Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 2071
Import Prices and Hard Currency Constraints in Eastern Europe: Implications for Coarse Grain Imports and Production of Meat [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Roberto J. Garcia, Dragan Miljkovic, Miguel I. Gomez Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 201-215.
The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the degree to which hard currency earnings constrained overall-imports and coarse grain imports in command economies; (b) to measure the importance of import prices on grain imports and to trace the link of grain availability to meat production; and (c) to determine how economic and political reforms in the selected countries may have affected the hard currency constraint, the importance of import prices, and grain imports and meat production. The results indicate that import demand was constrained by earnings of hard currency, but was not responsive to world prices, and meat production was affected by total grain availability, including imports.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Tong Han, Thomas I. Wahl Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 141-150.
A two-stage budgeting LES-LA/AIDS system is used to estimate rural household demand in China with special emphasis on changes in demand for fruit and vegetable commodities across different income groups. The own-price elasticity for food was found to be more elastic than that for clothing, housing, durable goods, and other items. Within the food group, price elasticities range from – 1.042 to –0.019. Grain, with an expenditure elasticity of almost unity, is an important staple food for the average rural household. Vegetables are important nonstaple foods relative to fruits. Lower value vegetables are the most price elastic in the vegetable group. Fruits are more price elastic than vegetables, with grapes being the most price elastic. Different income groups share a common demand function.
Politics and Markets in the Articulation of Preferences for Attributes of the Rapidly Changing Food and Agricultural Sectors: Framing the Issues [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Charles W. Abdalla, James Shaffer Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1999. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 57-71.
Industrialization of the food and agricultural sectors changes the pattern of external effects. Participants helped or harmed in the process attempt to influence outcomes through markets and politics. Decisions about property rights and boundaries determine benefits and burdens and the relative cost of animal agriculture in different jurisdictions. Prescriptions to redefine property rights are influenced by selective perception of rights to share in the benefits and be protected from costs. Political choices about the appropriate jurisdiction (state versus local) for addressing environmental and nuisance effects of animal agriculture affect whose preferences count and will influence the development of these sectors.
On the Estimation of Advertising Effects for Branded Products: An Application to Spaghetti Sauces [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Oral Capps, Seong-Cheon See, John P. Nichols Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 291-302.
Using IRI Infoscan data pertaining to six types of spaghetti sauces and employing an extension of the demand systems framework developed by Duffy, estimates are obtained of own-price, cross-price, and total expenditure elasticities as well as own- and cross-product advertising elasticities. We augment the Duffy model through the use of a polynomial inverse lag mechanism to deal with the carryover effects of advertising. We also account for the impacts of features in newspaper fliers, in-store displays, and coupons. Advertising efforts by industry leaders in spaghetti sauce produce positive own-advertising elasticities (ranging from .000058 to .0168) and negative cross-advertising elasticities (ranging from –.000003 to –.0094). Own-price elasticities are in the elastic range, and nearly all compensated cross-price effects are positive, indicative of Hicksian substitutes.
Economic and Environmental Effects Associated with Reducing the Use of Atrazine: An Example of Cross-Disciplinary Research [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Marc O. Ribaudo, Terrance M. Hurley Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 87-97.
Restricting or eliminating the use of atrazine in the Midwest would have important economic consequences for farmers, consumers, and the environment. These consequences can only be evaluated with cooperation between economists and weed scientists. The weed control choice set available to farmers cannot be observed through deductive research. Economists and weed scientists worked together to identify all possible weed control strategies for corn and sorghum in the Midwest and to incorporate them into an economic model. An atrazine ban was found to be the costliest strategy, and a targeted, water-quality based strategy the most cost effective.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Sri R.M. Andayani, Daniel S. Tilley Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 279-289.
Indonesia is a rapidly growing and competitive market for U.S. fruit. A restricted, source differentiated, almost ideal demand system is estimated for apples, oranges, grapes, and other fruit in Indonesia. The Marshallian expenditure elasticities for U.S. fruit are estimated to be between 1.01 and 1.21. For grapes and oranges, competition with other fruits appears to be more important than competition with other supply sources. For apples, strong source differentiated substitution relationships are found.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Brett D. Begemann Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 117-122.
The agricultural biotechnology industry has evolved from a focus on outstanding science to a more mature phase where firms focus on new-term products and building businesses. Understanding complex relationships and distribution channels and a global perspective are crucial to commercialization. Yet, leading-edge technology and early identification of key traits will be critical to developing superior products that ensure competitiveness in the marketplace. Monsanto is organizing around a life sciences model where seed, crop chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredient businesses will exploit mutual synergies driven by basic science and discovery.
Imperfect Competition Models and Commodity Promotion Evaluation: The Case of U.S. Generic Milk Advertising [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Nobuhiro Suzuki, Harry M. Kaiser Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 315-325.
This article examines whether the assumption of perfect competition in the U.S. dairy industry biases the findings of economic impacts of generic dairy advertising. An imperfect competition model based on an approach similar to that of Appelbaurn is developed and used to evaluate generic milk advertising. The results are compared with a perfect competition model. The findings indicate positive price and quantity impacts due to generic advertising. The differences in magnitude of impacts between the two models are small, suggesting that the assumption of perfect competition for U.S. dairy models is plausible.
Induced Policy Innovation: Environmental Compliance Requirements for Dairies in Texas and Florida [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Amy Purvis Thurow, John Holt Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 17-36.
Environmental policies make a difference in shaping producers’ choices among dairy production technologies, the sizes and locations of their dairies, and even which dairies ultimately survive. Induced policy innovation means producers reacting to policies, and policies, in turn, being shaped by their effects. Profiles of experiences with environmental compliance in Texas and Florida were analyzed. Results demonstrate that the timing and sequencing of policy signals make a difference in compliance behavior and options. Furthermore, ex ante assessments of the costs of environmental compliance are challenging to carry out, and consequently can undermine the policy goal of maintaining the maximum number of options for compliance.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Changping Chen, Don Ethridge, Stanley M. Fletcher Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1997. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 185-195.
This study provides an analysis of the price-quality relationships of U.S. cotton using primary data collected from textile manufacturers, the end users of fiber. Hedonic prices of fiber attributes are estimated for three production regions—West, South Central, and South—over the 1992–95 study period. Results indicate that cotton price is determined by quality attributes and nonquality factors in the end-use market. There are similarities and differences in valuation of fiber attributes based on region of origin of the cotton.
Recycling, International Trade, and the Distribution of Pollution: The Effect of Increased U.S. Paper Recycling on U.S. Import Demand for Canadian Paper [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2005Jeffrey A. Michael Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 217-223.
The quantity of paper recycled in the U.S. has more than doubled since 1985. International trade theory predicts that this will lead to reduced imports of paper, and a shift in domestic production toward waste paper intensive outputs (e.g., newsprint) and away from higher grade products such as printing/writing paper. Import demand elasticities with respect to input prices were estimated for newsprint, printing/writing, and all paper utilizing 20 years of monthly data. The empirical results confirm the predictions of theory, and illustrate a channel through which recycling may be more beneficial for U.S. industry than the domestic environment.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Helen H. Jensen, Laurian Unnevehr, Miguel I. Gomez Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 83-94.
Recently enacted food safety regulations require processors to meet product standards for microbial contamination in meat products. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of several technological interventions for microbial control in beef and pork processing shows that marginal improvements in food safety can be obtained, but at increasing costs. The additional food safety intervention costs represent about 1% of total processing costs for beef and pork, Some interventions and combinations are more cost-effective than others.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Jean C. Buzby, John A. Fox, Richard C. Ready, Stephen R. Crutchfield Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 69-82.
Microbial pathogens and pesticide residues in food pose a financial burden to society which can be reduced by incurring costs to reduce these food safety risks. We explore three valuation techniques that place a monetary value on food safety risk reductions, and we present a case study for each: a contingent valuation survey on pesticide residues, an experimental auction market for a chicken sandwich with reduced risk of Salmonella, and a cost-of-illness analysis for seven food borne pathogens. Estimates from these techniques can be used in cost benefit analyses for policies that reduce food safety risks.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Eric J. Wailes, Cheng Fang, Francis C. Tuan Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 1. P. 113-126.
China’s agricultural trade expanded rapidly following economic reforms and the open-door policy adopted in the late 1970s. The composition of agricultural trade with China follows its labor-abundant and land-scarce resource endowment with imports of bulk and processed intermediates and exports of consumer-ready and processed goods. Constraints on U. S.- China agricultural trade include tariffs, state trading, food security policies, and other nontariff barriers. Growth potential is based on China’s fundamental demand forces including the world’s largest population, a high real-income growth rate, an emerging urban middle class, and furthertrade reforms to be implemented through accession to the World Trade Organization.
Fractional Cointegration and the False Rejection of the Law of One Price in International Commodity Markets [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Samarendu Mohanty, E. Wesley Peterson, Darnell B. Smith Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 267-276.
This study examines the Law of One Price (LOP) in international commodity markets using fractional cointegration analysis. For proper evaluation of the LOP, fractional cointegration analysis seems to be appropriate because of its flexibility in capturing a wider range of mean reversion behavior than standard cointegration analysis. Out of nine pairs of price series examined, fractional cointegration supports the existence of the LOP in eight cases, as compared to three cases using standard cointegration procedures. Overall, these results suggest that there is a long-run tendency for the LOP to hold for commodity prices.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005B.J. Hubbell, Rick Welsh Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 2004. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 285-299.
Geographic concentration in US. hog production from 1974–96 is investigated using a measure based on Theil’s entropy index. For the U.S. as a whole, geographic concentration is occurring at a slow rate, both for hog farms and hog numbers. However, for particular states, primarily in the new Southern Atlantic production region, concentration is high and increasing at a rapid pace. Concentration was increasing for the 23-year period for 16 out of the 20 states in the analysis. Results indicate that geographic concentration by augmentation is occurring to the greatest degree in Arkansas, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005P. Lynn Kennedy, Cereal Atici Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 277-284.
Complete agricultural trade liberalization between the United States and the European Union is examined with respect to the agricultural sector. A static, partial equilibrium model, distinguishing among the European Union, the United States, and a politically passive rest of the world, is used to simulate agricultural free trade. The results of this research reveal how European Union and United States adoption of free trade affects domestic and world prices, production, consumption, self-sufficiency, and welfare.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Evert van der Sluis, Willis L. Peterson Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 353-362.
Data from 100 farming-dependent counties in the U.S. are used to measure the impact of acreage reduction programs on the level of the rural nonfarm population. Results of a simultaneous equation model suggest that the programs had a negative influence on the number of rural nonfarm people, reducing the rural nonfarm population in these counties by an estimated 15–16% over the 1960–90 period.
Impacts of Financial Characteristics and the Boom-Bust Cycle on the Farm Inventory-Cash Flow Relationship [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Ralph Bierlen, Bruce L. Ahrendsen, Bruce L. Dixon Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 363-377.
The sensitivity of farm inventory investment to movements in cash flow is tested. Inventories should be sensitive to shifts in cash flow because inventory investment is readily reversible and inventories are a significant portion of assets. Investment models estimated with Kansas farm panel data indicate that: (a) farms absorb internal finance shocks by adjusting inventories, (b) the inventory investment of livestock and high-debt farms are more sensitive to movements in cash flow than crop and low-debt farms, and (c) inventory investment is more sensitive to cash flow during the 1981–86 bust and the 198’7-92 recovery than during the 1975–80 boom.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-04-2005Steve W. Martinez, Kevin E. Smith, Kelly D. Zering Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 1998. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 301-311.
This study examines the motivation behind contracts and vertical integration in the pork industry, and simulates the effects of potential improvements in coordination. Incentives related to lowering costs of measuring and sorting hogs, and protecting against opportunistic behavior associated with specific assets, can result in hog quality improvements. A framework for simulating the effects of increased coordination through contracts and vertical integration was developed and used to evaluate potential improvements in leanness. Although simulations suggest only modest changes in pork prices and supplies, gains in consumers’ surplus could be substantial for larger demand shifts due to quality improvements.