Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Randall Collins American Sociological Review. 1971.  Vol. 36. No. 6. P. 1002-1019. 
Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Edward O. Laumann, Richard Senter American Journal of Sociology. 1976.  Vol. 81. No. 6. P. 1304-1338. 
After briefly reviewing some general theoretical issues in analyzing systems of social inequality and stratification, we propose a typology of forms of class and status consciousness. A specific procedure employing subjective social distance scales is proposed as an empirical strategy for assessing different forms of status consciousness and exploring their implications for class consciousness and other political and social attitudes. To evaluate the empirical and theoretical utility of this strategy, we report a West German replication of an American study in which substantial evidence is found for a remarkable degree of cross-national similarity in the subjective social distance responses accorded occupations varying in prestige and socioeconomic status, regardless of the class position of the respondent. Some working- and middle-class persons did, indeed, prefer to interact with members of their own class rather than with persons in higher- (or lower-) status occupations; and this manifestation of corporate status consciousness appeared to be specifically linked to other political and social views consonant with such consciousness. But these were relatively minor, albeit systematic, departures from the general picture of prestige-or upward-oriented preferences for intimate interaction at all class levels-what we have called a competitive status consciousness that appeared to be pervasive among lower-status persons in both the American and the German communities studied. While the results can hardly be regarded as definitive, they help to clarify a number of issues in studying subjective consciousness of the class and status order and suggest the promise of further work employing the approach.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Mark Abrahamson American Journal of Sociology. 1973.  Vol. 78. No. 5. P. 1236-1246. 
This paper presents an analysis of the assumptions that are necessary to test empirically hypotheses from functional theories and from the functional theory of stratification in particular. The study focuses upon Stinchcombe's hypothesis that the income of military-related positions will rise relative to the income of comparable nonmilitary-related positions during times of war. Problems in operationalizing occupational comparability, relative income gains, and wartimes are discussed, and solutions are presented. Data comparing matched occupations between 1939 and 1967 are shown to provide support for Stinchcombe's proposition, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the generalizability of the findings.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Beverly Duncan, Otis Dudley Duncan American Sociological Review. 1968.  Vol. 33. No. 3. P. 356-364. 
Data concerning educational and occupational achievement, and the influence thereon of social and national origin, are presented for a 1962 sample of native American non-Negro males, ages 25-64, whose family heads had been pursuing a nonfarm occupation when the respondent was 16. There are substantial differences among national-origin groups with respect to both educational and occupational achievement. Allowance for inter-group differences in social origin, by partial regression techniques, reduces the range of difference with respect to educational achievement, and with respect to occupational achievement, by about one-third. The national-origin classification is much less important as an explanation of the variance among respondents with respect to their education and occupation than with respect to the education and occupation of their family heads. In this sense a "melting-pot" phenomenon obtains in America. Once equated with respect to starting point in the social structure and educational attainment, the occupational achievement of one national-origin group differs little from that of another. The experience of non-Negro minorities, as revealed by these data, would argue against the existence of pervasive discrimination on purely ethnic grounds. The notion of equal opportunity irrespective of national origin is a near reality, the outstanding exceptions being the over-achievement of Russian-Americans and the under-achievement of Latin-Americans. This finding contrasts sharply with the evidence, based on the same mode of analysis, of discrimination against the American Negro.

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Joan Acker American Journal of Sociology. 1973.  Vol. 78. No. 4. P. 936-945. 
Although women, as aggregates, have lower social status than men in all known societies, sex-based inequalities have not been considered in most theoretical and empirical work on social stratification. Assumptions about the social position of women, found in the stratification literature, implicitly justify the exclusion of sex as a significant variable. This paper argues that these assumptions are logically contradictory and empirically unsupported. If sex is to be taken as a significant variable, the family can no longer be viewed as the unit in social stratification. Conceptual and methodological problems are generated if the family is not considered as the unit. However, a reconceptualization which includes sex-based inequalities may lead to a more accurate and more complex picture of stratification systems.

The History of Poverty in the United States [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Alexander Keyssar
This course is an examination of the history of poverty and of efforts to alleviate or eliminate -- poverty in the United States from the colonial era through the second half of the twentieth century. As such, it is an effort to examine the historical sources of poverty and to understand the ways in which the problem has been understood over a long span of time.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Social Stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Judah Matras
Fall 2001
The course examines individual and structural explanations for the generation and maintenance of inequality in the United States and the influence of stratification on individuals and groups. It covers status attainment and social mobility; the allocation of societal rewards according to class, race, and gender; the distribution of educational opportunities and cultural capital; and labor market segmentation by race, ethnicity, and gender. The course will present (1) an analysis of popular, political, and social scientific concern with social equality and inequality, examine trends of social inequality and review the ways in which social inequality regimes have been studied in sociological analysis, including classical and contemporary theories. We will consider (2) problems of identification of the social class- and status-based groupings and analysis of their distinctive characteristics and interrelationships; analysis of patterns of attainment of social status and movement (mobility) among them; and examination of responses to inequality and the ways in which such responses may themselves alter the inequality regimes. We turn, finally, to (3) the bearing of major macro-societal trends, including socio-demographic changes, technological, communication, labor market, and production and distribution trends, and geo-political shifts, on regimes of inequality and stratification.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Proseminar on Inequality and Social Policy [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
David Ellwood
Fall 2002
Deals with the causes of economic inequality, including demand for various kinds of skills, the supply of such skills, cultural differences, political attitudes, political institutions, and living arrangements.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Race, Segregation and Inequality [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Lawrence D. Bobo
Examines the changing status of African-Americans in the post-civil rights era from a variety of social science perspectives. The focus is on major scholarly assessments of the status of Blacks. Among the focal points of inquiry will be: race-based economic inequality; processes of racial residential segregation; and racial prejudice and bias in politics and everyday interaction. Although focused on contemporary issues and research, the course draws on foundational approaches developed by Du Bois, Johnson, and Drake and Cayton in their pioneering assessments of the status of Blacks.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Erik Olin Wright
This course provides a rigorous introduction to the core concepts, ideas and theories in the Marxist tradition of critical social science. It is not primarily a course on Marx per se, or on the historical development of Marxism as an intellectual tradition, but rather on the logic, concepts and theories of that tradition. The emphasis, therefore, will be on contemporary problems and debates rather than on the history of ideas. The course will also not attempt to give equal weight to all varieties of Marxisms, but rather will focus especially on what has come to be known as "Analytical Marxism".
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
John Lawrence
This course will focus on class and poverty in Britain in the late 19th and early 20th century. Explores shifting discourses of class and social pathology during Britain's emergence as a conservative form of social democracy, and examines a range of primary sources from poverty studies to novels and autobiographies of working-class life in order to scrutinize the British obsession with class and social difference.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Social stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Martha E. Gimenez
The aim of the course is to examine the social stratification of advanced industrial societies. The study of social stratification includes class structure, socioeconomic status rankings, social mobility, and gender/race/ethnic inequality. We will examine some of the major theoretical approaches to the study of stratification, including recent contributions to the study of class, gender, race, and the intersection of class, gender, and race.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

The New Class [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Gil Eyal
The idea of the new class haunts the social sciences from their inception. The main point is that knowledge and education constitute a form of social power equivalent to moneycapital or political influence, and hence that at least certain groups of the educated public (variously, intellectuals, managers, technocrats, professionals, bureaucrats) constitute a separate social class with its own interests, power aspirations and projects. Such an idea always hovered on the margins of the social sciences, because it implied that they must examine themselves and their own involvement in social affairs. In short, for a social scientist to study the new class meant to be reflexive, and that is always a dangerous and painful business. Nonetheless, it is also an essential task for any sociologist. In ancient Greece, before one was to enter the temple of Apollo at Delphi, there seeking divine knowledge and advice, one read an inscription on the door - know thyself. The point is well-taken, knowledge of the outside world is useless (possibly even dangerous) without critical self-knowledge, without knowing where one stands in the world. In this seminar we will study theories about the new class, precisely so we can develop a systematic appreciation of the predicament of intellectuals, technocrats and even students at the turn of the century, i.e. our own predicament.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Erik Olin Wright
The course will revolve around six broad topics: The theory of history; class structure; class formation and class struggle; the theory of the state and politics; ideology and consciousness; socialism and emancipation.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

The Challenge of Global Equity [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Sudhir Anand, Lincoln Chen
Global equity or "fairness" is undoubtedly one of the premier challenges of our globalizing times. How can markets be made pro-poor? What about global public goods and their production? What are the roles of social institutions? How do these questions play out in specific equity fields, like income, health, and education? Debates about global inequities have animated social protest movements, foreign aid policies, reform of global institutions, and specific policies and programs. Mapping the intellectual terrain, reviewing evidence, pinpointing areas of contention, and proposing fresh approaches will comprise the core of this seminar course. Grades will be determined based on classroom participation, two term papers (brief policy-oriented memo and an essay). No final exam.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Theories of Class and Stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Carl Cuneo
This course introduces the student to sociological theories of social inequality. It is thus a foundation for many other courses in sociology. We will focus primarily on class, status, and power, with some attention to the state, gender, race, and culture. The course is organized around the study of selected authors - Marx, Weber, Gramsci, Poulantzas, Carchedi, Durkheim, Parsons, Davis and Moore, Dahrendorf, and Wright, - and their critiques in terms of gender and race. Selected books and articles on their writings will be used. In addition, the instructor's notes are available in a variety of formats. These take the form of passive documents in wordperfect and ASCII formats, and live interactive documents on the world wide web.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию

Seminar on the theory of the state (1995) [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Erik Olin Wright
At the core of this seminar is a moral and political concern: to what extent is it possible to achieve a more egalitarian, humane and democratic society within a capitalist society? It is a fundamental tenet of Marxist theories of the state that the state in capitalist society is deeply shaped and constrained by the class relations of capitalism, but this leaves quite open the extent to which progressive change can be achieved within those constraints. At one extreme is classical Leninism, which sees the capitalist state as so profoundly imbued with a capitalist character that even where nominally democratic institutions exist, there is little prospect for progressive change. The state is fundamentally a "superstructure": its form and structures functionally reproduce the basic class relations of capitalism. As a result, to use Lenin's expression, the state must be smashed; serious reforms in an egalitarian direction will inevitably fail or be reversed. At the other extreme is classical social democracy which viewed state apparatuses as basically class neutral and regarded class structure as simply one among a variety of obstacles to be overcome. Popular mobilization, particularly when organized through a coordination of the labor movement and socialist parties, had the potential to gradually reform capitalism in a radically egalitarian direction through social democratic state policies. Between these extremes are a varietry of theoretical and political positions which see the constraints on radical change imposed by the capitalist state as variable, both in terms of the kinds of changes they permit and the extent to which struggles can transform the constraints themselves. The "contradictory functionality" of the state creates a complex, variable political space within which egalitarian, democratic, and even emancipatory politics can be pursued.

The central task of this seminar, then, is to explore a range of theoretical and empirical issues that bear on the problem of understanding such possibilities for radical, egalitarian politics in capitalist societies. Above all we will focus on the problem of the complex interconnections between class, the economy, and the state. To develop the theoretical tools to approach these issues we will have to grapple with some fairly abstract of conceptual questions: what does it mean to say that the state has a "class character"? What is the difference between an external constraint on state actions imposed by class relations and an internal institutionalization of class constraints within the state itself? What does it mean to describe the state as having "autonomy" -- relative, potential, limited or absolute? The seminar, however, will not primarily grapple with these issues at a purely abstract conceptual level. Rather, in most of the sessions we will focus on specific historical/empirical problems through which we will refine the conceptual tools and build our theoretical understanding.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Social Stratication and Inequality [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Dan Powers
This course discusses major sociological approaches to the study of social stratication and inequality. We begin with an examination of the concepts of social stratication social inequality, with an emphasis on the major dimensions of stratication in the U.S. We will focus on the distribution of income and wealth in the U.S. over the last 50 years and look at recent changes in this distribution and explanations of change. Next we will explore the major theoretical traditions that form the basis for contemporary class analysis, with an overview of the major class divisions in the U.S. We will examine forms and processes of stratication, with a focus on patterns of social mobility and dierences in these processes and outcomes by race and gender.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Foundations of Class Analysis [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Erik Olin Wright
This course will explore a broad range of issues in the Marxist tradition of social theory and social science. I refer deliberately to the Marxist tradition rather than Marxism as such. Marxism, like other isms, suggests a doctrine, a closed system of thought rather than an open theoretical framework of scientific inquiry. It is for this reason, for example, that Creationists (religious opponents to the theory of biological evolution) refer to evolutionary theory as Darwinism. They want to juxtapose Creationism and Darwinism as alternative doctrines, each grounded in different articles of faith. It has been a significant liability of the Marxist tradition that it has been named after a particular historical person and generally referred to as an ism. This reinforces a tendency for the theoretical practice of Marxists to often look more like ideology (or even theology when Marxism becomes Marxology and Marxolatry) than social science. It is for this reason that I prefer the looser expression the Marxist tradition to Marxism as a way of designating the theoretical enterprise. Foundations of Class Analysis 3 I feel that the broad Marxist tradition of social thought remains a vital setting for advancing our understanding of the contradictions in existing societies and the possibilities for egalitarian social change, but I do not believe it provides us with a comprehensive doctrine that automatically gives us the right answers to every question. The overall objective of this course is to provide a rigorous introduction to the core concepts, ideas and theories in the Marxist tradition of critical social science. The course will revolve around six broad topics: The theory of history; class structure; class formation and class struggle; the theory of the state and politics; ideology and consciousness; socialism and emancipation.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл

Social Stratification [учебная программа]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002
Tak Wing Chan
Tutorial topics and readings: What do sociologists mean by social class? How has the class structure of industrial societies evolved? And how does the pattern of intergenerational class mobility vary between countries and over time? Might Britain be a meritocracy? What do we know about intelligence and its heritability? And what is the role of measured cognitive ability and schooling in determining socio-economic success in modern industrial societies? What is the origin of the underclass? Compare status and class as different dimensions of social stratification. Can social caste in India be usefully seen as a form of status stratification? What explains occupational sex segregation, and how its variation between countries and over time? Is conventional class analysis sexist? And Does conventional mobility research underestimate social fluidity by ignoring women's mobility experience? What accounts for the recent trends in income inequality, and what are their implications for social stratification?
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл