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Экономика труда изучает трудовые отношения, условия формирования и использования трудового потенциала (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 576

Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007
Peter Haan DIW Berlin Discussion Papers. 2007.  No. 669.
In the year 2000, the German government passed the most ambitious tax reform in post-war German history aiming at a significant tax relief for households. One central aim of this tax reform was to improve work incentives and, thereby, foster employment. In this paper, I estimate an intertemporal discrete choice model of female labor supply that allows to analyze the behavioral effects of the tax reform on the labor supply of married and cohabiting women over time. Using the Markov chain property, I analyze the dynamics of labor supply behavior and derive the short- and long-run labor supply effects of the tax reform.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007
Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Karsten Reuß Center for European Economic Research Discussion Paper. 2007.  No. 07-015.
In this study, we try to connect the economic literature on human capital formation with findings from neurobiology and psychology on early childhood development and self-regulation. Our basic framework for assessing the distribution of agespecific returns to investment in skills is an elaboration of the model of skill formation from Cunha, Heckman et al. (2006) over the life cycle. Our simulation based evidence illustrates the cumulative and synergetic nature of skill formation, the skill multiplier and the shaping role early childhood has for human capital formation, growth and inequality.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2007
Michael Lechner, Conny Wunsch Kiel Working Papers. 2007.  No. 1308.
We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects for their participants that may be considered important in the especially difficult situation experienced in the East German labour market.
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Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007
Ред.: Владимир Ефимович Гимпельсон, Ростислав Исаакович Капелюшников
Москва: Издательский дом ГУ ВШЭ, 2006, 400 с.
Впервые в отечественной литературе представлена комплексная картина развития различных форм нестандартной занятости в переходный период. В книге обсуждаются как общетеоретические, так и и прикладные аспекты гибкости рынка труда и трудовых отношений в современной российской экономике. Предложенный авторами эмпирический анализ таких форм нестандартной занятости, как неполная, временная, случайная, неформальная, в личных подсобных хозяйствах, базируется на использовании наиболее представительных массивов микроданных обследований рабочей силы за 1992-2002 гг. Одна из глав посвящена альтернативным оценкам уровней занятости и безработицы в различных переходных экономиках с учетом распространения нестандартных форм трудовых отношений. Для экономистов, социологов, юристов, изучающих различные аспекты рынка труда и трудовых отношений, работников государственных органов в сфере труда, занятости и социальной политики. Монография может быть также использована в качестве учебного пособия при преподавании таких учебных дисциплин, как экономика труда, экономическая социология, управление человеческими ресурсами, трудовое право.
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Опубликовано на портале: 28-10-2007
Stephen L. Ross, Yves Zenou Department of Economics University of Connecticut:Working papers. 2006.  No. 2006-21.
Recent theoretical work has examined the spatial distribution of unemployment using the efficiency wage model as the mechanism by which unemployment arises in the urban economy. This paper extends the standard efficiency wage model in order to allow for behavioral substitution between leisure time at home and effort at work. In equilibrium, residing at a location with a long commute affects the time available for leisure at home and therefore affects the trade-off between effort at work and risk of unemployment. This model implies an empirical relationship between expected commutes and labor market outcomes, which is tested using the Public Use Microdata sample of the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. The empirical results suggest that efficiency wages operate primarily for blue collar workers, i.e. workers who tend to be in occupations that face higher levels of supervision. For this subset of workers, longer commutes imply higher levels of unemployment and higher wages, which are both consistent with shirking and leisure being substitutable.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2007
Stephen L. Ross, Shihe Fu Department of Economics University of Connecticut: Working papers. 2007.  No. 2007-26.
The correlation between wage premia and concentrations of firm activity may arise due to agglomeration economies or workers sorting by unobserved productivity. A worker's residential location is used as a proxy for their unobservable productivity attributes in order to test whether estimated work location wage premia are robust to the inclusion of these controls. Further, in a locational equilibrium, identical workers must receive equivalent compensation so that after controlling for residential location (housing prices) and commutes workers must be paid the same wages and only wage premia arising from unobserved productivity differences should remain unexplained. The models in this paper are estimated using a sample of male workers residing in 33 large metropolitan areas drawn from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. We find that wages are higher when an individual works in a location that has more workers or a greater density of workers. These agglomeration effects are robust to the inclusion of residential location controls and disappear with the inclusion of commute time suggesting that the effects are not caused by unobserved differences in worker productivity. Extended model specifications suggest that wages increase with the education level of nearby workers and the concentration of workers in an individual's own industry or occupation.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007
Rigoberto A. Lopez, Xenia Matschke University of Connecticut, Department of Economics Working Paper. 2005.  No. 2005-13R.
This article tests the Protection for Sale (PFS) model using detailed data from U.S. food processing industries from 1978 to 1992 under alternative import demand specifications. All empirical results support the PFS model predictions and previous empirical work qualitatively. Although welfare weights are very sensitive to import demand specification, a surprising result is that we obtain weights between 2.6 and 3.6 for domestic welfare using import slopes or elasticities derived from domestic demand and supply functions. In contrast, results based on import slopes or elasticities from directly specified import demands (including the Armington model) yield the usual, unrealistically large estimates for the domestic welfare weight. We contend that the latter empirical paradox arises mainly because the explanatory variables tend to be extremely large for industries with low import ratios and/or low estimated elasticities or slopes resulting from relatively volatile import prices. The results with derived import parameters point to a much stronger role of campaign contributions within the PFS model than previously found. They also suggest that the commonly-used Armington estimates may not be appropriate for estimating the PFS model.
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Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007
Xenia Matschke Public Choice. 2003.  No. 114. P. 103-135. 
In this article, the possibility of Nordhaus political wage cycles in the West German public services during 1961–1995 is investigated. Since wage negotiations are centralized, one might expect a systematically higher wage increase shortly before a federal election. A regression of wage increases from 30 consecutive public sector pay contracts is run on an election variable and several additional explanatory variables. The null of no election influence is rejected for worker wage increases. The estimated increase in wages due to an imminent election is predicted to be in the range of 2.5 to 3 percentage points.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007
Jane Humphries World Bank Economic Review. 2003.  Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 175 - 196. 
This article overviews the extent and settings of child labor in Western Europe and the United States in the past. Historians must rely on a quantitative record that is patchy and difficult to interpret. As a result, it may not be possible to say with confidence whether the era of proto-industry or the early factories saw the high-water mark of child labor, and the nature and time path of decline remains debated. Nonetheless, broad trends emerge that put the experience of today's poor countries into historical perspective and provide an empirical backdrop for the analysis in the second and third parts of the article, which seek to explain why child labor increased during industrialization and declined thereafter
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2007
Peter Wiles Higher Education. 1974.  Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 43-58. 
The Human Capital theory, as ordinarily defined, is a content theory of the economic value of a higher education to its recipient or his employer. But non-vocational higher education offers by definition no such content. So why does it yield a higher income? Various theories are examined: 1) The degree is an external test, vastly expensive to society but very cheap to individual employers; 2) The degree course forms character, and that is a kind of human capital; 3) The degree course exercises the mind, and develops it like a muscle; 4) The degree confers social status; 5) Insistence on a degree, including now vocational degrees, is a restrictive practice by many trade unions. People also seek non-vocational higher education because it is publicly financed. There is a Robbinsian supply curve of higher education facilities. This is profoundly irrational, but all parties react rationally to it. No evidence connecting degree certificates with income could distinguish between Human Capital and most of these other theories. Possible statistical tests are discussed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 18-10-2007
Монография посвящена проблеме социальной безопасности – сбережению здоровья трудоспособного населения. Анализ ситуации основан на данных официальной статистики, а также социологических исследований, в том числе проведенных автором и при его участии с 1995 по 2005 гг. О ситуации, связанной со здоровьем и его охраной, говорят пациенты и работники российской системы здравоохранения. В книге рассмотрены основные факторы, ставшие причинами ухудшения здоровья населения в годы реформ. Основное внимание уделено условиям труда и занятости, качеству рабочих мест, от которых зависит состояние здоровья и самоощущение работников. Определены основные мотивы занятости в неблагоприятных условиях труда, особенности самосохранительной активности граждан как в целях профилактики, так и во время заболевания. Рассмотрены вопросы доступности медицинской помощи, в том числе в гендерном аспекте, а также пути улучшения ситуации в отечественном здравоохранении. Для специалистов в области экономики и социологии труда, здоровья, социальной работы, управления персоналом и других областей, связанных с изучением человеческого потенциала
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007
Дарья Денисова, Сергей Сумленный Эксперт. 2007. 
Почему крупным российским компаниям дешевле привести в Россию иностранного специалиста, не смотря на постоянно растущий рынок предложений труда? Чем грозит сегодняшний массовый выпуск "формальных" специалистов с высшисшим образованием для российской экономики? Почему при почти "европейском уровне" зарплат работников национальный бизнес страны начинает испытывать серьезные проблемы? На эти и другие вопросы отвечают авторы статьи "Дорогой наш персонал" Д.Денисова, С.Сумленный
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Опубликовано на портале: 10-08-2007
Samuel Munzele Maimbo, Richard Adams, Nikos Passas, Reena Aggarwal
Изд-во: The World Bank, 2005, 83 с.
According to a recent World Bank study of remittances, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are all among the top 20 receivers of remittances, with estimated receipts of US$3.2 billion, US$8.4 billion and U.S$ 1.5 billion respectively.

"Migrant Labor Remittances in South Asia" identifies and discusses the key issues affecting the remittance industry in South Asia. It examines the development and implementation of policies, processes, and infrastructure to foster a development-oriented transfer of financial resources between migrants in developed economies and their families in the region. Rather than duplicate previous remittances work, this title only focuses on the region's distinguishing characteristics, namely:
a large migrant population of semi-skilled and unskilled workers largely concentrated in the Arabian Gulf countries, particularly Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates the presence of dedicated public institutions and government financial incentives aimed at facilitating and providing incentives for temporary migration and remittance inflows the existence of large state bank branch networks with immense potential for a more effective and efficient remittance financial market the widespread usage of trade related informal remittance channels by both legal and illegal migrants.

The book is intended for policymakers who legislate and regulate the financial sector, as well as for researchers and providers of remittance services.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003.  Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 155-180. 
Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise? Recently, this question has been a central focus in organizational and personnel economics. We emphasize the value of a new research approach--an approach we label "insider econometrics"--that is aimed going deep inside businesses to obtain data and insights into the ways in which HRM practices affect specific production processes. We conclude that sets of complementary HRM practices appear to raise performance, but that some firms, such as those that make complex products or those that are starting up brand new facilities, benefit more from these practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Giovanna Prennushi, Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski American Economic Review. 1997.  Vol. 87. No. 3. P. 291-313. 
The authors investigate the productivity effects of innovative employment practices using data from a sample of thirty-six homogeneous steel production lines owned by seventeen companies. The productivity regressions demonstrate that lines using a set of innovative work practices, which include incentive pay, teams, flexible job assignments, employment security, and training, achieve substantially higher levels of productivity than do lines with the more traditional approach, which includes narrow job definitions, strict work rules, and hourly pay with close supervision. Their results are consistent with recent theoretical models which stress the importance of complementarities among work practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
John DiNardo, David Card Journal of Labor Economics. 2002.  Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 733-783. 
The recent rise in wage inequality is usually attributed to skill-biased technical change (SBTC), associated with new computer technologies. We review the evidence for this hypothesis, focusing on the implications of SBTC for overall wage inequality and for changes in wage differentials between groups. A key problem for the SBTC hypothesis is that wage inequality stabilized in the 1990s despite continuing advances in computer technology; SBTC also fails to explain the evolution of other dimensions of wage inequality, including the gender and racial wage gaps and the age gradient in the return to education.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998.  Vol. 113. No. 1. P. 78-118. 
This paper offers a theory of training whereby workers do not pay for the general training they receive. The superior information of the current employer regarding its employees' abilities relative to other firms creates ex post monopsony power, and encourages this employer to provide and pay for training, even if these skills are general. The model can lead to multiple equlibria. In one equilibrium quits are endogenously high, and as a result employers have limited monopsony power and provide little training, while in another equilibrium quits are low and training is high. Using microdata on German apprentices, we show that the predictions of our model receive some support from the data.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Journal of Political Economy. 1999.  Vol. 107. No. 3. P. 539-572. 
In the human capital model with perfect labor markets, firms never invest in general skills and all costs of general training are borne by workers. When labor market frictions compress the structure of wages, firms may pay for these investments. The distortion in the wage structure turns "technologically" general skills into de facto "specific" skills. Credit market imperfections are neither necessary nor sufficient for firm-sponsored training. Since labor market frictions and institutions shape the wage structure, they may have an important impact on the financing and amount of human capital investments and account for some international differences in training practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
John DiNardo, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1997.  Vol. 112. No. 1. P. 291-303. 
Are the large measured wage differentials for on-the-job computer use a true return to computer skills, or do they just reflect that higher wage workers use computers on their jobs? We examine this issue with three large cross-sectional surveys from Germany. First, we confirm that the estimated wage differential associated with computer use in Germany is very similar to the U.S. differential. Second, we also measure large differentials for on-the-job use of calculators, telephones, pens or pencils, or for those who work while sitting down. We argue that these findings cast some doubt on the literal interpretation of the computer use wage differential as reflecting true returns to computer use or skill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Economic Journal. 1999.  Vol. 109. No. 453. P. 112-42. 
In this paper, the authors survey noncompetitive theories of training. With competitive labor markets, firms never pay for investments in general training, whereas when labor markets are imperfect, firm-sponsored training arises as an equilibrium phenomenon. The authors discuss a variety of evidence that supports the predictions of noncompetitive theories and they draw some tentative policy conclusions from these models.
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