Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 2071
Опубликовано на портале: 12-05-2005Steve W. Martinez Journal of Food Distribution Research. 2001. Vol. 32. No. 1. P. 18-24.
Dramatic changes took place in the industry structure of the pork industry during the 1990s, changes such as new geographic patterns of production, increases in firm size, and new types of marketing practices, including new forms of vertical coordination. These new methods of vertical coordination-including contracts and vertical integration, and growth in firm size at all stages have raised concerns about market power and impact on industry performance. These concerns are reflected in proposed federal legislation to prevent vertical mergers by large firms, some states' legislation banning packer ownership of hogs, and resolutions-presented at the 2000 National Pork Producers Council annual forum-to ban packer ownership. In this paper, recent structural changes in the pork sector are reviewed. To gain insight into new methods of vertical coordination in the pork sector, these developments in structure are compared to those in the poultry sector, an industry that underwent dramatic structural changes decades ago.
Relationships Between Industrialized Agriculture and Environmental Consequences: The Case of Vertical Coordination in Broilers and Hogs [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-05-2005Laura L. Martin Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 45-56.
This paper examines the relationship between industrialized production in the pork and broiler industries and the natural environment. Historical perspectives are presented regarding the movement toward increasingly concentrated and coordinated pork and broiler production units in the South. The relationships between animal by-product management and environmental quality, both at the farm level and within a geographic region, are addressed. Using the North Carolina pork industry as a background, current regulations and potential policy implications to protect environmental quality are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-05-2005C. Scott Johnson Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1994. Vol. 26. No. 2. P. 393-405.
Much of the increase use of vertical coordination in the U.S. swine industry has taken place through contract production. While the incidence of contracting is much higher in nontraditional hog production areas, a growing number of Midwestern producers are being faced with contract options. A variety of contractual arrangements are available through feed companies, integrators, genetics firms, and packers. However, little is known about the profitability and risk characteristics of these alternatives. This research suggests that risk neutral producers in the Midwest would prefer independent production, and risk averse producers would prefer to choose among the various types of coordination arrangements.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-05-2005Fritz M. Roka, Dana L. Hoag Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1996. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 193-202.
Produced as a joint product, economic theory suggests that manure value could influence livestock management decisions such as herd size and optimal market weights. This study examines the concept of manure value and its connection with optimal replacement age or market weight, A model of a swine finishing operation representative of North Carolina conditions is developed. Over the range of conditions considered, manure value is negative and does not affect market weights. The marginal per head change in manure value is small relative to the marginal per head change in net returns from pork production. Further, economies of scale with respect to irrigation cause manure value to increase with herd size.
Small Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Tennessee: Factors Associated With Their Use of Commercial Outlets [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-05-2005David B. Eastwood, John R. Brooker Journal of Food Distribution Research. 2000. Vol. 31. No. 2. P. 39-47.
Consolidation and technological change are restricting the marketing alternatives for independent, small-volume produce growers. The following are some of the forces restricting small growers: contracting, bar coding, precut processing, increased globalization, HACCP, and efficient consumer response (Epperson and Estes, 1999; Kaufman et al., 2000 forthcoming; Shaffer, 1999). As a result of these and other forces, small volume produce growers tend to be limited to direct outlets (for example, farm stands, PYO, farmer’s markets). Little attention, however, has been given to the marketing choices made by small-volume growers (an exception is Estes, 1985). The focus of this paper is a study that examines the characteristics of the farmer’s operations and their choices of market outlets. The objective of that study was to generate information about the marketing activities of small-volume growers who had, as one of their options, access to organized farmer’s markets.
Управление хозяйственным риском [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Роман Михайлович Качалов
Москва: Наука, 2002, cерия "Экономическая наука современной России", 192 с.
Рассмотрены проблемы экономической безопасности в деятельности российских производственных предприятий, которые интерпретируются в терминах теории хозяйственного риска. На основе анализа деятельности отечественных предприятий в условиях переходной российской экономики выделены и систематизированы факторы хозяйственного риска, а также специфицированы наиболее эффективные методы управления хозяйственным риском. Представлены методические рекомендации и возможные способы организации управления хозяйственным риском на производственном предприятии.
Для экономистов, руководителей предприятий и управленческого персонала.
Для экономистов, руководителей предприятий и управленческого персонала.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Peter J. Davis
This article provides empirical evidence on the relationship between local market structure and the prices charged to consumers in a particular retail market, the US motion picture exhibition market. I find that there is a statistically significant relationship between the geographic distribution of movie theaters in a market and the admission prices that they are able to charge. However, the magnitude of the price reducing effect of local competition appears to be economically modest. Moreover, I find no evidence that increases in geographic concentration leads to increased adult admission prices. The findings are directly relevant to merger policy in the industry and pertinent because of the dramatic changes in industry structure resulting from mergers that occurred during 2002. I conclude that popular and governmental concerns about horizontal mergers in the industry leading to dramatically increased admission prices are likely misplaced.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Richard J. Gilbert, Justine Hastings Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 2002. No. 0201001.
This paper explores the relationship between the structure of the market for the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent gasoline retailers. Theoretically, the eect of an increase in vertical integration is ambiguous because opposing forces act to increase and decrease wholesale prices. We empirically examine the eects of vertical and horizontal market structures on wholesale prices using both a broad panel and an event analysis. The panel covers twenty-six metropolitan areas from January 1993 through June 1997. The event is a merger of Tosco and Unocal in 1997 that changed the vertical and horizontal structure of thirteen West Coast metropolitan areas. Both data sets show that an increase in the degree of vertical integration is associated with higher wholesale prices.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Richard J. Gilbert Stanford Technology Law Review. 2002.
This paper reviews the antitrust treatment of patent pooling and cross-licensing arrangements from E. Bement v. National Harrow, decided in 1902, to the Department of Justice business review letters on the MPEG and DVD patent pools. I examine the factors that the courts identified as pertinent to the antitrust outcome and compare them to the competitive factors identified in the DOJ/FTC Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property. Until recently, the competitive relationship of the patents was not a major determinant of the antitrust outcome in most cases. Instead, the courts have focused on restrictive licensing terms that affect downstream prices. I consider the logic of this approach to evaluating antitrust liability. I also propose an approach to evaluating the antitrust risks of arrangements that combine potentially blocking patents.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Joseph Farrell, Richard J. Gilbert, Michael L. Katz Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 2002. No. 0303006.
We examine the effects of market structure and the internal organization of firms on equilibrium R&D projects. We compare a monopolist’s choice of R&D portfolio to that of a welfare maximizer. We next show that Sah and Stiglitz’s finding that the market portfolio of R&D is independent of the number of firms under Bertrand competition extends to neither Cournot oligopoly nor a cartel. We also show that the ability of firms to pre-empt R&D by rivals along particular research paths can lead to socially excessive R&D diversification. Lastly, using Sah and Stiglitz’s definition of hierarchy, we establish conditions under which larger hierarchies invest in smaller portfolios.
The Effect of Revenue-Sharing Contracts on Welfare in Vertically-Separated Markets: Evidence from the Video Rental Industry [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-04-2005Julie H. Mortimer Harvard Institute Research Working Papers. 2000. No. 1964 .
In this study I analyze the implications of contractual innovation in vertically-separated industries, using the example of the video rental industry. Prior to 1998, video stores obtained inventory from movie distributors using simple linear pricing contracts. In 1998, revenue-sharing contracts, which include inventory restrictions, were widely adopted. I investigate the effect of using revenue-sharing contracts on firms' products and consumer welfare, relative to linear pricing contracts. I analyze a new panel dataset of home video retailers that includes information on individual retailers' contract and inventory choices, weekly rentals and sales, and contract terms (prices and quantity restrictions) for 1,114 movie titles and 6,594 retailers in the U.S during each week of 1998 and 1999. A structural econometric model of rms' behavior is developed and estimated, and counterfactual experiments are performed. The results indicate that total upstream and downstream profits increase by three to six percent, and consumers benet substantially when revenue-sharing contracts are adopted. I also examine the effects of the observed quantity restrictions. I find that these restrictions serve to increase profits for upstream firms and decrease profits for downstream firms, relative to revenue-sharing contracts without inventory restrictions.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Howard Smith
This paper estimates an oligopoly model of consumer choice and supermarket profitability using a survey of consumer choices and a dataset of store characteristics. The survey data includes expenditure as well as choice of supermarket. Unobserved characteristics associated with the operating firm are incorporated through firm dummies in the utility function. Predicted Nash price–cost markups are close to observed markups. We examine the social e¢ciency of store numbers and store characteristics by making minor changes to the characteristics and solving for new profits and consumer surplus. We find no evidence of excess entry for large stores. There is some excess entry of smaller stores depending on location and operating firm. Increases in store size usually increase welfare. Ownership conversions can increase welfare signi…cantly. Location inefficiencies, in contrast, are small.
The Impact of Market Rules and Market Structure on the Price Determination Process in the England and Wales Electricity Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Frank A. Wolak, Robert H. Patrick NBER Working Paper Series. 1997. No. 8248.
This paper argues that the market rules governing the operation of the England and Wales electricity market in combination with the structure of this market presents the two major generators—National Power and PowerGen—with opportunities to earn revenues substantially in excess of their costs of production for short periods of time. Generators competing to serve this market have two strategic weapons at their disposal: (1) the price bid for each generation set and (2) the capacity of each generation set made available to supply the market each half-hour period during the day. We argue that because of the rules governing the price determination process in this market, by the strategic use of capacity availability declarations, when conditions exogenous to the behavior of the two major generators favor it, these two generators are able to obtain prices for their output substantially in excess of their marginal costs of generation. The paper establishes these points in the following manner. First, we provide a description of the market structure and rules governing the operation of the England and Wales electricity market, emphasizing those aspects that are important to the success of the strategy we believe the two generators use to exercise market power. We then summarize the time series properties of the price of electricity emerging from this market structure and price-setting process. By analyzing four fiscal years of actual market prices, quantities and generator bids into the market, we provide various pieces of evidence in favor of the strategic use of the market rules by the two major participants. The paper closes with a discussion of the lessons that the England and Wales experience can provide for the design of competitive power markets in the US, particularly California, and other countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Darrell J. Bosch, Minkang Zhu, Ervin T. Kornegay Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 255-266.
Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs, Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard, For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export prices with phytase could exceed export prices without phytase by $3.81 per ton. Phytase net returns to the farm are an estimated $1,435.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Jeffrey H. Dorfman, Christopher S. McIntosh Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 337-345.
Forecasts of economic time series are often evaluated according to their accuracy as measured by either quantitative precision or qualitative reliability. We argue that consumers purchase forecasts for the potential utility gains from utilizing them, not for their accuracy. Using Monte Carlo techniques to incorporate the temporal heteroskedasticity inherent in asset returns, the expected utility of a set of qualitative forecasts is simulated for corn and soybean futures prices. Monetary values for forecasts of various reliability levels are derived. The method goes beyond statistical forecast evaluation, allowing individuals to incorporate their own utility function and trading system into valuing a set of asset price forecasts
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Blake K. Bennett, S.K. Misra Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 363-372.
This study focuses on least-cost farm-to-mill cotton cleaning configurations employing survey, regression, and simulation techniques. The resulting least-cost cotton cleaning configurations, employing standard textile technology, included the use of one lint cleaning in the ginning stage. The use of a field cleaner in the harvesting stage was also found to be optimal with some variation based on the desired yam quality. Results of the study indicated that the optimal cleaning configurations were distinctly different from currently used practices, such that appropriate changes could save the cotton industry between $0.30 and $0.60 per bale of cotton, depending on the desired yam quality.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Jerry R. Skees, Joy Harwood, Agapi Somwaru, Janet Perry Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 47-61.
The 1996 Farm Act and the 1994 Crop Insurance Reform Act are recent examples of policy changes that have increased risks for U.S. farmers. New products are emerging to help farmers manage risks. This article examines some of the policy changes, farmer responses, and new risk-sharing products. The focus turns to the new revenue insurance products and their potential in the South, While there are reasons to believe revenue insurance should be attractive in the South, any revenue products that use existing crop insurance rates will face difficulties since poor actuarial performance in the South has resulted in relatively high rates.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Ronald D. Knutson, Edward G. Smith, David P. Anderson, James W. Richardson Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 35-46.
This paper investigates the farm-level impacts of the 1996 farm bill on the South. Focus group perceptions of risk sources, observed acreage changes, and the farm-level impact of increased price risk are evaluated. Focus group respondents ranked price and yield as the two most important sources of risk, and diversification was ranked highly as a risk-management tool. Limited data suggest that acreage shifts among crops are occurring in the South, presumably aided by the 1996 farm bill. Higher probabilities of cash flow deficits are estimated for cotton and rice relative to feed grain, wheat, and oilseed operations.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Harry M. Kaiser Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The impacts of generic dairy advertising on retail, wholesale, and farm dairy markets are estimated in this study at the national level. The results indicate that generic dairy advertising had a major impact on retail, wholesale, and farm markets for the dairy industry. The main conclusion of the study is that farmers are receiving a high return on their investment in generic dairy advertising, i.e., an average rate of return of $3,40 for every dollar invested over the period 1984–95. Moreover, the return on investment in advertising was higher in the most recent year, almost double the average for the previous 11 years.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005James A. Larson, Roland K. Roberts, Donald D. Tyler, Bob N. Duck, Stephen P. Slinsky Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 163-174.
Winter legumes can substitute for applied nitrogen fertilization of corn. Stochastic dominance was used to order net revenues from legume and applied nitrogen alternatives. Stochastic dominance orderings indicate that systems combining vetch with low applied nitrogen fertilization (50 and 100 pounds/acre, respectively) were risk inefficient. By contrast, vetch and 150 pounds acre applied nitrogen maximized expected net revenue and was risk efficient for a wide range of risk-averse and risk-seeking behavior. Farmers with these risk attitudes may not reduce applied nitrogen if they switch to a vetch cover. Extremely risk-averse or risk-seeking farmers would not prefer winter legumes.