Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Институт свободы "Московский Либертариум" [интернет ресурс]
"Либертариум" Анатолия Левенчука - первый политический проект российского Интернета. Библиотечка Либертариума - самое большое в Сети русскоязычное cобрание книг и статей либертарианской направленности (насколько эта направленность возможна в сегодняшней России). Представлены книги и статьи
McGraw Hill Professional Bookstore [интернет ресурс]
A useful general site for viewing McGraw Hill textbooks. Users can view titles and short descriptions of textbooks. The site is split up by subject area, eg. Business, Economics, Health, Education, Social Science, etc. Users can browse for content description and/or order books, papers.
Электронная база данных научных журналов ScienceDirect [интернет ресурс]
ScienceDirect - оболочка, созданная Elsevier Science для организации доступа к электронным ресурсам: научным журналам в полном тексте, библиографическим базам данных и справочникам. На конец 2002 г. в базе содержится: более 1700 научных, технических и медицинских
Is Husband's Class Enough? Class Location and Class Identity in the United States, Sweden, Norway, and Australia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Janeen Baxter American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 220-235.
Class analysis traditionally has focused on the position of men in the occupational system: Women have been ignored completely or classified according to the status of the male head of household. This approach implies that women derive their class identities from the class locations of their husbands. However, recent research suggests that this "conventional" view of class analysis is challenged by women's increasing independence from men. I address this issue using comparative data for the United States, Sweden, Norway, and Australia. I use a series of logistic regression models to examine the relationship between husband's and wife's class locations and subjective class identifications. Results indicate that husband's class location is a significant predictor of husband's and wife's class identifications. Education is also a key determinant of subjective class identity. There is no evidence of significant differences among countries in these patterns.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Aage B. Sorensen British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1523-1558.
Satisfactory class concepts need to identify the mechanisms that produce the consequences of class membership, be they class conflicts or differences in lifestyles. Using a broad conception of property rights, the article proposes to base class concepts on personal wealth, that is, the assets a person controls. Two main class concepts are proposed: class as life conditions, based on a person's total wealth, and class as exploitation, based on a person's control over assets that produce economic rents. The former concept corresponds to empirical and Weberian class concepts, the latter to Marxist and neo-Marxist class concepts. The article shows that the class concept based on rent-producing assets accounts for recent developments in capitalism.
Class Origin, Class Destination, and Education: A Cross-National Study of Ten Industrial Nations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Hiroshi Ishida, Walter Muller, John M. Ridge American Journal of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 101. No. 1. P. 145-193.
This article examines three themes about the relationships among class origin, education, and class destination in 10 industrial nations: (1) differential access to education for different class origins, (2) the allocation of class positions by education, and (3) the role of education in class reproduction and mobility. The patterns of association between class origin and education and between education and class destination are similar across the 10 nations. However, the strength of these associations shows cross-national variations. Class reproduction and mobility involve different social processes, which are differentially affected by education. However, a cross-national similarity emerges again in the way education mediates the association between class origin and destination. The conclusion presents some implications of this analysis for the study of comparative macrosociology.
The Relative Permeability of Class Boundaries to Cross-Class Friendships: A Comparative Study of the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Erik Olin Wright, Donmoon Cho American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 1. P. 85-102.
The structural analysis of classes can be divided into the analysis of class locations and the analysis of permeability of boundaries separating those locations. Marxist analysis of class structure has been primarily concerned with the first of these while Weberian class analysis has focused on the second. We attempt to combine a Marxist structural class concept, which views class locations in capitalist societies as structured by exploitation based on property relations, authority relations and expertise, with the Weberian concern with the ways lives of individuals traverse the boundaries of that structure. We examine patterns of friendship ties across class boundaries in four contemporary capitalist societies: the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway. Three empirical conclusions stand out: (1) The property-based class boundary is the least permeable of the three exploitation dimensions; (2) the authority-based class boundary is significantly more permeable than the expertise-based boundary; and (3) patterns of inter-class friendships are largely invariant across these four countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Wendy Luttrell Sociology of Education. 1989. Vol. 62. No. 1. P. 33-46.
This article describes and analyzes how black and white working-class women define and claim knowledge. It is based on participant observation in classrooms and in-depth interviews outside school with women attending adult basic education programs. The women's perspectives challenge feminist analyses that have identified a single or universal mode of knowing for women; instead, they speak to complex gender, racial, and class relations of power that shape how they think about learning and knowing. Their claims to knowledge simultaneously accept and reject dominant social relations and create paradoxical situations for the women as they pursue adult basic education.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Judith R. Blau, Melanie Archer Annual Review of Sociology. 1993. Vol. 19. P. 17-41.
This review assesses sociological and historical research relevant to the emergence and consolidation of the American middle class in the nineteenth century. On the one hand, macrosociological theories have relied on a two-class model which renders the middle class a residual social category. Yet, on the other hand, community studies of the "new" social history--while they have opened up new avenues of inquiry into the complex social processes underlying middle class formation--have tended to focus on particular decades of the nineteenth century, leading to a fragmented view of the occupational composition of the middle class. Distinct literatures have developed around the study of particular occupational strata: artisans, small capitalists, white-collar wage earners, and the petite bourgeoisie. We argue here that different occupational groups overlap in time and represent a heterogeneous and historically shifting middle class rather than distinct entities. The argument for the integrity of a distinct middle class also rests on an understanding of the development of urban institutions and the cultural expressions of middle-class lifestyles and behavior. The expansion of this middle class, however, was closely linked to a growing economy and increasing equality of opportunity. We speculate that the reversal of these conditions, evident from the 1970s, may undermine the well-being of the middle class and its correlative social values, notably tolerance and civility.
Class Consciousness and Political Change: Voting and Political Attitudes in the British Working Class, 1964 to 1970 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002David Weakliem American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 58. No. 3. P. 382-397.
Most research suggests that changes in political preferences and public opinion are similar for all social groups. I investigate the possibility that prior views of the world, or "ideology," affect responses to new information, and hence changes in opinion. I focus on one type of ideology, levels of class consciousness, using data from opinion surveys of British manual workers in the election years of 1964, 1966, and 1970. Results from a latent class model indicate that changes in political and economic opinions vary with degree of class consciousness. Workers who identified with the working class but held negative attitudes toward unions became considerably more pessimistic about economic conditions and the policies of the Labour Party. This group's behavior may represent either instrumentalism or a perceived conflict between the interests of the working class and the interests of society as a whole. These results cast doubt on conventional views of the relationship between workers' economic interests and support for parties of the left.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jonathan Kelley, Maria D. R. Evans American Sociological Review. 1995. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 157-178.
People's subjective images of class and class conflict reflect a mixture of both materialist forces and the vivid subjective images of equality and consensus among family, friends, and coworkers. These reference group processes distort perceptions of class: They make most people think they are middle class, thereby weakening the link between objective class and subjective perceptions of class and class conflict, fostering consensual rather than conflictual views of class relations, and attenuating the links between class and politics, particularly in Central European nations. Maximum-likelihood analyses of large, representative national samples from six Western democracies support the argument.
Class Formation without Class Struggle: An Elite Conflict Theory of the Transition to Capitalism [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard Lachmann American Sociological Review. 1990. Vol. 55. No. 3. P. 398-414.
An elite conflict model is compared to past work on elites and to a variety of Marxist explanations for the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Elites are defined by their control over organizational apparatuses for appropriating resources from non-elites. An elite in pursuit of its interests is constrained primarily by coexisting elites and secondarily by inter-class relations of production. The effects of elite and class conflict upon elite organizations and relations of production are traced. Conflict among feudal elites is identified as the primary determinant of the form and extent of social structural change in three historical cases: Florence during the Renaissance, England in the century leading up to the 1640 Revolution, and France from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002John R. Logan British Journal of Sociology. 1977. Vol. 83. No. 2. P. 386-402.
A central question for many theories relating economic development and politics is the nature of the political effects of improvements in working-class standards of living. A survey of textile workers in Barcelona indicates that the growing proportion of more affluent workers in Spain in a source of greater class consciousness in the sense of class militancy and politicization. These dimensions of consciousness, however, are inversely associated with working-class identification among higher-income workers. The findings are interpreted within a comparative theoretical framework which emphasizes the relevance of both the pattern of economic growth and the political structure as structural variables conditioning the relationship between affluence and class consciousness.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002John Hagan, Alberto Palloni American Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 96. No. 2. P. 265-299.
The historical concept of a criminal class includes a sociological reference to the concentration and recurrence of crime within groups and across generations. Two family-linked processes may lead to the social reproduction of a criminal class: a cultural/characterological process involving child-raising conditions and practices, and a structural/imputational process involving official labeling. Mead's concern about the perpetuation of a "permanent class of criminals" is discussed, and special attention is given to an intergenerational interaction effect of parent and son labeling on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior. This intergenerational interaction effect is explored, net of the acknowledged role of cultural/characterological influences, which are modeled in several ways using data collected in a well-known London panel study. The article addresses implications of the neglect of labeling effects in contemporary longitudinal research initiatives directed to the formation of crime policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jonathan Kelley, Ian McAllister, Anthony Mughan American Political Science Review. 1985. Vol. 79. No. 3.
Class has long been the preeminent source of political conflict in industrial society, but its electoral influence has declined in recent years. The sources of the decline are not yet firmly established, and moreover the implications for political parties remain unclear. The decline-of-class hypothesis states that parties on the left will decline as the working class becomes more affluent and adopts middle-class styles of conduct. By contrast, the party-appeals hypothesis suggests that as the electorate becomes more middle class, parties of the left will alter their appeals to encompass the growing middle class and so offset the shrinkage of their traditional working-class constituency. This article applies multivariate anaysis to survey data collected in England between 1964 and 1979 to test four specific hypotheses derived from the two scenarios. The results support the decline-of-class theory's prediction that economic development erodes the working-class bases of left-wing parties, but not its claim that the left-wing party's vote declines proportionately. Rather, the results suggest that parties are apparently able to change their appeals to reduce their losses, as argued by the party-appeals theory, but not to eliminate them. It seems that their are restraints on parties' ability to change their appeals, limitations not envisioned by the party appeals theory.
Rethinking Stratification from a Feminist Perspective: Gender, Race, and Class in Mainstream Textbooks [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Myra Marx Ferree, Elaine J. Hall American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 6. P. 929-950.
Economic stratification and social class occupy a central position in sociological discourse as the core organizing features of modern societies. Yet such economically centered models of stratification often disregard factors like physical violence and the intra-household distribution of resources that shape power and autonomy for all group. Using a sample of textbooks from 1983 through 1988, we examine "mainstream" sociology, that is, the sociology that teachers, students, and textbook publishers have treated as nonproblematic. We show how stratification analysis is applied to class, race, and gender in profoundly unequal ways. Rather than integrating macro, meso, and micro levels of social structure as interactive and mutually determinative in their discussions of race, class, and gender, introductory sociology textbooks segregate stratification processes. They discuss class at the societal (or macro) level of analysis, gender at the individual (or micro) level, and race at a group (or meso) level. We analyze the quantitative and qualitative elements of the coverage of class, race, and gender in indexes, texts, pictures, and captions, and suggest that attention to feminist theories of gender would produce a more integrated, multilevel, and interactive view of stratification.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002David Weakliem, Julia McQuillan, Tracy Schauer Sociology of Education. 1995. Vol. 68. No. 4. P. 271-286.
Many observers believe that intellectual ability has become a more important determinant of occupational success in recent decades and that social-class differences in ability have consequently increased. This article examines changes in occupational-class differences in scores on a test of verbal ability for people born between the late 19th century and the 1960s. Contrary to the usual view, class differences have become smaller among people born after about 1945; this development reflects changes in the quantity and the effects of education. Therefore, current social problems cannot be ascribed to an increasing concentration of low-ability people in the lower classes.
The Question of Caste in Modern Society: Durkheim's Contradictory Theories of Race, Class, and Sex [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jennifer M. Lehmann American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 566-585.
I explore a set of contradictions crucial to Durkheim's work, that revolve around the issue of whether modern society (i.e., industrial capitalism) is structured according to the principle of individual mobility or the principle of caste. Specifically, I analyze Durkheim's theories of race, class, and sex to determine if they describe modern society in terms of individuals or in terms of castes. I find that Durkheim has both a dominant and a subordinate theory for each category. I also find that his theories of race and class differ significantly from his theories of sex. Durkheim's dominant theories of race and class and his subordinate theory of sex are theories of individuals in modern society. Conversely, his dominant theory of sex and his subordinate theories of race and class are theories of castes in modern society. I view Durkheim's social theory as a quintessential construction of modernity, and I view Durkheim as a quintessential liberal "of sorts." I conclude that the contradictions at the heart of Durkheim's social theory are contradictions at the heart of modern society--and at the heart of liberal ideology.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Werner S. Landecker American Sociological Review. 1963. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 219-229.
Class crystallization is the degree to which mutually equivalent rank levels of different rank systems coincide in their incumbents, thereby forming social classes and class statuses. Through sample interviewing in Detroit, this variable is explored in its bearing on three types of class consciousness. Evidence regarding two of these, class status consciousness and class interest consciousness, suggests a positive relationship with class crystallization. This finding does not hold for class barrier consciousness which, instead, is fostered by the joint impact of weak crystallization and low status. To account for these diverse results, a distinction between cognitive and affective modes of class consciousness is proposed.
Culture, Class, and Connections [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bonnie H. Erickson American Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 102. No. 1. P. 217-251.
Bourdieu's analysis of class and culture errs in neglecting two important aspects of social structure: social networks and class relations at work. He expects high-status culture to be useful in class because it is correlated with class, but culture used at work includes both genres related to class (used in domination) and genres unrelated to class (used in coordination). High-status culture is correlated with class but excluded, not used, in the competitive private sector. The most widely useful cultural resource is cultural variety, and social network variety is a better source of cultural variety than is class itself.