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Аграрная экономика - – это часть экономической теории. Она изучает использование ограниченных ресурсов в производстве, переработке, реализации и потреблении продовольствия... (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 20

Последние поступления:

Опубликовано на портале: 11-08-2015
Светлана Юрьевна Барсукова, Василий Иванович Звягинцев Journal of Institutional Studies (Журнал институциональных исследований). 2015.  Т. 7. № 2. С. 84-98. 
В статье дается обзор земельной реформы в новейшей истории России. Анализ земельной реформы, начавшейся в 1990 году, показывает, какие действия и какие логики привели земельную сферу в то состояние, в котором она оказалась на финише четвертьвекового реформенного марафона. Процесс реформирования не был линейным, в нем выделяются этапы, различающиеся целями и стратегиями их достижения. Земельная реформа представлена как борьба различных политических сил, что выражалось в перераспределении функций между ведомствами, в лоббировании при назначении на руководящие должности выдвиженцев различных команд. Делается вывод о постепенном вытеснении государства из регулирования земельных отношений, о целенаправленном разрушении сферы землеустройства как основы развития земельных ресурсов.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008
Gregory Jackson European Management Review. 2008.  Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 23-26. 
The article 'A New Finance Capitalism?' raises an important paradox. Institutional investors are growing in size and the concentration of their stakes gives them potential influence over managers. Yet we observe an unexpected absence of shareholder activism and voice on the part of institutional investors in contemporary America. Concentration occurs without commitment. This comment further explores some reasons why today's largest investors seem resigned to or even to benefit from their relative passivity and preference of exit over voice. These reasons include conflicts of interest, market failures, lack of organizational capabilities, use of informal voice, and dependence of markets for corporate control. Corporate governance scholars have surprisingly little evidence on these topics, which suggest an important agenda for future research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 20-04-2006
Евгения Викторовна Серова, Наталия Алексеевна Карлова, Татьяна Владимировна Тихонова, Ирина Георгиевна Храмова, Ольга Валерьевна Шик
Москва: Ин-т экономики переходного периода, 2004, 113 с.
Работа посвящена анализу опыта государственного регулирования АПК на федеральном и региональном уровнях, на основе которого выработаны рекомендации по формированию агропродовольственной политики в ближайшие годы, предложены концепция реформирования бюджетного процесса и мониторинга эффективности поддержки аграрного сектора в России, а также меры по снижению уровня несостоятельности в сельском хозяйстве и по решению социальных проблем на территории хозяйств-банкротов, включая развитие несельскохозяйственных видов занятости в сельской местности.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-08-2005
Галина Сергеевна Широкалова Социологические исследования. 2005.  № 1. С. 82-91. 
Рассмотрено содержание законодательных актов по аграрной сфере, таких, как Закон РФ «О земельной реформе» (от 23.11.1990 г.); Земельный кодекс РФ (от 25.10.2001 г.); Указ Президента РФ «О регулировании земельных отношений и развитии аграрной реформы в России» (от 27.10.1993 г.). Отмечается, что Земельный кодекс обеспечил правовую базу для включения в рыночный оборот значительной части земель России. Исключения – земли, занятые Вооруженными Силами, стратегическими объектами, АЭС, природными заповедниками, национальными парками и др. По подсчетам специалистов это менее 3% земель России. Закон «Об обороте земель сельскохозяйственного назначения» (принят 24.07.2002 г.) разрешает юридическим лицам с участием зарубежного капитала покупать в России земли сельскохозяйственного назначения, если доля иностранного капитала менее 50% (ст. 3). По мнению автора, этот закон «разрабатывался под определенных заказчиков» (с. 84). Выводы: Нынешняя аграрная политика направлена на искусственное разорение крестьянства. Под угрозой оказалась продовольственная безопасность России. Предлагая программу-минимум и имея в виду современную геополитическую ситуацию, автор считает особо важным ужесточение ограничений на аренду земель иностранцами. Следует предотвратить спекуляцию землей, выделив в бюджетах всех уровней защиенной статьи расходов на выкуп у крестьян земельных долей. Кардинальная мера состояла бы, на ее взгляд, в отмене ст. 9 Конституции, фактически провозгласившей право частной собственности на природные ресурсы.
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Опубликовано на портале: 10-04-2005
Hamish R. Gow, Johan Swinnen
2002
This paper analyses empirically the effect of "hold-ups" on capital investment in farms using a sample of 318 Hungarian enterprises, surveyed over 1997. A negative relationship arises between capital investment and the incidence of hold-up behaviour. This relationship is affected by farm’s wealth and liquidity position, the quality of legal enforcement of contracts, by whether farms have contracted sales to foreign processors, and whether they are established as successors t pre-reform organisations rather than start-up businesses.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Daniel Berkowitz, David N. DeJong
Berlin, 2000
In previous work BERKOWITZ and DEJONG, used regional commodity-price data covering the period 1993-96 to document the existence of an internal economic border that divides Russia into two distinct economic regions: the ‘Red Belt’ and the ‘rest of Russia’. The Red Belt represents a group of regions that have broadly resisted the implementation of federally initiated market reforms. Here, we extend this work by quantifying two economic implications of this internal border. First, we show that the Red-Belt border has limited the transmission of price signals to regions within the Red Belt. Second, we show that regions within the Red Belt have experienced extremely poor growth performances relative to Russia as a whole.
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-01-2004
Silke Boger, Volker Beckmann
Durban, 2003
The paper investigates theoretically and empirically the role of courts for contract enforcement in transition agriculture. In a survey of 306 Polish hog farmers conducted in 1999, only 38.5% of them reported to believe that they could use courts to enforce contracts with their most important customer. Furthermore, those who believe the legal system could be used would accept significant financial losses before taking action.

We develop a theoretical model, based on the costs and benefits of court enforcement, which captures the boundary between contracts to be regarded as "enforceable" and "not-enforceable" and, simultaneously, the threshold of taking legal action. The empirical analysis strongly supports our model: (1) the farmers. responds can be explained by cost-benefit calculations regarding the use of courts, (2) the legal "enforceability" of contracts depends not only on the efficiency of the legal system, but also on the attributes of the transaction, the contracts and the relationship between buyer and seller, and (3) the threshold of taking legal action is significantly influenced by indirect costs of court enforcement, such as the disruption of a valuable relationship, and by the availability of alternative enforcement mechanisms.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 9-35 с.
Economic reforms have induced different output and productivity changes in Russia, China and the transition countries of Eastern Europe. The main objective of this paper is to analyze what has caused these differences in performance. We discuss how initial conditions and reform policy choices affect changes in property rights, production organization, terms of trade, and the liberalization of the economy. We analyze how these, in turn, have affected economic performance.

The hypotheses are tested by quantitative analysis. We conclude that it is a combination of both initial conditions and reform policy choices which has caused the differences in performance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Klaus Frohberg, Peter Voigt
Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 39-80 с.
The 15 member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) departed all from the same system and pursue similar goals in the transition process. Hence, this paper discusses the economic development of these countries and evaluates the state it has reached so far.

The analysis indicates that while all the CIS countries have bilateral agreements only some countries have realized that the CIS is in fact in some ways beneficial for them. In fact, the economies of the CIS countries are very closely interrelated. However, the search for a new identity and the problem of ethnic heterogeneity have led to a strengthening of national borders. The tendency towards ethnic segregation is also a threat in the Russian Federation which could aggravate the vacuum of power as well as the economic crisis in the entire region.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-01-2004
Karen Macours, Johan Swinnen
Berlin, 2000
This paper analyzes the causes of the differences in transition performance in agriculture. The analysis draws on three empirical studies in which we estimated the impact of reform policies and initial conditions, and their 'intermediate results', (i.e. changes in relative prices, farm restructuring, changes in property rights and overall economic liberalization), on performance, i.e. agricultural productivity and output.

Two studies (Macours and Swinnen, 1999, 2000b) use aggregate data for 15 transition countries (as presented in figure 3); the third (Macours and Swinnen, 2000a) uses annual data on crop output for eight CEECs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
William Liefert, Bryan Lohmar, Евгения Викторовна Серова
2003
This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners ‘desired’ the production and national consumption of high value (and cost) foodstuffs more than consumers. When market reform resulted in consumer prices adjusting to reflect the full cost of production, consumer demand switched from high cost foods to other goods and services. The demand- driven nature of food restructuring in these countries has implications for food security, reinforcing the argument that any food security problems are not mainly the result of inadequate aggregate supplies of agricultural products.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2003
David Vanzetti, Ralf Peters
2003
Proposals for agricultural trade reform put forward by the main protagonists remain far apart, with little sign of convergence. In an attempt to progress the negotiations towards a successful outcome, the chairman of the WTO Committee on Agriculture has proposed a compromise. The alternative proposals by the United States, the European Union and the WTO are analysed with the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model, a static, multi-commodity, multi-region, partial equilibrium trade model. The estimated annual global welfare gains are $26 billion, $12 billion and $17 billion respectively. Least developed countries, as a group, gain from the US proposal but are made worse off under the WTO and EU proposals. Furthermore, in the best case many individual countries experience welfare losses. However, all countries enjoy increased export revenues and tariff revenues hold up quite well under the two less stringent proposals.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Marian Rizov
2002
This paper examines the production mode choices of rural households with an emphasis on the Role of human capital in the agricultural transformation process. Farm restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe has resulted in a broad range of farm types, such as co-operatives, partnerships, individual farms and combinations of those. The fact that resources are allocated into different production organization modes is attributed to the utility maximization strategy of heterogeneous agents deriving income from uncertain sources in the face of absent or imperfect factor markets. Empirical results from a multinomial logit model estimated with data from two-year nation-wide survey of Romanian farm households support the hypothesis that the outcome of the transformation process depends primarily on both the human capital characteristics of and economic risks faced by the households.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Konrad Hagedorn
2002
This paper aims at explaining the role and importance of the evolution of institutions for sustainable agri-environments during the transition process by referring to agrienvironmental problems faced in Central and Eastern European countries. A central question therefore is whether the required institutional arrangements for achieving sustainability in the area of agri-environmental resource management can be built more easily in periods of transition as they fill institutional gaps, or whether processes of transition make institution building a more difficult and far more time consuming task than previously thought. Above all, we want to find out, how these two processes of institution building at different scales affect the sustainable management of resources such as water and biodiversity in agriculture. It will become clear that the agri-environmental problem areas faced during transition are complex and dynamic and require adequate institutions both by political design and from the grassroots, to be developed by the respective actors involved. Transition from centrally planned to pluralistic systems has to be considered as a particular and in some respect nontypical process of institutional change. Popular theories of institutional change do not necessarily apply. The privatisation experience from many CEE countries will serve as an example. Finally, we will emphasis the problem of missing or insufficient interaction between political actors or agencies and people in CEE countries. Substantial investments into social and human capital, particularly regarding informal institutions are needed for institutions of sustainability to evolve.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Erik Mathijs, Nivelin Noev
2002
Present-day Central and Eastern European agriculture is characterized by a high incidence of small-scale farmers who are not producing for the market. This paper uses household level data from comparative farm surveys in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania to analyze which farm household characteristics and endowments influence commercialization and subsistence farming.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
M. Carmen Firici, Kenneth J. Thomson
2002
This paper focuses on estimation of distributional economic welfare effects of the adoption of the CAP on different groups of Romanian households. The calculations of welfare effects are based on 1999 household data and refer to a 10-fold breakdown of Romanian households, i.e. five socio-economic categories from urban and rural areas, taking into account own (home) production of food. To identify the most vulnerable groups of Romanian consumers to food price changes, the Slutsky approximation Compensating Variation approach is applied. The results suggest that, if the current CAP is adopted and results in food price changes averaging a 10 per cent increase in all food prices, the lowest-income groups (i.e. urban and rural unemployed households, urban pensioner households) will be the most affected, ceteris paribus (prices of all other goods held constant). The minimum amount by which the groups could be compensated for the effect of price change on their real incomes varies between Euro 3 per month for employers’ households (about 1% of total income) and about Euro 8 per month for farmers’ households (6%). However, due to the relatively large shares of food self-production in total consumption, in particular by rural households, somewhat smaller money compensation would be appropriate.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2003
Markus Hanisch, Volker Beckmann, Silke Boger, Marcus Brem
2002
Studies of the transition process remind us of Stiglitz’s comparison between pathology and the economic analysis of institutions (1989): asking what went wrong and what did not is the essence of understanding the functioning of social systems. Thus, carefully conducted empirical studies of the transition process itself may yield elucidative results applicable not only to theory but also to institutional policy changes in transition. This paper presents the key findings of KATO, a comprehensive research project focussing on the transition process of agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe. From 1997 to 2000, the project empirically examined processes of liberalization and market development, privatization and property rights changes, as well as restructuring and path dependencies in three Central and Eastern Europe countries: Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. Conclusions on three analytical levels are drawn: (1) the empirical design for analyzing rapidly changing and evolving institutions in transition economies, (2) the suitability of different theoretical approaches for understanding transition, and (3) policy recommendations targeting better governance and an improved institutional framework.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Giovanni Anania
2002
The paper shows how analyses assuming perfect competition can yield a distorted estimation of the expected effects of a trade liberalization when market imperfections exist. The analytical framework adopted is very simple and three extreme imperfect market structures are considered. In the first case, the exporting country maximizes its producer and consumer surplus by intervening in the world market. The second market imperfection considered is the existence of a private firm playing the role of “pure middleman” in the world market. Then the case of a producer-owned marketing board which is granted exclusive export authority is addressed. It is shown that under all three scenarios, if perfect competition is assumed when market imperfections exist, the impact of a tariff reduction on prices and volume traded is overestimated. A ranking of the size of such distortions in the three cases analyzed is provided. Finally, it is proved that when a private firm exerts monopoly and monopsony power in the world market, both the importing and the exporting countries may well be better off if, rather than making a move towards trade liberalization, the importing country “compensates” the exporting country by means of a direct transfer.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-11-2003
Christian Bjornskov, Kim Martin Lind
2002
In the wake of the November 2001 Ministerial Conference in Doha, the positions of most members of the World Trade Organisation diverge, reflecting a large extent of disagreement within the organisation. This paper attempts to organise these positions and thereby inspire a debate on the possibility of collusion in the coming round of trade negotiations with a particular focus on the options of developing countries. Members’ positions on a range of issues identified as important in the coming round are rated and used as inputs in a correlation analysis and two forms of cluster analyses to identify potential alliances between members with reasonably similar positions. The paper identifies nine clusters of countries that are internally similar. Among these clusters, the positions of most developing countries are most similar to the positions of the so-called Cairns group and the US, whereas the European Union and Norway are significantly isolated and positioned far away from the developing countries. The paper concludes that developing countries have opportunities of forming alliances with specific developed countries in order to promote their trade objectives in the coming round of negotiations.
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Agricultural Production Economics [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-10-2003
J.Roy Black, Scott M. Swinton
2002
Курс основан на анализе моделей аграрного производства посредством эконометрики, математического программирования, и симуляций. Экономические аспекты производства изучаются посредством построения прикладных (на основе статистических данных, полученных от фермеров) моделей input-output, input-input, output-output, функций издержек, предложения и спроса на сырьё. Курс раскрывает специфику построения производственных функций в сельском хозяйстве, а также функций прибыли и издержек, моделей математического программирования, и не оптимизирующих симуляционных моделей. Программа включает содержание курса, темы лекций, списки основной и дополнительной литературы.

Базовый учебник – Debertin, David L.. Agricultural Production Economics. 2nd edition (privately published), 1992. Or 1st edition, New York: MacMillan, 1986 (supplemented by 2nd ed. chaps. 24-25). Beattie, Bruce and C. Robert Taylor. The Economics of Production. New York: Wiley, 1985. (Reprinted by Krieger, Malabar, Fl, 1993.)

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