Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 309
Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860. Rethinking the Origins of the Welfare State [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-11-2007Larry Patriquin
Изд-во: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 280 с.
Agrarian Capitalism and Poor Relief in England, 1500-1860 examines the evolution of public assistance for the poor in England from the late medieval era to the Industrial Revolution. Placing poor relief in the context of the unprecedented class relations of agrarian capitalism and the rise of a unique non-absolutist state, it accounts for why relief in England was distinct, with comparisons made to Scotland, Ireland, France and Germany. The author argues that poor relief was a substitute for access to land and common rights, a virtual exchange of money as compensation for the creation of absolute private property. In a work both challenging and provocative, Larry Patriquin makes a case for a class-based reinterpretation of the origins of the welfare state. Clearly written and well organized, this new explanation of the 'great transformation' will contribute to debates in British history, Marxism, social welfare, historiography, theories of the state, and the transition to capitalism
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Charles Perrow
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2005, 272 с.
American society today is shaped not nearly as much by vast open spaces as it is by vast, bureaucratic organizations. Over half the working population toils away at enterprises with 500 or more employees--up from zero percent in 1800. Is this institutional immensity the logical outcome of technological forces in an all-efficient market, as some have argued? In this book, the first organizational history of nineteenth-century America, Yale sociologist Charles Perrow says no. He shows that there was nothing inevitable about the surge in corporate size and power by century's end. Critics railed against the nationalizing of the economy, against corporations' monopoly powers, political subversion, environmental destruction, and "wage slavery." How did a nation committed to individual freedom, family firms, public goods, and decentralized power become transformed in one century? Bountiful resources, a mass market, and the industrial revolution gave entrepreneurs broad scope. In Europe, the state and the church kept private organizations small and required consideration of the public good. In America, the courts and business-steeped legislators removed regulatory constraints over the century, centralizing industry and privatizing the railroads. Despite resistance, the corporate form became the model for the next century. Bureaucratic structure spread to government and the nonprofits. Writing in the tradition of Max Weber, Perrow concludes that the driving force of our history is not technology, politics, or culture, but large, bureaucratic organizations. Perrow, the author of award-winning books on organizations, employs his witty, trenchant, and graceful style here to maximum effect. Colorful vignettes abound: today's headlines echo past battles for unchecked organizational freedom; socially responsible alternatives that were tried are explored along with the historical contingencies that sent us down one road rather than another. No other book takes the role of organizations in America's development as seriously. The resultant insights presage a new historical genre. Charles Perrow is Research Scholar and Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Yale University. Two of his six books are prizewinners: Normal Accidents (Princeton) and The AIDS Disaster. Complex Organizations (McGraw Hill) is in its third edition. He has written seventy articles and book chapters. Perrow has been a visiting professor at the London Graduate School of Business Studies, a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation and the Institute for Advanced Study.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Ronald Findlay, Kevin O'Rourke
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 624 с.
International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends. They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago. Drawing extensively upon empirical evidence and informing their systematic analysis with insights from contemporary economic theory, Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth. Power and Plenty is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century. Ronald Findlay is the Ragnar Nurkse Professor of Economics at Columbia University. He is the author of Factor Proportions, Trade, and Growthand Trade, Development, and Political Economy. Kevin H. O'Rourke is professor of economics at Trinity College, Dublin. He is the coauthor of Globalization and History.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Douglass C. North
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2005, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 2208 с.
In this landmark work, a Nobel Prize-winning economist develops a new way of understanding the process by which economies change. Douglass North inspired a revolution in economic history a generation ago by demonstrating that economic performance is determined largely by the kind and quality of institutions that support markets. As he showed in two now classic books that inspired the New Institutional Economics (today a subfield of economics), property rights and transaction costs are fundamental determinants. Here, North explains how different societies arrive at the institutional infrastructure that greatly determines their economic trajectories. North argues that economic change depends largely on "adaptive efficiency," a society's effectiveness in creating institutions that are productive, stable, fair, and broadly accepted--and, importantly, flexible enough to be changed or replaced in response to political and economic feedback. While adhering to his earlier definition of institutions as the formal and informal rules that constrain human economic behavior, he extends his analysis to explore the deeper determinants of how these rules evolve and how economies change. Drawing on recent work by psychologists, he identifies intentionality as the crucial variable and proceeds to demonstrate how intentionality emerges as the product of social learning and how it then shapes the economy's institutional foundations and thus its capacity to adapt to changing circumstances. Understanding the Process of Economic Change accounts not only for past institutional change but also for the diverse performance of present-day economies. This major work is therefore also an essential guide to improving the performance of developing countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2007Philip Hoffman
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2000, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 362 с.
Philip Hoffman shatters the widespread myth that traditional agricultural societies in early modern Europe were socially and economically stagnant and ultimately dependent on wide-scale political revolution for their growth. Through a richly detailed historical investigation of the peasant agriculture of ancien-régime France, the author uncovers evidence that requires a new understanding of what constituted economic growth in such societies. His arguments rest on a measurement of long-term growth that enables him to analyze the economic, institutional, and political factors that explain its forms and rhythms. In comparing France with England and Germany, Hoffman arrives at fresh answers to some classic questions: Did French agriculture lag behind farming in other countries? If so, did the obstacles in French agriculture lurk within peasant society itself, in the peasants' culture, in their communal property rights, or in the small scale of their farms? Or did the obstacles hide elsewhere, in politics, in the tax system, or in meager opportunities for trade? The author discovers that growth cannot be explained by culture, property rights, or farm size, and argues that the real causes of growth derived from politics and gains from trade. By challenging other widely held beliefs, such as the nature of the commons and the workings of the rural economy, Hoffman offers a new analysis of peasant society and culture, one based on microeconomics and game theory and intended for a wide range of social scientists.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Kenneth Pomeranz
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2000, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 392 с.
The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? As Ken Pomeranz shows, as recently as 1750, parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy, consumption, product and factor markets, and the strategies of households. Perhaps most surprisingly, Pomeranz demonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe. Core areas throughout the eighteenth-century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land-intensive products, shortages that were only partly resolved by trade. Pomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth-century divergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal, which substituted for timber. This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem, while allowing growth in energy-intensive industries. Another crucial difference that he notes has to do with trade. Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery. This allowed Northwest Europe to grow dramatically in population, specialize further in manufactures, and remove labor from the land, using increased imports rather than maximizing yields. Together, coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource-intensive, labor-saving paths. Meanwhile, Asia hit a cul-de-sac. Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750, both in population and in manufacturing, this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth-producing Yangzi Delta. As a result, growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped, and what growth did exist was forced along labor-intensive, resource-saving paths--paths Europe could have been forced down, too, had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Giovanni Federico
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2005, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 416 с.
In the last two centuries, agriculture has been an outstanding, if somewhat neglected, success story. It has fed an ever-growing population with an increasing variety of products at falling prices, even as it has released a growing number of workers to the rest of the economy. This book, a comprehensive history of world agriculture during this period, explains how these feats were accomplished. Feeding the World synthesizes two hundred years of agricultural development throughout the world, providing all essential data and extensive references to the literature. It covers, systematically, all the factors that have affected agricultural performance: environment, accumulation of inputs, technical progress, institutional change, commercialization, agricultural policies, and more. The last chapter discusses the contribution of agriculture to modern economic growth. The book is global in its reach and analysis, and represents a grand synthesis of an enormous topic.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Gregory Clark
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2007, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 440 с.
Why are some parts of the world so rich and others so poor? Why did the Industrial Revolution--and the unprecedented economic growth that came with it--occur in eighteenth-century England, and not at some other time, or in some other place? Why didn't industrialization make the whole world rich--and why did it make large parts of the world even poorer? In A Farewell to Alms, Gregory Clark tackles these profound questions and suggests a new and provocative way in which culture--not exploitation, geography, or resources--explains the wealth, and the poverty, of nations. Countering the prevailing theory that the Industrial Revolution was sparked by the sudden development of stable political, legal, and economic institutions in seventeenth-century Europe, Clark shows that such institutions existed long before industrialization. He argues instead that these institutions gradually led to deep cultural changes by encouraging people to abandon hunter-gatherer instincts-violence, impatience, and economy of effort-and adopt economic habits-hard work, rationality, and education. The problem, Clark says, is that only societies that have long histories of settlement and security seem to develop the cultural characteristics and effective workforces that enable economic growth. For the many societies that have not enjoyed long periods of stability, industrialization has not been a blessing. Clark also dissects the notion, championed by Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, that natural endowments such as geography account for differences in the wealth of nations. A brilliant and sobering challenge to the idea that poor societies can be economically developed through outside intervention, A Farewell to Alms may change the way global economic history is understood. Gregory Clark is chair of the economics department at the University of California, Davis. He has written widely about economic history.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2007Barry Eichengreen
Изд-во: Princeton University Press, 2006, cерия "Princeton Economic History of the Western World", 504 с.
In 1945, many Europeans still heated with coal, cooled their food with ice, and lacked indoor plumbing. Today, things could hardly be more different. Over the second half of the twentieth century, the average European's buying power tripled, while working hours fell by a third. The European Economy since 1945 is a broad, accessible, forthright account of the extraordinary development of Europe's economy since the end of World War II. Barry Eichengreen argues that the continent's history has been critical to its economic performance, and that it will continue to be so going forward. Challenging standard views that basic economic forces were behind postwar Europe's success, Eichengreen shows how Western Europe in particular inherited a set of institutions singularly well suited to the economic circumstances that reigned for almost three decades. Economic growth was facilitated by solidarity-centered trade unions, cohesive employers' associations, and growth-minded governments--all legacies of Europe's earlier history. For example, these institutions worked together to mobilize savings, finance investment, and stabilize wages. However, this inheritance of economic and social institutions that was the solution until around 1973--when Europe had to switch from growth based on brute-force investment and the acquisition of known technologies to growth based on increased efficiency and innovation--then became the problem. Thus, the key questions for the future are whether Europe and its constituent nations can now adapt their institutions to the needs of a globalized knowledge economy, and whether in doing so, the continent's distinctive history will be an obstacle or an asset.
National Accounts of the Netherlands, 1800-1913 [интернет ресурс]
В 1990 г. Голландский Научный Фонд субсидировал Профессора доктора J.L. van Zanden на проведение исследовательской программы «Реконструкция Национальных Счетов Нидерландов и анализ развития голландской экономики в период с 1800 по 1940 гг.»
Сайт Национального Архива Шотландии [интернет ресурс]
Национальный Архив Шотландии (NAS) существует для сбора, хранения и предоставления национальных архивов; сохранения в надлежащем виде архивов по всей стране; развития архивной практики в Шотландии. В NAS хранится информация о бизнесе, земельной собственности, семьях, церквях и от других организациях.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007Avner Greif Stanford University - Department of Economics: Working Paper. 1997. No. 97-017.
This paper surveys the small, yet growing, literature that employs game theory for economic history analysis. It elaborates on the promise and challenge of integrating game theoretical and economic history analyses and presents the approaches taken in conducting such an integration. Most of the essay, however, is devoted to presenting studies in economic history that utilize game theory as their main analytical framework. Studies are presented based on their substance to highlight the range of potential topics in economic history that can be and had been enriched through a game theoretical analysis.
Сайт Национальных архивов Великобритании [интернет ресурс]
Национальный Архив – это государственный департамент и орган исполнительной власти, относящейся к Секретариату Министерства Юстиций. Он сводит воедино Государственный архив, Комиссию по историческим манускриптам, Службу по информации о государственном секторе и Государственную канцелярию ее Величества. Национальный Архив является центром информационной политики, устанавливающий стандарты и поддерживающий инновации в сфере учета информации.
Historical Statistics of the United States Chapter on Voluntary, Nonprofit, and Religious Entities and Activities: Underlying Concepts, Concerns, and Opportunities [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Peter Dobkin Hall, Colin B. Burke Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations. 2002.
This paper is a draft of the introduction to the chapter on voluntary, nonprofit, and religious entities and activities slated to appear in the Millennial Edition of Historical Statistics of the United States. Conceding the various problematic definitions of the "nonprofit sector," the essay offers a rationale for the broadly inclusive approach to the selection of historical statistics of institutions and activities presented in the chapter. In addition, it reviews the challenges and opportunities for researchers working on the statistical aspects of nonprofit, voluntary, and religious organizations. The essay includes samples of the statistical series that will appear in HSUS.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Richard Lyle Garner Hispanic American Historical Review. 1984. P. 535-554.
В статье анализируется динамика цен городов Латинской Америки 18 и 19 веков в момент получения независимости. Проверяется гипотеза о том, что данный переход инициировал инфляционные процессы. Результаты тестирования смешанные. Анализируемая база данных представлена здесь.
Макроэкономическая статистика Германии (1924-1938) [интернет ресурс]
На страничке представлена историческая статистика о состоянии государственного сектора Германии (1924-1938), отчеты об исполнении государственного бюджета (1925-1938). Также есть данные по таким показателям, как производство, личное потребление, капитал, деньги и индекс потребительских цен. Страничка представляет собой статистическое приложение к книге Альбрехта Ритшля "Deutschlands Krise und Konjunktur 1924-1934"
Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007Albrecht Ritschl
Изд-во: Akademie-Verlag, 2002, 324 с.
Почему после многообещающего укрепления марки (1923 – 1924) наступил масштабный кризис? Какие факторы повлияли на эту катастрофу? Можно ли было помешать наступлению этого кризиса? Была ли у Веймарской республики другая судьба? Автор исследует внутренние и внешние факторы развития немецкой конъюнктуры, начиная с 1924 г. План Дауэса существенно ограничивал немецкую антикризисную политику 1929 г.. В этой книге Ритшль Альбрехт (Albrecht Ritschl) представляет новое объяснение дефляционной политике. Центральным местом которого, является критика немецкой конъюнктурной политики. Наряду с этим, автор дает новую интерпретацию тезисов Борчардта, в рамках немецкой конъюнктурной политики, в последние годы Веймара. Возрастающий внешний долг Германии, начиная с 1924 г., играет ключевую роль в объяснении немецкого кризиса между планом Дауэса и эмбарго на переводы в иностранной валюте.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007Albrecht Ritschl CEPR. 2004.
Основная часть статьи подтверждает то, что затраты труда на единицу продукции в индустриалиальных экономиках существенно увеличились после Первой мировой войны. В Германии, объем промышленного производства касательно 1913 г., рассчитанный Хоффманном (1965), при предположении, что доля заработанной платы постоянна, намного больше, чем в промежутке между войнами. Данная статья создает альтернативную оценку подверженного влиянию металлообрабатывающего сектора. Она находи гораздо меньшие уровни выпуска, вызванные фактом увеличивающейся доли рабочей силы после Первой мировой. Разница очень существенна, чтобы убрать погрешность из данных Хофманна, для целой индустрии и экономике в целом. После введения поправки на фиктивный рост в металлообрабатывающем секторе, результаты оценки Хофманна соответствуют современным оценкам и статистике доходов.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007Metin Cosgel University of Connecticut, Department of Economics Working Paper. 2004.
В данной статье представлены стандартизированные расчеты производительность труда в области земледелия Османской империи, включая Иерусалим и прилегающие области восточного средиземноморья. Превоисточником для расчетов является записи о налогах. Результаты исследования говорят о том, что уровень производительности труда в сельском хозяйстве Османской империи 15 и 16 веков, может быть сравним с производитльностью труда многих европейских стран конца 19 века.
Economic History of the Ottoman Empire [интернет ресурс]
Сайт посвящен экономической истории Османской империи . На сайте представлена информация о ценах, доходах и экономическом благосостоянии домохозяйств в Османской империи. Так же представлены статьи исследюущие причины возникновения экономических институтов в империи. Сайт разработа при поддержке ученых экономического факультета Университета Коннектикута