Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22263
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The attenuation of class analysis: some comments on Marshall, Roberts and Burgoyne, 'Social class and underclass in Britain and the USA' [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lydia Morris, John Scott British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 45-55.
The work of Marshall, Roberts and Burgoyne makes an important contribution to current debates on class, but it is argued that its theoretical basis is in need of further development. Specifically, it is argued that the 'Nuffield programme' of class analysis has lost sight of its Weberian roots. The approach departs from a view of social classes as real social groups and moves towards a nominalist view of class in which categories are justified on purely predictive grounds. It is suggested that an awareness of Weber's distinction between class situation and social class provides a firmer theoretical basis for the arguments set out by the authors and allows a more dynamic view of class to be constructed. Such a dynamic account must address issues of labour market structure, household divisions and civic status. Only on this basis can the idea of the underclass be properly assessed.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gordon Marshall, Stephen Roberts, Carole Burgoyne British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 22-44.
It is commonly argued that the research programme of class analysis is undermined by its appararent neglect of large numbers of economically-inactive adults who do not form part of the analysis, but are affected by class processes, and form distinctive elements within any class structure. This paper disputes the claim that welfare dependents, the retired, and domestic housekeepers show distinctive patterns of socio-political class formation. Nor are the class-related attributes of the supposed underclass so distinct that they require separate treatment in a class analysis. Evidence which supports the orthodox strategy of sampling economically-active men and women is taken from national sample surveys of adults in Britain and the USA.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Windolf, Jurgen Beyer British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 2. P. 205-231.
This study examines the capital network (ownership) and the network of interlocking directorates among the 623 largest business firms in Germany and the 520 largest in Britain. Three major differences are identified in the structure of these networks in the two countries: (1) In Germany ownership is highly concentrated, i.e., shareholdings - generally by the non-financial sector - tend to be sufficiently large to allow the owners to dominate the firm. In Britain ownership is much less concentrated, with almost half of all shareholdings - generally in the financial sector - amounting to less than 5 per cent of company stock. (2) In Germany - in contrast to Britain - the network of interlocking directorates is closely related to the capital network, i.e., it serves to enhance the power of the owners. (3) In Germany - in contrast to Britain - both networks are concentrated within the same industry, i.e., potential competitors are associated with one another. Germany thus illustrates 'co-operative capitalism' whereas Britain exemplifies 'competitive capitalism'.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Lockwood British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 531-550.
The aim is to explore the usefulness of inverting the class analysis problematic, which starts from class structure and then asks under what conditions sociopolitical class formation occurs, and then how this in turn bears upon social cohesion. By contrast, the route followed here starts from the assumption that the institutional unity of citizenship, market and bureaucratic relations is central to social cohesion, and then concentrates on the questions of how inequalities of class and status affect the institutionalization of citizenship and thereby its integrative function. While its practice is heavily influenced by the structure of social inequality, citizenship cart be seen to exert a force-field of its own. Four main types of 'civic stratification' are distinguished by reference to citizens' differing enjoyment of, and abilities to exercise, rights, their social categorization by the rights themselves and by their motivation to extend and enlarge them: namely, civic exclusion, civic gain and deficit, and civic expansion. Their consequences for social integration are then briefly discussed. One advantage of this approach is that it allows inequalities related to age, gender and ethnicity to be incorporated within the same explanatory scheme.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andre Beteille British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 513-526.
The relationship between class and status may be viewed in two distinct, if not contrasting, ways. In the first view, class and status are opposed as two different and mutually irreducible dimensions of inequality: here the stress is on distinctions of status expressing honour, dignity, worth, and so on. In the second view, class and status are opposed as one might oppose inequality and equality: here the stress is on the role of citizenship as a major force in redefining the relationship between class and status in modem industrial societies. The paper examines the different implications of defining status in terms of rights on the one hand and esteem on the other. It argues that it is not possible to guarantee equality of esteem simply by legislating equal rights for all citizens, no matter how extensively those rights are defined. For while status may be a matter of rights, it is also a matter of esteem, and the two do not necessarily move in step with each other.
Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory: a case of persisting differentials in educational attainment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 481-406.
In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of clam relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to he correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon nationalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 447-474.
The paper takes as its point of departure Lockwood's classic account of the class situation of the Blackcoated Worker. It addresses the issue of whether the rapid spread of new technologies since the 1980s has been accompanied by a change in employer policies that has undercut the distinctiveness of the work and labour market situations of lower non-manual employees, Drawing on data from a national survey carried out in 1992, it argues that, in technically advanced work settings, there is some evidence of a convergence between lower non- manual and manual workers in the nature of relationships with management and in job security. While management styles have become more consultative for manual workers, control over work time has become more formalized for lower non-manual workers. Further, the classes had become more similar due to a marked decline in the security of white-collar employees. None the less, lower non-manual and manual work remained quite distinct in two fundamental respects: the requirements for general conceptual skills and the extent to which there were perspectives for longer-term career advancement. Hence differences in class position are likely to continue to have important implications both for people's life styles and for their wider life chances.
Social capital and social change [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002George Kolankiewicz British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 427-442.
Taking contemporary Poland as a case in point, the emerging processes of class formation attendant on privatization and democratization are examined using traditional concepts of class analysis allied to more recent social capital theory.
Co-operation in inter-firm relations in Britain and Germany: the role of social institutions [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 2. P. 226-254.
The first part of the paper will theoretically examine the social function of trust, the preconditions of the production of trust and the possibility of reconstructing power as a mechanism functionally similar to trust. The second part of the paper is based on empirical research and will elaborate from a comparative perspective (Britain and Germany) how industry associations and legal regulations influence the quality of inter-firm relations. Our central argument is that trust is more reliably produced when these institutions are strong and consistent and business relations are deeply embedded into their institutional environment. We will argue that power is more likely to function as an alternative mode of co-ordinating social expectations and interaction when the institutional Framework and the embeddedness of social interaction is weak, But power produced by a comprehensive and stable institutional environment - what we call system trust - appears to be fostering the production of trust rather than being detrimental to it.
Political ideology and popular beliefs about class and opportunity: evidence from a survey experiment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 450-470.
This paper examines popular understanding of class inequalities in opportunity using an experimental approach to assess implicit as well as explicit comprehension. Three competing representations of popular beliefs are compared: a 'class inequality' model, implying widespread belief in class-related inequalities of opportunity; a 'meritocratic' view of achievement, in which emphasis is placed on individual responsibility; and an 'ideological polarization' model, which assumes that beliefs emphasizing class inequality or merit varv with left-right ideology. Predictions derived from these ideas are tested using a national survey with an experimental design, in which respondents are presented with vignettes designed to elicit their beliefs as to how and why people from different class backgrounds obtain middle-class or working-class occupations. As predicted by the class inequality model, there is clear evidence of the impact of tacit assumptions about class structured inequality of opportunity on expectations, judgments of responsibility and explanations of occupational attainment. Even among rightwing respondents, who are more likely to endorse the rhetoric of individual responsibility, there remains an implicit awareness of social class influences on life-chances, suggesting the pervasive presence of these beliefs in popular understanding of social processes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 429-449.
This paper develops a model of intergeneratiotial mobility and intragetierational inequality that allows us to explore the relationship between economic growth and social mobility. The model is used to analyze the neo-liberal theory of stratification and to assess the consequences of some of the criticisms that have been made of it. In particular, the intergenerational transmission of wealth and privilege, and the existence of ethnic, gender and other forms of ascriptive disadvantage, reduce economic efficiency, although they do not always diminish the extent of social mobility. Furthermore, excessive intragenerational inequality may inhibit, rather than encourage, economic growth. We show that there is no necessary link between rates of social mobility and levels of economic growth. This, we suggest, provides an explanation of why rates of social mobility show very little cross national variation and display no very evident trend over time towards greater societal openness.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Susan McRae British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 384-405.
The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patters of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rosemary Crompton, Fiona Harris British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 118-136.
Explanations of the persisting differences in the structure of men's and women's employment have long been debated in the social sciences. Sociological explanations have tended to stress the continuing significance of structural constraints on women's employment opportunities, which persist, despite the removal of formal barriers. Neo-classical economics, in contrast, have emphasized the significance of individual choice, an argument which has been recently endorsed by Hakim who suggests that patterns of occupational segregation reflect the outcome of the choices made by different 'types' of women. In this paper, a previous debate relating to the explanatory utility of men's 'orientations to work' is used to argue that employment structures are the outcome of both choice and constraint, and that this is also the case for women. The argument is illustrated with evidence from cross-nationally comparative biographical interviews carried out in five countries
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 97-117.
The present paper offers a replication of an analysis by Sшrensen and Mclanahan (1987) of 1940-1980 USA data on trends in married womens economic dependency, this time using Dutch income data for 1979-1991. The results show that in the Netherlands, as opposed to the USA, a vast majority of the wives are still completely or strongly dependent on their husbands income. Yet, also Dutch wives economic dependency is decreasing at a significant rate. Despite clear life course differences that yet seem to persist, we observe declining levels of dependency within each age group. This declining trend seems to reflect mostly changes in married womens employment status over time. An implication of the reported trend, however, is that it becomes increasingly important to study the influence of the social position of both partners.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ton Chee Kiong, Yong Pit Kee British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 75-96.
This paper, based on fieldwork conducted in Singapore and Malaysia, examines the social foundations and organizational principles of Chinese business firms focussing in particular on the inclination to incorporate personal relationships in decision making. It identifies three key aspects of personalism: personal control, personal guanxi relationships, and interpersonal trust or xinyong. Personal control is effected largely through depending on people whom one personally trust as this would reduce risks and afford better business control. The paper also examines the dynamics between guanxi and xinyong and how these ideals are played out in reality. A central argument is that economic decisions are not based solely on market considerations. Rather, they are embedded int he context of larger social relations and institutional forces which shape, reinforce, as well as challenge, a set of behaviours or organizational structures.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Joseph Gerteis, Mike Savage British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 2. P. 252-274.
In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of the political and ideological salience of class in Britain and the US, using the Comparative Project on Class Consciousness and Class Conflict dataset. We show that class divisions, however measured, are much more salient in British political choices. We then ask whether this difference results from the weaker cultural salience of class in the US, or whether it reflects the distinctive nature of the American political system. We find that class is strongly salient in the United States, not in politics, but in the sphere of workplace and industrial relations. We conclude with a discussion of the meaning of these findings for British and American class research.
Rational action theory for sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 2. P. 167-192.
Rational action theory (RAT) is not a highly unified intellectual entity. In the first part of the paper, varieties of RAT are distinguished in terms of three criteria: i.e. according to whether they (i) have strong rather than weak rationality requirements; (ii) focus on situational rather than procedural rationality; (iii) claim to provide a general rather than a special theory of action. In the second part, these same criteria are applied in a consideration of which version of RAT holds out most promise for use in sociology.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Siu-lun Wong, Janet W. Salaf British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 3. P. 358-74.
In this paper, we argue that it would be fruitful to regard personal networks as a form of capital capable of generating economic returns by drawing on our research findings on the recent wave of emigration from Hong Kong. By putting network capital on a par with economic and cultural capital, we seek to identify its distinctive features in terms of institutionalization, capacity, moral economy, and processes of conversion and reproduction. In substantiating our argument, we present some quantitative evidence from our survey data on the uneven distribution of kinship ties which can be mobilized for emigration among different occupational classes. We then make use of our in-depth interview data to show that there is a qualitative variation too in the type of networks used by different occupational classes for emigration purposes. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the concept of network capital for the study of migration, class formation, and the global economy.
Business Citizenship at Work: Cultural Transposition and Class Formation in Cincinnati, 1870 - 1910 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jeffrey Haydu American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 6. P. 1424-1467.
This article links class analysis and institutionalism through a case study of late-19th-century employers. Class analysis extends institutionalism by highlighting an additional source of cultural transposition a generalized identity summarized here as "business citizenship." Institutionalism, in turn, shows how civic associations worked to unify employers and foster an overarching class consciousness. The case study provides an overview of class formation among Cincinnati employers and illustrates how business citizenship carried over from the realms of political reform and high culture to personnel management and industrial training. Some comparative observations suggest this pattern of class formation and cultural transposition was typical.