Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Rational action theory for sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 2. P. 167-192.
Rational action theory (RAT) is not a highly unified intellectual entity. In the first part of the paper, varieties of RAT are distinguished in terms of three criteria: i.e. according to whether they (i) have strong rather than weak rationality requirements; (ii) focus on situational rather than procedural rationality; (iii) claim to provide a general rather than a special theory of action. In the second part, these same criteria are applied in a consideration of which version of RAT holds out most promise for use in sociology.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Siu-lun Wong, Janet W. Salaf British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 3. P. 358-74.
In this paper, we argue that it would be fruitful to regard personal networks as a form of capital capable of generating economic returns by drawing on our research findings on the recent wave of emigration from Hong Kong. By putting network capital on a par with economic and cultural capital, we seek to identify its distinctive features in terms of institutionalization, capacity, moral economy, and processes of conversion and reproduction. In substantiating our argument, we present some quantitative evidence from our survey data on the uneven distribution of kinship ties which can be mobilized for emigration among different occupational classes. We then make use of our in-depth interview data to show that there is a qualitative variation too in the type of networks used by different occupational classes for emigration purposes. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the concept of network capital for the study of migration, class formation, and the global economy.
Business Citizenship at Work: Cultural Transposition and Class Formation in Cincinnati, 1870 - 1910 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jeffrey Haydu American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 6. P. 1424-1467.
This article links class analysis and institutionalism through a case study of late-19th-century employers. Class analysis extends institutionalism by highlighting an additional source of cultural transposition a generalized identity summarized here as "business citizenship." Institutionalism, in turn, shows how civic associations worked to unify employers and foster an overarching class consciousness. The case study provides an overview of class formation among Cincinnati employers and illustrates how business citizenship carried over from the realms of political reform and high culture to personnel management and industrial training. Some comparative observations suggest this pattern of class formation and cultural transposition was typical.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Roger V. Gould American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1143-1178.
This article offers a formal theoretical model of the emergence of hierarchy that bridges the division between individualistic and structuralist accounts of inequality. In the model, actors reproduce status hierarchies by adjusting their own status-conferring gestures according to collective attributions. These collective attributions are just the aggregate of individual gestures, leading to a self-reinforcing status ranking. Winner-take-all hierarchies are discouraged, however, when people prefer reciprocation of their status-conferring actions. The model therefore depicts a status ranking as an equilibrium resulting from individual responses to the trade-off between social influence and the distaste for making unreciprocated gestures. Analysis of the model generates several precise predictions about the patterns that social networks should exhibit at equilibrium. Data on interaction in task groups, friendship ratings in a fraternity, and play in a set of infant quintuplets is used to show that the formal theory makes unusually accurate predictions about network structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Vivek Chibber American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 4. P. 951-989.
There has been a resuscitation of the view that the state can play an important role in the industrialization process. But, for states to be successful in fostering development, they need a considerable degree of internal cohesiveness, which is generally supplied by the presence of a robust, Weberian bureaucratic corps. This article argues that, while internal cohesiveness is indeed critical, bureaucratic rule following can produce results in the opposite direction, depending on the interagency relations that obtain within the state. The effect of interagency relations is demonstrated through an examination of India and Korea. Both have worked to foster industrialization, and both are endowed with relatively healthy bureaucracies. However, the Indian state was paralyzed and fragmented, while its Korean counterpart did secure the requisite internal coherence. Not only did the culture of rule following fail to generate a cohesive state in India, but it, in fact, worked against such an outcome.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lindon J. Robison, Marcelo E. Siles Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 43-93.
It is asked if change in social capital influences the level and disparity of household income in the US. Social capital is defined as one's sympathy (antipathy) for others and one's idealized self. The relationship between changes in social capital indicator variables and changes in the average and coefficient of variation of household income were tested. State CVs and averages of household income were calculated for all 50 states and for different races/ethnic groups using the US Census data for 1980 and 1990. Social capital indicator variables selected to measure changes in social capital included measures of family integrity including the percentages of households headed by a single female with children, educational achievement variables including high school graduation rates, crime rate variables including litigation rates, and labor force participation rates. The social capital indicator variables appeared to be significantly correlated with each other. However, in 1980, the percentages of households headed by a single female with children was not significantly related to the birth rates of single teens. By 1990, however, a strong correlation was found between the percentages of households headed by a single female with children and the birth rate of single teens.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elias L. Khalil Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 157-173.
Two kinds of order are distinguished: the order of the firm and other organizations, such as households and states, and the order of the market and other structures, such as networks and associations. The dichotomy parallels the difference between organisms and ecosystems. While both kinds are spontaneous, i.e., not artificial or designed by an external agency, they differ in one important aspect. While structures express efficient arrangement given the constraining variables, organizations involve political constitutions expressing coherent individuality whose nature is not premised on efficiency considerations. The dichotomy sheds light on the difference between market dynamics and organization development.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Erich Kirchler Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 2. P. 131-138.
Taxes limit an individual's freedom to make autonomous decisions about his income. A person is likely to respond to restrictions on his own freedom or perceived restrictions by reactance if opposition is a promising means for reestablishing the initial situation. Reactance as a consequence of perceived limitation of freedom is likely to manifest itself through change of attitudes, tax morale, and tax behavior. It is hypothesized that employers who have been running their business only a short time perceive taxes as a drastic cut in their profit and possibilities for investments and tend to feel limited their freedom and consequently display reactance more than employers who have had more extensive experience with their firms and the tax system. A sample of 117 employers with one or more dependent workers completed a questionnaire on: 1. perceived limitation of one's freedom through tax obligations, 2. attitudes towards tax evasion, 3. moral standards with regard to paying taxes, 4. actions to reduce or avoid taxes, and 5. demographic characteristics.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter C. Kostant Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 203-246.
Striking changes in the norms and practices of corporate governance have occurred since the 1980s. Corporate directors have become more independent and diligent and institutional investors have become more activist. If one applies Albert Hirschman's insights about the interactions of exit, voice and loyalty, it is found that over-reliance on exit as the remedy of choice of shareholders and educate managers effectively. After the wave of hostile takeovers, the extent of management failure became apparent and the increased power of voice was an important factor in accelerating changes in conduct and norms. The new Team Production Model is useful in describing how public corporations are increasingly being governed. The model helps to explain why corporate boards should function as independent arbitrators among the corporate constituents that have invested in the entity. Mechanisms to increase stakeholder voice and loyalty can help the board function effectively and may increase both efficiency and fairness. The role of corporate msel, as co-agent with corporate management, and having an independent fiduciary duty to the entity and not its management, is essential to assist the corporate board in meeting its obligations within the Team Production Model. Lawyers, as honest brokers with duties to the enterprise, can an important role in increasing stakeholder voice and loyalty.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gary D. Lynne Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 267-288.
Microeconomics envisions a single decision-maker in a firm or household who is presumed to experience economic relationships only in markets. This theory is largely silent regarding the moral dimension, i.e., the nature of the invisible hand, and how it unconsciously affects the self acting in said markets. Amitai Etzioni, the founder of socioeconomics, offered the vision of the moral dimension as a component of the self. Metaeconomics operationalizes this vision by making explicit the Strict Father moral dimension in the invisible hand and recognizing interdependence of self when Nurturant Parent morality is operant. It builds upon a tripartite, multiple-self concept, with a mediating adult who balances the pleasures with the moral dimension in finding a satisfactory mix of self - and we-interests. By making this dimension explicit, metaeconomics reintegrates ethics and economics, includes values and community, and proposes the starting point for a common analytical engine for all socioeconomists.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski, Barry B. Levine Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 309-334.
The task is to explore social underpinnings in economic exchanges. This oration is undertaken within the frame of reference of socio-economics that centers on the multifarious social and cultural variables of economic phenomena. In particular, the socio-economic perspective on the market, focusing on the social setting of market exchanges, is utilized. As such, this exploration probes under the surface of (seemingly) cost-benefit induced exchange processes and uncovers a far more complex social structure and dynamics underlying these processes. Hence, these processes are analyzed as constituting socio-economic categories of the market. The social-cultural contingency of economic exchange, especially of its market varieties, is the key hypothesis. This signifies that market exchange, just as production, distribution, and consumption, is a dependent variable on concrete social-historical conditions, rather than being a human universal. The approach proposed here provides an alternative to the purely economic conception, which treats exchange processes as strictly economic variables driven by an intrinsic logic and insulated from other social relations. The mainstream economic literature's lack of consistent applications of such an approach to market exchange contrasts with the richness of such applications in the field of socio-economics. An attempt is made to contribute toward further elaboration and application of socio-economics.
The volunteer's folly and socio-economic man: Some thoughts on altruism, rationality, and community [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Trevor M. Knox Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 475-492.
Altruistic volunteers are either not truly altruistic or not rational, according to traditional economic analysis. They are not altruistic if they volunteer to receive a utility benefit, and they are not rational if they choose to volunteer when monetary contribution would be more efficient. Economic man is a fool to volunteer. However, socio-economic man is shrewder. Socio-economic man is moderately deontological, path-dependent, nonmonetary, nonrationally motivated, and community-minded. Corresponding elements of socio-economic rationality that allow for rational, altruistic volunteers are considerd. The five elements considered are: 1, nonconsequentialist reasons, 2. constitutive choices, 3. pricelessness, 4. nonrational motivation, and 5. community preference production.
Institutional determinants of savings: Implications for low-income households and public policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sondra G. Beverly, Michael Sherraden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 457-473.
There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in low-income households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? These questions are addressed by examining the effects of institutional variables on saving behavior. It is posited that four institutional variables-institutionalized saving mechanisms, targeted financial education, attractive saving incentives, and facilitation-promote saving. However, low-income households are substantially less likely to have access to these institutions, a phenomenon that may help explain their below-average saving rates. This discussion has implications, especially as policy-makers consider various proposals to increase the saving rates of low- and middle-income Americans.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bernd Schilcher Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 429-438.
There has always been a rather strong contrast between liberal and communitarian views. The liberal doctrine of irreversible plurality of philosophical and moral ideas for instance does not only mean that consensus about social values is difficult. A public consensus about the necessary conception of the good cannot be obtained, says Rawls. On the other hand, communitarians such as MacIntyre, Sandel, and Walzer, are deeply convinced by the idea of an immanent telos of societies, which in their opinion have the utmost influence on the development of individuals. A similar strong contrast exists between the liberal universalism of values and the communitarian particularism. Etzioni's New Theory now tries to overcome these unsatisfactory tyrannies of dualism.
The common will [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mihnea Moldoveanu Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 541-554.
This paper discusses the formation of a common will among a group of people from two separate points of view: that of social choice theory and that of discourse ethics. The paper evaluates the formation of a common will be silent mechanisms for aggregating individual wishes and preferences, traditionally the domain of social choice theory, from a procedural perspective. It is concluded that, although neither approach to the formation of a common will fares well by the standards normally used to justify the other, proponents of either approach have much to learn from a dialogue with proponents of the other.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ross Zucker Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 555-576.
Viewing labor and capital as utterly distinct and competitive categories of economic actors, modern or neoclassical economics denies the existence of community in the economy. This study scrutinizes the elementary relations of economic life, finding a dimension of community, rather than a total absence or thorough going manifestation of it. Whereas neoclassical theorists ascribe alternative and independent ends to labor and capital, their goals also exhibit some profound commonalities. Contemporary communitarians also discern some community in the economy yet tend to identify it in subsystems, such as the firm. Analysis suggests a broader dimension of community on a system-wide scale.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Flora Gill Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 725-743.
Economics views work as merely providing purchasing power. Many economists agree that there is a great deal more to work, but they nonetheless feel comfortable with this narrow description, believing that important aspects of work that they have left out of consideration have no impact on the validity of their analytical conclusions and policy propositions. This paper argues that if economics is to shed light on urgent socio-economic issues and suggest appropriate remedies, labor economics must be expanded to encompass work as a creative endeavor - an escape from social isolation - and to acknowledge the analytical implications of the workplace as a social microcosm, which is, inter alia, governed by power relationships. This paper presents lessons from an investigation of the meaning of work in a number of cognate disciplines and outlines their implication for labor economics and for policy seeking to advance the cause of social justice.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Herbert Kiesling Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 653-663.
Economics can be considered the science that deals with marketplace efficiency, or it can be viewed as a social science, which deals with human policy goals considered generally. The view Amartya Sen (1987) takes of the matter is that the broader view is the more correct. There is one large and important group of human goals that the mainstream professional economists systematically omit from their discipline: collective goals, especially other-regarding collective goals. How investigators can isolate lists of social goals that persons consider important is discussed. Using these it should not be difficult for social scientists to proceed to provide analysis, drawing upon all the relevant theoretical and imperical knowledge, and so making predictions for opportunity costs in terms of all the other goals of moving a unit closer to any goal (particularly a goal of central concern).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sourushe Zandvakili Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 73-89.
The labor market in the United States has gone through a number of noticeable changes, one of which is a rise participation of women in the labor force. A number of studies have investigated the consequences of these changes on wage, income, or earnings inequality in a static framework. This study investigated the consequences of these changes on earnings inequality over time. The earnings inequality among male- and female-headed households is compared. The factors are considered that might have influenced the earnings inequality among female-headed households. Short-term and long-term inequality was measured from 1978-1986. It was found that short-term inequalities generally have a rising trend and contain transitory components; long-term inequalities declined in the early years because of a smoothing of transitory components; and within-group inequalities are the principle determinant of overall inequality. Education, race, age, and marital status were considered as possible contributors to the overall inequality. Education and race were shown to be the most influential factor explaining inequality among female-headed households and explained a third of the observed inequality. Earnings stability profiles reveal the existence of permanent and chronic inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jouce P. Jacobsen, Laurence M. Levin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 291-304.
This article examines recent internal migration patterns for the United States workforce and contrasts household earnings outcomes for movers and nonmovers by sex and marital status. Three aspects of how migration affects the relative economic status of women and men are considered: 1) the importance of relative economic opportunities for husband and wife for the decision as to whether or not to move; 2) actual economic outcomes for movers relative to nonmovers; and 3) the effect of moving on relative earnings within married-couple households. It is found that the decision to move is consistent with a common preference model of household decision-making and that the recently available range of opportunities to migrate has had little effect on the earnings composition of married-couple and single male households, but has benefited single women.