Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22213
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002James N. Baron Annual Review of Sociology. 1984. Vol. 10. P. 37-69.
This essay reviews recent theory and research on organizations and social stratification, focusing on two dimensions of inequality that are affected by organizations and their environments: (a) how rewards and opportunities vary as a function of organizational attributes and (b) how enterprises differ in their criteria for matching workers and jobs. The effects of reward structures and sorting processes on workers, organizational performance, and interorganizational relations are also considered briefly. Since many hypotheses about labor markets concern links between organizations and socioeconomic achievement, there is a need for comparative organizational research to complement analyses at the individual and aggregate levels. Moreover, the interdependence of career outcomes within and among enterprises is widely recognized but requires explicit study. Future research will benefit immeasurably from the development and testing of hypotheses about how organizations and environments influence labor market processes.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002James N. Baron, William T. Bielby American Sociological Review. 1980. Vol. 45. No. 5. P. 737-765.
This essay examines the shift toward "structural" explanations in recent studies of inequality. After reviewing this body of research and some of its shortcomings, we examine its theoretical underpinnings, comparing "structuralist" perspectives on work organization derived from institutional economics and neo-Marxism to more orthodox accounts based on neoclassical and "industrialism" theories. This discussion suggests areas where the different perspectives overlap and diverge. We conclude that work arrangements within the firm and their trend are the focus of most "structural" perspectives on positional stratification; thus, empirical studies grounded at the organizational level are more likely to inform current debates about the "structure of work" than is the growing body of research about structural effects on individual attainment or covariation among industrial/occupational characteristics. Toward that end, an agenda for future research is outlined, focusing on three aspects of work organization: (a) the units which comprise the structure of work and the dimensions underlying economic segmentation; (b) the effects of sectoral differentiation on technical and administrative arrangements within firms; and (c) temporal changes in how enterprises organize production. We provide some illustrations of the kinds of empirical data and research hypotheses required to link research on segmentation and stratification more closely to studies of organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Tamas Kolosi Annual Review of Sociology. 1988. Vol. 14. P. 405-419.
The study of social structure represents an important field of sociological research in the European socialist countries. At first, the objective of these studies was to revise the ideological model of society developed during the period of Stalinism, a model that distinguished "two allied classes"--the working class and the peasantry--and "one stratum"--the intelligentsia. Later, as knowledge developed, scientific interest shifted from ideological criticism to exploring and understanding actual social conditions. The present paper briefly touches upon these ideological and scientific developments and makes an attempt to build a model that represents both the system of reproduction and the system of inequality of Hungarian society.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Andrew G. Walder American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 4. P. 524-539.
In socialist economies, work organizations differ widely in the compensation they provide employees, despite the absence of key product and labor market processes thought to explain such inequalities in market economies. Existing theories of stratification in socialist economies focus on the power and privilege of elites, but inequalities among organizations are not created by political particularism or elite power. In this paper I sketch elements of an institutional theory of stratification anchored in a conception of property rights--the right to derive income from productive assets. Two aspects of property rights guide the analysis: (1) the dispersion of property rights across a hierarchy of government jurisdictions, and (2) the exercise of these rights by government jurisdictions as they extract revenues, primarily through taxation. Extraction of revenues from a work organization varies with the budgetary resources of a government jurisdiction and the dependence of that jurisdiction on the outputs of the organization. Variation in revenue extraction, in turn, creates inequalities among work organizations in their abilities to provide benefits to employees. An analysis of survey data on the provision of housing and benefits by work organizations in the large industrial city of Tianjin, China provides provisional support for these ideas.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Otis Dudley Duncan, Beverly Duncan American Journal of Sociology. 1955. Vol. 60. No. 5. P. 493-503.
Ecological analysis is a promising approach to the study of urban social stratification, for differences in the residential distributions of occupations groups are found to parallel the differences among them in socio-economic status and recruitment. The occupation groups at the extremes of the socioeconomic scale are the most segregated. Residential concentration in low-rent areas and residential centralization are inversely related to socioeconomic status. Inconsistencies in the ranking of occupation groups according to residential patterns occur at points where there is evidence of status disequilibrium.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Dennis H. Wrong American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 6. P. 772-782.
The functional theory of stratification advanced by Davis and Moore attempts to explain the universality and the necessity of inequality in societies with a complex division of labor, a task that is independent of efforts to explain the division of labor itself or the intergenerational perpetuation of inequalities along family lines. The theory is so general, however, that it excludes none of the Utopian models of "classless societies" proposed by Western thinkers and, its critics to the contrary notwithstanding, says nothing whatsoever about the range of inequality and the determinants of the range in concrete societies. The theory appears to understate the degree to which positions are inherited by failing to view societies in long-range historical perspective. In common with the arguments of its critics, it also ignores the possible disruptive consequences of mobility and equality of opportunity, a theme notably neglected by American sociologists.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Morris Janowitz American Journal of Sociology. 1958. Vol. 64. No. 1. P. 6-24.
By means of a nation-wide sample survey, the social stratification and patterns of social mobility of West Germany were investigated as well as the consequense of social mobility on selected aspects of social and political behavior. These data underline the continuity of the present social structure with that of the prewar period but also record the extensive upward and downward personal social mobility of individual Germans. West Germany has a social structure similar to that of other Western industrialized countries, but, as compared with the United States, its unique circumstances has produced distinctive features. The consequences of social mobility in West Germany seem to be at least temporarily contributing to greater social consensus.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Randall Collins American Sociological Review. 1971. Vol. 36. No. 6. P. 1002-1019.
Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.
Subjective Social Distance, Occupational Stratification, and Forms of Status and Class Consciousness: A Cross-national Replication and Extension [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Edward O. Laumann, Richard Senter American Journal of Sociology. 1976. Vol. 81. No. 6. P. 1304-1338.
After briefly reviewing some general theoretical issues in analyzing systems of social inequality and stratification, we propose a typology of forms of class and status consciousness. A specific procedure employing subjective social distance scales is proposed as an empirical strategy for assessing different forms of status consciousness and exploring their implications for class consciousness and other political and social attitudes. To evaluate the empirical and theoretical utility of this strategy, we report a West German replication of an American study in which substantial evidence is found for a remarkable degree of cross-national similarity in the subjective social distance responses accorded occupations varying in prestige and socioeconomic status, regardless of the class position of the respondent. Some working- and middle-class persons did, indeed, prefer to interact with members of their own class rather than with persons in higher- (or lower-) status occupations; and this manifestation of corporate status consciousness appeared to be specifically linked to other political and social views consonant with such consciousness. But these were relatively minor, albeit systematic, departures from the general picture of prestige-or upward-oriented preferences for intimate interaction at all class levels-what we have called a competitive status consciousness that appeared to be pervasive among lower-status persons in both the American and the German communities studied. While the results can hardly be regarded as definitive, they help to clarify a number of issues in studying subjective consciousness of the class and status order and suggest the promise of further work employing the approach.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Abrahamson American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 5. P. 1236-1246.
This paper presents an analysis of the assumptions that are necessary to test empirically hypotheses from functional theories and from the functional theory of stratification in particular. The study focuses upon Stinchcombe's hypothesis that the income of military-related positions will rise relative to the income of comparable nonmilitary-related positions during times of war. Problems in operationalizing occupational comparability, relative income gains, and wartimes are discussed, and solutions are presented. Data comparing matched occupations between 1939 and 1967 are shown to provide support for Stinchcombe's proposition, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the generalizability of the findings.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Beverly Duncan, Otis Dudley Duncan American Sociological Review. 1968. Vol. 33. No. 3. P. 356-364.
Data concerning educational and occupational achievement, and the influence thereon of social and national origin, are presented for a 1962 sample of native American non-Negro males, ages 25-64, whose family heads had been pursuing a nonfarm occupation when the respondent was 16. There are substantial differences among national-origin groups with respect to both educational and occupational achievement. Allowance for inter-group differences in social origin, by partial regression techniques, reduces the range of difference with respect to educational achievement, and with respect to occupational achievement, by about one-third. The national-origin classification is much less important as an explanation of the variance among respondents with respect to their education and occupation than with respect to the education and occupation of their family heads. In this sense a "melting-pot" phenomenon obtains in America. Once equated with respect to starting point in the social structure and educational attainment, the occupational achievement of one national-origin group differs little from that of another. The experience of non-Negro minorities, as revealed by these data, would argue against the existence of pervasive discrimination on purely ethnic grounds. The notion of equal opportunity irrespective of national origin is a near reality, the outstanding exceptions being the over-achievement of Russian-Americans and the under-achievement of Latin-Americans. This finding contrasts sharply with the evidence, based on the same mode of analysis, of discrimination against the American Negro.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joan Acker American Journal of Sociology. 1973. Vol. 78. No. 4. P. 936-945.
Although women, as aggregates, have lower social status than men in all known societies, sex-based inequalities have not been considered in most theoretical and empirical work on social stratification. Assumptions about the social position of women, found in the stratification literature, implicitly justify the exclusion of sex as a significant variable. This paper argues that these assumptions are logically contradictory and empirically unsupported. If sex is to be taken as a significant variable, the family can no longer be viewed as the unit in social stratification. Conceptual and methodological problems are generated if the family is not considered as the unit. However, a reconceptualization which includes sex-based inequalities may lead to a more accurate and more complex picture of stratification systems.
The History of Poverty in the United States [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Alexander Keyssar
This course is an examination of the history of poverty and of efforts to alleviate or eliminate -- poverty in the United States from the colonial era through the second half of the twentieth century. As such, it is an effort to examine the historical sources of poverty and to understand the ways in which the problem has been understood over a long span of time.
Social Stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Judah Matras
The course examines individual and structural explanations for the generation and maintenance of inequality in the United States and the influence of stratification on individuals and groups. It covers status attainment and social mobility; the allocation of societal rewards according to class, race, and gender; the distribution of educational opportunities and cultural capital; and labor market segmentation by race, ethnicity, and gender. The course will present (1) an analysis of popular, political, and social scientific concern with social equality and inequality, examine trends of social inequality and review the ways in which social inequality regimes have been studied in sociological analysis, including classical and contemporary theories. We will consider (2) problems of identification of the social class- and status-based groupings and analysis of their distinctive characteristics and interrelationships; analysis of patterns of attainment of social status and movement (mobility) among them; and examination of responses to inequality and the ways in which such responses may themselves alter the inequality regimes. We turn, finally, to (3) the bearing of major macro-societal trends, including socio-demographic changes, technological, communication, labor market, and production and distribution trends, and geo-political shifts, on regimes of inequality and stratification.
Proseminar on Inequality and Social Policy [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002David Ellwood
Deals with the causes of economic inequality, including demand for various kinds of skills, the supply of such skills, cultural differences, political attitudes, political institutions, and living arrangements.
Race, Segregation and Inequality [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Lawrence D. Bobo
Examines the changing status of African-Americans in the post-civil rights era from a variety of social science perspectives. The focus is on major scholarly assessments of the status of Blacks. Among the focal points of inquiry will be: race-based economic inequality; processes of racial residential segregation; and racial prejudice and bias in politics and everyday interaction. Although focused on contemporary issues and research, the course draws on foundational approaches developed by Du Bois, Johnson, and Drake and Cayton in their pioneering assessments of the status of Blacks.
Class, state and ideology: An introduction to marxist social science [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Erik Olin Wright
This course provides a rigorous introduction to the core concepts, ideas and theories in the Marxist tradition of critical social science. It is not primarily a course on Marx per se, or on the historical development of Marxism as an intellectual tradition, but rather on the logic, concepts and theories of that tradition. The emphasis, therefore, will be on contemporary problems and debates rather than on the history of ideas. The course will also not attempt to give equal weight to all varieties of Marxisms, but rather will focus especially on what has come to be known as "Analytical Marxism".
Class and Poverty in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain: Conference Course [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002John Lawrence
This course will focus on class and poverty in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th century. Explores shifting discourses of class and social pathology during Britain's emergence as a conservative form of social democracy, and examines a range of primary sources from poverty studies to novels and autobiographies of working-class life in order to scrutinize the British obsession with class and social difference.
Social stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Martha E. Gimenez
The aim of the course is to examine the social stratification of advanced industrial societies. The study of social stratification includes class structure, socioeconomic status rankings, social mobility, and gender/race/ethnic inequality. We will examine some of the major theoretical approaches to the study of stratification, including recent contributions to the study of class, gender, race, and the intersection of class, gender, and race.
The New Class [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Gil Eyal
The idea of the new class haunts the social sciences from their inception. The main point is that knowledge and education constitute a form of social power equivalent to moneycapital or political influence, and hence that at least certain groups of the educated public (variously, intellectuals, managers, technocrats, professionals, bureaucrats) constitute a separate social class with its own interests, power aspirations and projects. Such an idea always hovered on the margins of the social sciences, because it implied that they must examine themselves and their own involvement in social affairs. In short, for a social scientist to study the new class meant to be reflexive, and that is always a dangerous and painful business. Nonetheless, it is also an essential task for any sociologist. In ancient Greece, before one was to enter the temple of Apollo at Delphi, there seeking divine knowledge and advice, one read an inscription on the door - know thyself. The point is well-taken, knowledge of the outside world is useless (possibly even dangerous) without critical self-knowledge, without knowing where one stands in the world. In this seminar we will study theories about the new class, precisely so we can develop a systematic appreciation of the predicament of intellectuals, technocrats and even students at the turn of the century, i.e. our own predicament.