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Экономика труда изучает трудовые отношения, условия формирования и использования трудового потенциала (подробнее...)
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 584

Опубликовано на портале: 10-08-2007
Samuel Munzele Maimbo, Richard Adams, Nikos Passas, Reena Aggarwal
Изд-во: The World Bank, 2005, 83 с.
According to a recent World Bank study of remittances, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are all among the top 20 receivers of remittances, with estimated receipts of US$3.2 billion, US$8.4 billion and U.S$ 1.5 billion respectively.

"Migrant Labor Remittances in South Asia" identifies and discusses the key issues affecting the remittance industry in South Asia. It examines the development and implementation of policies, processes, and infrastructure to foster a development-oriented transfer of financial resources between migrants in developed economies and their families in the region. Rather than duplicate previous remittances work, this title only focuses on the region's distinguishing characteristics, namely:
a large migrant population of semi-skilled and unskilled workers largely concentrated in the Arabian Gulf countries, particularly Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates the presence of dedicated public institutions and government financial incentives aimed at facilitating and providing incentives for temporary migration and remittance inflows the existence of large state bank branch networks with immense potential for a more effective and efficient remittance financial market the widespread usage of trade related informal remittance channels by both legal and illegal migrants.

The book is intended for policymakers who legislate and regulate the financial sector, as well as for researchers and providers of remittance services.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003.  Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 155-180. 
Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise? Recently, this question has been a central focus in organizational and personnel economics. We emphasize the value of a new research approach--an approach we label "insider econometrics"--that is aimed going deep inside businesses to obtain data and insights into the ways in which HRM practices affect specific production processes. We conclude that sets of complementary HRM practices appear to raise performance, but that some firms, such as those that make complex products or those that are starting up brand new facilities, benefit more from these practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Giovanna Prennushi, Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski American Economic Review. 1997.  Vol. 87. No. 3. P. 291-313. 
The authors investigate the productivity effects of innovative employment practices using data from a sample of thirty-six homogeneous steel production lines owned by seventeen companies. The productivity regressions demonstrate that lines using a set of innovative work practices, which include incentive pay, teams, flexible job assignments, employment security, and training, achieve substantially higher levels of productivity than do lines with the more traditional approach, which includes narrow job definitions, strict work rules, and hourly pay with close supervision. Their results are consistent with recent theoretical models which stress the importance of complementarities among work practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
John DiNardo, David Card Journal of Labor Economics. 2002.  Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 733-783. 
The recent rise in wage inequality is usually attributed to skill-biased technical change (SBTC), associated with new computer technologies. We review the evidence for this hypothesis, focusing on the implications of SBTC for overall wage inequality and for changes in wage differentials between groups. A key problem for the SBTC hypothesis is that wage inequality stabilized in the 1990s despite continuing advances in computer technology; SBTC also fails to explain the evolution of other dimensions of wage inequality, including the gender and racial wage gaps and the age gradient in the return to education.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998.  Vol. 113. No. 1. P. 78-118. 
This paper offers a theory of training whereby workers do not pay for the general training they receive. The superior information of the current employer regarding its employees' abilities relative to other firms creates ex post monopsony power, and encourages this employer to provide and pay for training, even if these skills are general. The model can lead to multiple equlibria. In one equilibrium quits are endogenously high, and as a result employers have limited monopsony power and provide little training, while in another equilibrium quits are low and training is high. Using microdata on German apprentices, we show that the predictions of our model receive some support from the data.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Journal of Political Economy. 1999.  Vol. 107. No. 3. P. 539-572. 
In the human capital model with perfect labor markets, firms never invest in general skills and all costs of general training are borne by workers. When labor market frictions compress the structure of wages, firms may pay for these investments. The distortion in the wage structure turns "technologically" general skills into de facto "specific" skills. Credit market imperfections are neither necessary nor sufficient for firm-sponsored training. Since labor market frictions and institutions shape the wage structure, they may have an important impact on the financing and amount of human capital investments and account for some international differences in training practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
John DiNardo, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1997.  Vol. 112. No. 1. P. 291-303. 
Are the large measured wage differentials for on-the-job computer use a true return to computer skills, or do they just reflect that higher wage workers use computers on their jobs? We examine this issue with three large cross-sectional surveys from Germany. First, we confirm that the estimated wage differential associated with computer use in Germany is very similar to the U.S. differential. Second, we also measure large differentials for on-the-job use of calculators, telephones, pens or pencils, or for those who work while sitting down. We argue that these findings cast some doubt on the literal interpretation of the computer use wage differential as reflecting true returns to computer use or skill.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Economic Journal. 1999.  Vol. 109. No. 453. P. 112-42. 
In this paper, the authors survey noncompetitive theories of training. With competitive labor markets, firms never pay for investments in general training, whereas when labor markets are imperfect, firm-sponsored training arises as an equilibrium phenomenon. The authors discuss a variety of evidence that supports the predictions of noncompetitive theories and they draw some tentative policy conclusions from these models.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Jörn-Steffen Pischke, Alan B. Krueger NBER Working Paper. 1997.  No. 6146.
This paper has three goals; first, to place U.S. job growth in international perspective by exploring cross-country differences in employment and population growth. This section finds that the U.S. has managed to absorb added workers -- especially female workers -- into employment at a greater rate than most countries. The leading explanation for this phenomenon is that the U.S. labor market has flexible wages and employment practices, whereas European labor markets are rigid. The second goal of the paper is to evaluate the labor market rigidities hypothesis. Although greater wage flexibility probably contributes to the U.S.'s comparative success in creating jobs for its population, the slow growth in employment in many European countries appears too uniform across skill groups to result from relative wage inflexibility alone. Furthermore, a great deal of labor market adjustment seems to take place at a constant real wage in the U.S. This leads to the third goal: to speculate on other explanations why the U.S. has managed to successfully absorb so many new entrants to the labor market. We conjecture that product market constraints contribute to the slow growth of employment in many countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu American Economic Review. 1999.  Vol. 89. No. 5. P. 1259-1278. 
I present a model where firms decide what types of jobs to create and then search for suitable workers. When there are few skilled workers and the skilled-unskilled productivity gap is small, firms create a single type of job and recruit all workers. An increase in the proportion of skilled workers or skill-biased technical change can create a qualitative change in the composition of jobs, increasing the demand for skills, wage inequality, and unemployment. I provide some evidence that there has been a change in the composition of jobs in the United States during the past two decades.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu Review of Economic Studies. 1997.  Vol. 64. No. 3. P. 445-464. 
This paper shows that in a frictional labor market part of the productivity gains from general training will be captured by future employers. As a result, investments in general skills will be suboptimally low, and contrary to the standard theory, part of the costs may be borne by the employers. The paper also demonstrates that the interaction between innovation and training leads to an amplification of this inefficiency and to a multiplicity of equilibria. Workers are more willing to invest in their skills by accepting lower wages today if they expect more firms to innovate and pay them higher wages in the future. Similarly, firms are more willing to innovate when they expect the quality of the future workforce to be higher, thus when workers invest more in their skills.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-06-2007
James Joseph Heckman, George J. Borjas Economica. 1980.  Vol. 47. No. 187. P. 247-83. 
Recent research demonstrates that, the greater the number of previous spells of unemployment and the longer their duration, the more likely is the event that an individual will be unemployed at a point in time. Two explanations have been advanced to interpret this finding. The first is rooted in economic theory; the second is based solely on statistical considerations.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2007
Людмила Ивановна Ниворожкина TERRA ECONOMICUS. 2005.  Т. 3. № 1. С. 23-33. 
Актуальность темы статьи определяется тем, что формирование рынка труда в России усилило гендерную дифференциацию, факторами которой кроме тех, что выделены в рамках неоклассической теории, стали и специфические, обусловленные транзитивным характером экономики России 90-х гг. завершившегося столетия. В статье проведён анализ рынков труда в нашей стране – с учётом их локализации – с точки зрения гендерной дискриминации. Для адекватного отражения соответствующих закономерностей автором предлагается модель порядковой регрессии.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007
Richard J. Murnane, Frank Levy Journal of Economic Literature. 1992.  Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 1333-81. 
The article studies the U.S. earning trends since 1950 and gives explanations for the inequality in earnings. Both slow growth and increased inequality appear in the comparison of adult male earnings distributions for 1979 and 1987. Trends in women's earnings paint a somewhat brighter picture. Women, like men, have experienced slow hourly wage growth and growing wage inequality. But in terms of annual earnings, both factors have been offset by changes in hours worked. The result is a significant increase in the proportion of women who earn $20,000 a year or more. A combination of shifts in supply and shifts in demand is necessary to explain the observed trends between these groups. A critical aspect of supply shifts was the entry into the labor market of the well-educated baby boom generation. Demand shifts can be characterized as a long-term trend toward increasing relative demand for highly skilled workers. The growth in within group earnings inequality has many potential explanations, but it is not well understood and contains opportunities for future research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-03-2007
Владимир Самуилович Магун Российский журнал менеджмента. 2006.  Т. 4. № 4. С. 45-74. 
В статье сравниваются данные четырех массовых репрезентативных опросов, проведенных в 1991-2004 гг. Установлено, что большинство трудовых ценностей российских работников претерпело за 14 пореформенных лет многочисленные изменения, и это свидетельствует о лабильности массовой трудовой культуры и не согласуется с распространенными утверждениями о ее неподатливости изменениям. Существенные изменения произошли и в выраженности двух интегральных ценностных индексов, построенных на основе факторного анализа. Доминантами ценностной «повестки дня», характерной для рассматриваемого периода, оказались базовые, «материалистические» мотивы работников и две стратегии их воплощения в жизнь — стратегия дозированных усилий и стратегия энергичных действий, ориентированных на высокие достижения. Инициативная самореализация, личная ответственность и поиск социального признания остаются пока на периферии трудового сознания россиян.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007
John H. Cochrane, Christopher R. Taber, Lance Lochner NBER Working Paper Series. 1998.  No. 6384.
This paper develops and estimates an overlapping generations general equilibrium model of labor earnings, skill formation and physical capital accumulation with heterogeneous human capital. The model analyzes both schooling choices and post-school on-the-job investment in skills in a framework in which different schooling levels index different skills. A key insight in the model is that accounting for the distinction between skill prices and measured wages is important for analyzing the changing wage structure, as they often move in different directions. New methods are developed and applied to estimate the demand for unobserved human capital and to determine the substitution relationships in aggregate technology among skills and capital. We estimate skill-specific human capital accumulation equations that are consistent with the general equilibrium predictions of the model. Using our estimates, we find that a model of skill-biased technical change with a trend estimated from our aggregate technology is consistent with the central feature of rising wage equality measured by the college-high school wage differential and by the standard deviation of log earnings over the past 15 years. Immigration of low skill workers contributes little to rising wage inequality. When the model is extended to account for the enlarged cohorts of the Baby Boom, we find that the same parameter estimates of the supply functions for human capital that are used the explain the wage history of the last 15 years also explain the last 35 years of wage inequality as documented by Katz and Murphy (1992).
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007
Christopher R. Taber Review of Economic Studies. 2006.  Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 665-691. 
The changes in the distribution of earnings during the 1980s have been studied extensively. The two most striking characteristics of the decade are (a) a large increase in the college/high school wage gap, and (b) a substantial rise in the variance of wage residuals. While this second phenomenon is typically implicitly attributed to an increase in the demand for unobserved skill, most work in this area fails to acknowledge that this same increase in demand for unobserved skill could drive the evolution of the measured college premium. In its simplest form, if higher ability individuals are more likely to attend college, then the increase in the college wage premium may be due to a increase in the relative demand for high ability workers rather than an increase in the demand for skills accumulated in college. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic programming selection model in order to investigate the plausibility of this explanation. The results are highly suggestive that an increase in the demand for unobserved ability could play a major role in the growing college premium.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007
Joseph G. Altonji Journal of Political Economy. 1986.  Vol. 94. No. 3. P. 176-215. 
The sensitivity of the supply of labor to intertemporal variation in the wage is an important issue in macroeconomics, the analysis of social security and pensions, and the study of life-cycle patterns of work. This paper explores two approaches to the measurement of intertemporal substitution that have appeared in the literature. The first approach is to use consumption to control for wealth and unobserved expectations about future wages in the labor supply equation. The second approach is to estimate a first-difference equation for hours in which labor supply from the previous period serves as a control for wealth and wage expectations. The results indicate that the intertemporal substitution elasticity for married men is positive but small.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-01-2007
Ред.: Наталья Анатольевна Волгина, Юрий Геннадьевич Одегов
Москва: Экзамен, 2003, 736 с.
В учебнике рассмотрен комплекс взаимосвязанных вопросов, раскрывающих фундаментальные теоретические проблемы и отражающих наиболее принципиальные практические аспекты экономики труда - теории воспроизводства рабочей силы, рынка труда, занятости, потребностей и мотиваций, проблемы производительности труда, политика доходов и заработной платы, управление персоналом, социальная защита, социальное страхование, социальное партнерство и др. Некоторые проблемы рассматриваются авторами с учетом зарубежного опыта и особенностей социально-экономического положения России
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-07-2006
Richard I. Henderson
Изд-во: Питер, 2004, 880 с.
Основное внимание в книге уделяется разработке такой системы оплаты труда, которая позволила бы гарантировать справедливые условия для всех сотрудников с учетом их знаний и навыков. В книге Ричарда Хендерсона также содержатся рекомендации относительно способов оценки качества работы и методах поощрения сотрудников — начиная с тех, кто занимает низовые позиции и заканчивая высшим руководством организации. В этой книге вы найдете: используемые в настоящее время программы поощрений, влияющие на мотивацию сотрудников программы привилегий, которые разрабатываются с целью повышения качества жизни работников и членов их семей, и многое другое!
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