years, on the much debated question: Did capitalism emerge in China before the coming of the West? The immense historical sweep runs from the late Ming dynasty through the early and middle Qing period to the first Opium War in 1840. Evidence is presented of the existence (minimal in the case of agriculture) of embryonic capitalism in commerce and in nearly twenty branches of the handicraft industry. The production methods in each are briefly described, but the main focus is on the nature of capital, employment and the control of production. The book concludes with overviews of the reasons why the development of capitalism was weak and retarded, and discusses the role it nevertheless played in the Chinese economy in the subsequent period.
Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860. Rethinking the Origins of the Welfare State [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Larry Patriquin
Изд-во: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 280 с.
Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860 examines the evolution of public assistance for the poor in England from the late medieval era to the Industrial Revolution. Placing poor relief in the context of the unprecedented class relations of agrarian capitalism and the rise of a unique non-absolutist state, it accounts for why relief in England was distinct, with comparisons made to Scotland, Ireland, France and Germany. The author argues that poor relief was a substitute for access to land and common rights, a virtual exchange of money as compensation for the creation of absolute private property. In a work both challenging and provocative, Larry Patriquin makes a case for a class-based reinterpretation of the origins of the welfare state. Clearly written and well organized, this new explanation of the 'great transformation' will contribute to debates in British history, Marxism, social welfare, historiography, theories of the state, and the transition to capitalism