Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22263
Re-thinking the Analysis of Intergenerational Social Mobility: A Comment on John W. Fox's "Social Class, Mental Ilness, and Social Mobility [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bryan Rodgers, Susan L. Mann Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1993. Vol. 34. No. 2. P. 165-172.
The method of analyzing social mobility described by Fox (1990) is flawed in its adjustment for between-group differences in destination status when estimating the extent of the mentally ill's mobility as compared with the general population. Use of the recommended model with hypothetical data sets resulted in a significant finding when no overall upward or downward mobility occurred, and a non-significant result when the downward mobility of a psychotic group was contrived to be massive. An alternative model for the test of group differences in mobility is suggested within the framework of log-linear analysis commended by Fox (1990). This method indicated significantly more downward and less upward mobility in mentally ill groups when data from four studies were re-analyzed. We conclude that the weight of evidence from published studies supports the notion of social selection-drift, although this does not imply the inconsequence of social factors in the aetiology of schizophrenia (and other psychoses) or in its prognosis and occupational consequences.
A Comparative Study of Working-Class Disorganization: Union Decline in Eighteen Advanced Capitalist Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bruce Western American Sociological Review. 1995. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 179-201.
In contrast to the diverse trends that prevailed for most of the postwar period, unionization rates in the advanced capitalist countries generally declined in the 1980s. I propose a discrete-time hazard-rate model to explain this novel pattern of labor disorganization. Model estimates indicate that union decline is related to growing economic openness, unemployment, pre-existing levels of unionization, the decentralization of collective bargaining institutions, and the electoral failure of social democratic parties through the 1980s.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong American Sociological Review. 1992. Vol. 57. No. 3. P. 396-410.
Class theorists often argue against the use of unidimensional or hierarchical analyses in class mobility research. They assert that nonvertical effects are of paramount importance in understanding the structure and process of stratification. By explicitly incorporating both vertical and nonvertical effects into the structural model of class mobility, I demonstrate the importance of both effects for understanding the structure of mobility chances within and between countries. Although vertical and nonvertical effects are equally important in explaining association patterns in individual countries, nonvertical effects are the major source of cross-national variation. Two nonvertical effects are particularly important: economic sector of employment--whether nonmanual, manual, or farm; and employment status--whether self-employed or not.
Class Voting in Capitalist Democracies Since World War II: Dealignment, Realignment, or Trendless Fluctuation? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Jeff Manza, Michael Hout, Clem Brooks Annual Review of Sociology. 1995. Vol. 21. P. 137-162.
Over the last two decades, many social scientists have argued that the stable class politics of industrial capitalism is giving way to newer types of social and attitudinal cleavages. Some scholars have gone further to associate what they see as significant declines in the anchorings provided by class with the rise of new political movements, parties, and even politicians standing for office completely outside traditional party systems. Advances in class theory and statistical methods coupled with the availability of high quality data have led others to reexamine the issue. They have suggested that these arguments reflect a misreading of the empirical evidence and/or exaggerate the significance of these developments. We conclude that despite the absence of a clear consensus in the field, theories asserting a universal process of class dealignment are not supported.
Women, Family and Class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Annemette Sorensen Annual Review of Sociology. 1994. Vol. 20. P. 27-47.
The question of how to incorporate women in class analysis and stratification research has been the topic of heated controversy in recent decades. Much of the debate has been about the conventional approach to research on social mobility and class analysis that assumes the family to be the unit of stratification and the family's class position to be determined independently of women's work position. Those defending the conventional view can show that research on the empirical validity of the conventional view provides partial support for it, and that its use in previous empirical research probably has not resulted in serious misrepresentations. In this article, I review the literature on these issues. I summarize the criticism and defense of the conventional view and review research that examines its empirical adequacy. This is followed by a discussion of alternative approaches to the determination of the family's class position.
The Permeability of Class Boundaries to Intergenerational Mobility Among Men in the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Mark Western, Erik Olin Wright American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. No. 4. P. 606-629.
We explore the differential permeability of three class boundaries--the boundaries determined by property, authority and expertise--to intergenerational mobility among men in four developed capitalist economies: the United States, Canada, Norway and Sweden. We conclude: (1) In all four countries, the authority boundary is the most permeable to intergenerational mobility; (2) in the two North American countries, the patterns of permeability of class boundaries are broadly consistent with the expectations of neo-Marxist conceptualizations of class--the property boundary is the least permeable, followed by the expertise boundary, and then the authority boundary; (3) in the two Scandinavian countries, especially in Sweden, the property and expertise boundaries do not differ significantly in their degree of permeability; (4) the class boundary between workers and capitalists is less permeable than would be predicted from a strictly additive model of the permeability of the three dimensions of the class structure (property + authority + expertise); and (5) in the United States and Canada, the patterns of class boundary permeability to mobility are similar to the patterns of permeability to friendship and cross-class marriages, while mobility patterns in Norway and Sweden differ from friendship and marriage patterns.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard Centers American Journal of Sociology. 1953. Vol. 58. No. 6. P. 543-555.
Utilizing survey research methods, an investigation was carried out to clarify the public's conceptions of occupation and belief as criteria of the several social classes. The data were analyzed with a view to determining the constancies and discrepancies in conception between the various classes and the extent to which the individual's own subjective affiliation influences his ideas. The study confirms the importance of belief as a criterion of class ascription.
Public Opinion and Social Class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Arthur Kornhauser American Journal of Sociology. 1950. Vol. 55. No. 4. P. 333-345.
Grave difficulties are encountered in efforts to demonstrate that social class accounts for differences in opinions on economic and political questions and that particular class factors are especially decisive. A consideration of limitations and sources of error in research on the problem leads to proposals concerning more adequate study of opinions, clearer analysis of class attributes and their interrelations, more critical procedures in interpreting variables as determinants, and, above all, the use of coherent theory dealing with the processes by which class influences produce given effects.
Class Boundaries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Werner S. Landecker American Sociological Review. 1960. Vol. 25. No. 6. P. 868-877.
Class boundaries are conceived as properties of a multiple system of stratification, composed of several rank systems. In each system, the same population is ranked by a different criterion of status. The central question in boundary analysis is: To what extent are the incumbents of any two contiguous ranks of one rank system separated in another? The magnitude of a class boundary is measured by the degree of such separation. This method is applied to the population of Detroit and is used in testing alternative predictions derived, respectively, from "class structure" and "status continuum" hypotheses. The findings suggest that each of these hypotheses is appropriate to a different range within the same stratification system.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Gerhard E. Lenski, John C. Leggett American Journal of Sociology. 1960. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 463-467.
To test the influence of the defence norm on low-status respondent when questioned by middleclass interviewers, a cross-section of Detroiters were asked their views concerning two mutually contradictory propositions used at widely separated points in the interview. As predicted, the norm led in nearly 8 per cent to agree with both statements despite their highly contradictory character. This raises serious questions concerning the validity of the A-scale and concerning the interpretation of the F-scale. This study serves as yet another reminder that the research interview invariably creates a social relationship with consequences of importance forthe interpretation of data.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Arthur L. Stinchcombe American Journal of Sociology. 1961. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 165-176.
Property is far more important in rural stratification than in urban stratification, where occupational position predominates. There is less similarity of the property systems in commercialized agriculture than there is in urban occupational structure. In agricultural production for markets, the main types of property systems are commercialized manorial systems, plantation systems, and ranching systems. Each of these produces a distinctive pattern of class relations, determining the sharpness of differences of legal privileges and style of life, and shaping the distribution of technical culture and political activity.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Seymour Martin Lipset American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 482-501.
A variety of evidence from many countries suggests that low status and low education predispose individuals to favor extremist, intolerant, and transvaluational forms of political and religious behavior. The evidence includes reports from surveys concerning differential attitudes among the various strata towards democratic values, including civil liberties for unpopular political groups, civil rights for ethnic minorities, legitimacy of opposition, and proper limits on the power of national political leaders; psychological research on the personality traits of different strata; data on the composition and appeal of chiliastic religious sects; and materials bearing on the support of authoritarian movements. The factors operating to support this predisposition are all those which make for a lack of "sophistication," a complex view of causal relations, and heightened insecurity, both objective and subjective. These findings suggest that the success of the Communist Party among those of low status in poorer nations is positively related to its authoritarian character.
Social Class and Size of Community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Thomas Ely Lasswell American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 505-508.
Descriptions of the patterns of social stratification of the home towns of 151 subjects were sorted according to the local populations of 1950. The subjects' conceptions of social classes were shown to vary with the size of the communities; certain marked distinctions in the number of classes were believed to exist in the communities, and, even though the same values seemed to be involved, their relative importance, as indicated by frequency in being mentioned, varied significatly among the categories of communities.
Social Class in American Sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Milton M. Gordon American Journal of Sociology. 1951. Vol. 55. No. 3. P. 262-268.
Despite the rapid development of social-class analysis within the last twenty-five years in American sociology, there is no agreement on the meaning of the term as a research tool. A series of analytical questions to be used in a survey of recent class materials is proposed to aid in the discovering of common ground. These questions revolve around definition, which may be in terms of economic power, status ascription, group life, cultural attributes, political power, or their combination; ascertainment, or class placement; defferences; social mobility; and the relationship of class to ethnic stratification.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Sociological Review. 1959. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 352-366.
The conditions under which middle- and working-class parents punish their pre-adolescent children physically, or refrain from doing so, appear to be quite different. Working-class parents are more likely to respond in terms of the immediate consequences of the child's actions, middle-class parents in terms of their interpretation of the child's intent in acting as he does. This reflects differences in parents' values: Working-class parents value for their children qualities that assure respectability; desirable behavior consists essentially of not violating proscriptions. Middle-class parents value the child's development of internalized standards of conduct; desirable behavior consists essentially of acting according to the dictates of one's own principles. The first necessarily focuses on the act itself, the second on the actor's intent.
Social Class and Parental Values [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Melvin L. Kohn American Journal of Sociology. 1959. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 337-351.
Middle-and working-class parents share a broadly common se of values-but not an identical set by any means. There appears to be a close fit between the actual workings-class situation and the values of working-class parents; between the actual middle-class situation and the values of middle-class parents. In either situation the values that seem important but problematic are the ones most likely to be accorded high priority. For the working class the "important but problematic" centers around qualities that assure respectability; for the middle class it centers around internalized standards of conduct.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Karl O'Lessker American Journal of Sociology. 1969. Vol. 74. No. 1. P. 63-69.
No agreement yet exists among social scientists as to sources of naziism's sudden electoral surge in 1930 and 1932. One widely held view, stressing the importance of the "outcast and apathetic," has been sharply challenged by S. M. Lipset, who argues that electoral support for Hitler was essentially a middle-class phenomenon. But on the basis of a new analysis of the voting returns, I conclude that a combination of former non-voters and traditional Rightists gave naziism its first great success, and the bulk of the middle-class vote went to Hitler only after the Nazis had established themselves as the largest non-Marxist party in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Richard F. Hamilton American Sociological Review. 1966. Vol. 31. No. 2. P. 192-199.
A test of claims made about white-collar workers shows the following: about half identify themselves as "working-class." Those identifying themselves as middle-class are not marginal; the working-class identifiers are the ones who have low incomes. Working-class identifiers report working-class origins and middle-class identifiers indicate middle-class origins. "Authoritarianism" is not especially prevalent among the clerical workers who are economically marginal. Some comparative materials are examined and alternative lines of theory indicated.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Joel I. Nelson American Journal of Sociology. 1968. Vol. 74. No. 2. P. 184-192.
Research is reported on the relation between anomie and membership in the old and the new middle class. The old and the new middle class are defined in terms of two dimensions: (1) access to large-scale industrial bureaucracies-a factor relevant to mass-society theory-and (2) ownership as opposed to management of capital-a factor relevant to a more traditional class-oriented, economic theory. The data are generally more consistent with an economic viewpoint than a mass-society viewpoint: at low and moderate income levels owners tend to be more anomic than managers; bureaucratic affiliations are not, however, related to anomie. An attempt is made to trace the differences in anomie between owners and managers to varying mobility commitments. Owners tend to be less mobility oriented than managers. When commitments to mobility are controlled, the differences on anomie between the two groups attenuate to a point where they are no longer statistically significant. This result is discussed within a more general theoretical perspective.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Maurice Zeitlin American Journal of Sociology. 1966. Vol. 71. No. 5. P. 493-508.
Cuba has been characterized by abrupt political and social transitions, and Cubans have interpreted their history to a significant extent in generational terms. This study is based on interviews with 202 Cuban industrial workers. Hypotheses were formulated in accordance with the concept of political generation. Each political generation, both in the aggregate and in structural (employment-status) subgroups, had prerevolutionary attitudes toward the Communists and has responded to the Castro revolution as predicted from knowledge of the historical experiences hypothesized to have been of decisive political relevance in the formation of that generation.