Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bijou Yang, David Lester Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 281-290.
The role of culture in economic affairs was first recognized by Max Weber who attributed the rise of modern capitalism to the Protestant ethic. More recently, the contribution of cultural factors to economic success or failure in different countries or regions of the world has been documented. The present paper joins this effort by demonstrating the impact of culture on unemployment empirically. The national character traits of neuroticism and extraversion were added to a regression analysis of unemployment developed by Nickell (1998).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrick Raines, Charles G. Leathers Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 375-388.
The behavioral influences of large bureaucratic organizations that were noted by Schumpeter would seem to weigh heavily against the plausibility of the Schumpeterian hypothesis that large corporations are more powerful engines of technological innovations than small competitive firms. But those influences also offer clues about how cultural differences between the US and Japan resulted in large Japanese corporations in the later post-WWII era conforming closely to the Schumpeterian hypothesis.
Social networks and self-employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Allen Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 5. P. 487-501.
This article applies social network concepts, developed in sociology, to the analysis of the self-employment decision. Theory suggests that if one's social network provides social support so as to reduce the costs of self-employment, those with more effective social networks may possess a greater incentive to attempt self-employment, ceteris paribus. Empirical investigation of this hypothesis is conducted using a unique new data set, the Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, which allows analysis of self-employment, in a social context. Results illustrate that the individual self-employment choice is highly influenced by the size and composition of the social network and that women receive less influential social support for entrepreneurial activity than men receive, a finding that may provide an explanation for gender differences in self-employment likelihood.
Well-being at work: A cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alfonso Sousa-Poza, Andres A. Sousa-Poza Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 6. P. 517-538.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the levels and determinants of job satisfaction in a cross-national setting. This aim is accomplished using the latest Work Orientations data set from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The survey was conducted in 1997 and, in this paper, data for 21 countries are used. The main results are: (1) workers in all countries are quite satisfied, (2) Denmark is the country with the highest job-satisfaction level, (3) a comparison with the 1989 ISSP data set reveals that job satisfaction has declined in Germany and the US in the 1990s, (4) using a bottom-up psychological model, in which work-role inputs are compared with work-role outputs, cross-national differences are explained, (5) having an interesting job and having good relations with management are the two most important work-role outputs, and having an exhausting job is the most important work-role input, (6) workers in Eastern European countries tend to value high income.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen L. Morgan Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 6. P. 591-595.
The concept of social capital, according to James Coleman (1990), blurs distinctions between types of social structures. Most researchers who embrace Coleman's concept choose to preserve its broad content rather than sharpen its analytic bite. In order to further develop social capital as a theory capable of explanation, the analytic contribution of the concept of capital must be clarified. In this paper, some structure is imposed on the broad concept of social capital by driving a conceptual wedge between norms and networks and then elevating information to the same (secondary) status as norms. The attempt is made to build a theory by invoking a distinction between social capital resources and capital goods.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Harold Wolozin Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 45-57.
"...Economics is supposed to be concerned with real people. It is hard to believe that real people could be completely unaffected by the reach of the self-examination induced by the Socratic question, `How should one live?'a question that is, also a central motivating one for ethics. Can people whom economics studies really be so unaffected by this resilient question and stick exclusively to the rudimentary hard-headedness attributed to them by modern economics?" Amartya Sen, On Ethics & Economics."...Apart from a few exceptions, the international consensus view within sociology, anthropology, political science and psychology seems to be that agents are not irrational in the way that neoclassical economists presume. The orthodox economic canons of rationality are thus widely rejected elsewhere," Geoffrey M. Hodgson, Economics and Institutions."Once we realize that the human mind is everywhere active and imaginative, then we need to understand the routes of this activity if we are to grasp how the human mind works. This is true whether the mind is trying to come to grips with painful reality, reacting to trauma, coping with the everyday or just making things up. Freud called this imaginative activity phantasy, and he argued both that it functions unconsciously and that it plays a powerful role in the organization of a person's experience. This surely, contains the seeds of a profound insight into the human condition; it is the central insight of psychoanalysis...a pervasive aspect of mental life.... Are we to see humans as having depthas complex psychological organisms who generate layers of meaning which lie beneath the surface of their own understanding? Or are we to take ourselves as transparent to ourselves?" Jonathan Lear, Open Minded: Working Out the Logic of the Soul.
Rational actors or rational fools: implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Slovic, Melissa Finucane, Ellen Peters Journal of Socio-Economics. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 4. P. 329-342.
This paper describes two fundamental modes of thinking. The experiential mode, is intuitive, automatic, natural, and based upon images to which positive and negative affective feelings have been attached through learning and experience. The other mode is analytic, deliberative, and reason based. I describe recent empirical research illuminating "the affect heuristic" wherein people rapidly consult their affective feelings, when making judgments and decisions. This heuristic enables us to be rational actors in many situations. It works beautifully when experience enables us to anticipate accurately how we will like or dislike the consequences of our decisions. However, it fails miserably when the consequences turn out to be much different than we anticipated. In the latter circumstances, the rational actor may well become the rational fool.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Hugh Louch Social Networks. 2000. Vol. 22. No. 1. P. 45-64.
This article combines studies of transitivity and homophily in an empirical analysis of personal network integration. Using a national sample of individual's personal networks, the paper reveals that transitivity explains a majority of cases of network integration with two important caveats: (1) recent work on networks and social structure points to important structural constraints on personal networks that shape their formation, and (2) homophily (e.g. sex or race) and choice homophily (e.g. religion) improve the likelihood of integration in personal networks. The results indicate that the second finding interacts with relationship length and the availability of focal points to organize individual contact.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David C. Ribar, Mark O. Wilhelm Journal of Political Economy. 2002. Vol. 110. No. 2. P. 425-457.
This study theoretically and empirically examines altruistic and joy-of-giving motivations underlying contributions to charitable activities. The theoretical analysis shows that in an economy with an infinitely large number of donors, impurely altruistic preferences lead to either asymptotically zero or complete crowd-out. The paper then establishes conditions on preferences that are sufficient to yield zero crowd-out in the limit. These conditions are fairly weak and quite plausible. An empirical representation of the model is estimated using a new 198692 panel of donations and government funding from the United States to 125 international relief and development organizations. Besides directly linking sources of public and private support, the econometric analysis controls for unobserved institution-specific factors, institution-specific changes in leadership, year-to-year changes in need, and expenditures by related organizations. The estimates show little evidence of crowd-out from either direct public or related private sources. Thus, at the margin, donations to these organizations appear to be motivated solely by joy-of-giving preferences. In addition to addressing the basic question of motives behind charitable giving, the results help explain the existing disparity between econometric and experimental crowd-out estimates.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Damian Grimshaw, Kevin G. Ward, Jill Rubery Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 25-54.
This paper explores changes in employment policies and practices that are typically associated with the classical model of the internal labour market. Drawing on documentary information and interviews with managers in four large organisations in the UK, the evidence suggests that many of the traditional pillars of the internal labour market have been dismantled. New policies around training, recruitment, pay, job security and career progression have been introduced in response to pressures and opportunities for change, both internal and external to the organisation. Changes in the external labour market involve a shift in the balance of power between labour and capital, coupled with a weakening of the mechanisms which coordinate and regulate labour market exchange. Within the organisation, there are a range of pressures to transform production, or service delivery, including the restructuring of traditional forms of work organisation, the extension of working-time and changes in organisational structure. This paper analyses evidence of new employer-led market solutions to this range of conflicting pressures. The aim is to highlight the tendency for contradictory outcomes as new policies capitalise on changing external conditions, but at the expense of meeting organisational demands. Also, new policies implemented by individual employers may be unsustainable where, on aggregate, they fail to develop workforce skills or to fulfil career expectations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Dual-Earner Couples in Britain and France: Gender Divisions of Domestic Labour and Parenting Work in Different Welfare States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan Windebank Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 269-290.
In recent years, much cross-national research on women's work has focused on the impact of the state in creating the conditions to enable women to combine paid work and motherhood. However, when dealing with women's domestic responsibilities, this research has concentrated heavily on caring functions, whilst largely ignoring the importance of other basic household chores. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the question of how state policy concerning women, work and childcare impacts on the ways in which parenting and domestic duties are constructed and distributed between mothers, fathers and others in the everyday experiences of individuals. The present article addresses both of these questions through evidence gathered from a qualitative cross-national comparative study of the child-care strategies of two groups of women, one French and one British, working in secretarial or clerical occupations, living with a partner and with at least one child aged under twelve. Minimal differences concerning the gender division of domestic and parenting work are discovered between these two national groups. This finding is then used to question some of the theoretical perspectives regarding the relationship between women's greater participation in employment and men's greater participation in domestic and parenting work.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Felstead, Nick Jewson, Annie Phizacklea Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 215-231.
It is frequently suggested that working at home will be the future of work for many people in the UK and that trends in this direction are already well underway. This paper examines these claims by analysing data from the Labour Force Survey which has, at various times, asked questions about the location of work. Seven key hypotheses are identified, including issues surrounding the extent and growth of working at home, reliance on information and communication technology, prevalence of low pay, average pay rates, gender issues, ethnic minority participation and household composition. The results paint a variegated and complex picture which suggests that those who work at home do not comprise a homogeneous group. The paper in particular highlights differences between non-manual and manual workers, and those who work mainly, partially and sometimes at home.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tracey Warren, Karen Rowlingson, Claire Whyley Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 465-488.
The size and source of the gender wage gap in Britain has been well researched. Women's typically lower status employment and their reduced, discontinuous career profiles when they have caring responsibilities have combined seriously to damage their ability to earn a decent wage. Such marked gender differences in employment patterns produce a substantial gender gap in levels of wealth too, yet despite this there has been less attention paid to the gendering of assets than there has to gender differentials in earnings and income. So to pull out these multi-dimensional effects of a gender disadvantaged labour market, this article explores the extent of wage and assets inequality in Britain in the mid 1990s. Analysis of the Family Resources Survey shows that women continue to have lower incomes than men even with their increased entry to the labour market, and have fewer chances to build up a safety net of savings in their working lives and a good income for their retirement. It would seem that in a future Britain where individuals will increasingly depend on private pensions rather than a state minimum, even if women continue to increase their participation levels, the poverty they face in old age will persist.
Women in the Indian Informal Economy: Collective Strategies for Work Life Improvement and Development [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Hill Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 443-464.
Strategies for work life reform amongst informal sector workers in developing countries are currently dominated by resource-based approaches such as the micro-credit movement. This policy framework is predicated upon certain liberal assumptions about individual human action and the relationship between human behaviour and economic development. This article contends that these assumptions are inappropriate when applied to informal sector workers and their economic activities. A focus on the intersubjective conditions of work and economic development, based on the work of Axel Honneth (1995), provides an alternative way of conceptualising the work life experience of marginalised workers and appropriate interventions for economic and social security. An example of a collective strategy implemented by the Self Employed Womens' Association (SEWA) in India, demonstrates the important role that interpersonal recognition plays in activating worker identity and agency to achieve development. The success of SEWA's methodology has implications for how we think about the meaning of development and work life reform in poor countries, suggesting that interventions for economic and social security must engage workers at both the economic and cultural levels at which insecurity, moral injury and social exclusion are produced.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Janette Webb Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 825-844.
The paper describes the current employment patterns of men and women in local government in Scotland, Wales and England, and examines the gender relations of work during a period of restructuring which is challenging the professionalised welfare bureaucracy and replacing it with a managerialised state informed by market principles. Men are declining as a percentage of employees, alongside decreasing numbers of full-time jobs and increasing part-time and temporary contracts, suggesting some decrease in the relative desirability of public service employment. Nevertheless the challenges to traditional conceptions of paternalistic, bureaucratic welfare have facilitated women's increasing access to professional and managerial grades, but men have continued to dominate most positions of power and authority. The continuing gender divisions of labour, and women's perceptions of a sharper axis of gender conflict surrounding the period of reorganisation into single tier authorities in Scotland and Wales, suggest that it is not simply a matter of time until a rational, functional state eradicates remaining inequalities between the sexes. Neither however can a radical feminist perspective, which treats the state as bound to reproduce women's subordination, account for the degree of progressive change. Instead it is argued that there is genuine indeterminacy in the restructuring process, which, given women's representation and participation, seems likely to disrupt further the legacy of patriarchal relations informing the trajectory of state bureaucracies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark R. Rosenzweig Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 40-54.
The empirical literature on savings in low-income countries has exploited some remarkable data sets to shed new light on savings behavior in the poor agricultural households that make up the majority of the population in such countries. A number of conclusions have emerged: 1. The degree of consumption smoothing over seasons within the year and across years, in response to very large income fluctuations, is higher than was supposed. 2. The lack of complete insurance and credit markets, however, is manifested in asset stocks and asset compositions among farmers, especially small farmers, that are inefficient. 3. The combination of low and volatile incomes is an important cause of inefficiency and income inequality. 4. The proximity of formal financial institutions increases financial savings and crowds out informal insurance arrangements, thus, in principle, better facilitating financial intermediation. 5. Simple life-cycle models of savings do not appear to explain long-term savings in low-income settings.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William J. Wilhelm Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 235-247.
Financial markets are markets for information. As such, they are directly influenced by advances in information dissemination, storage, and processing associated with the commercial development of the Internet. On the other hand, given the long-standing centrality of information in financial markets, the consequences of the Internet for financial markets can be understood as evolutionary rather than revolutionary. This paper provides a framework for understanding how the historical interplay between information technology and human capital has influenced financial market structure. In doing so, it sheds light on the recent reorganization of financial markets. Implications for reorganization of product markets where the impact of the Internet is more abrupt might be inferred.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Neil Gandal Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 80-91.
Given the dramatic growth of the Internet and information technology industries in general, and the importance of interconnection in these networks, the economics of compatibility and standardization has become mainstream economics. Several key policy aspects of standard-setting in industries with network effects are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Nickell, Glenda Quintini Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 202-220.
Both the overall macroeconomic performance of the UK labour market since 1997 are considered, as well as some of the underlying micro problems, particularly those facing unskilled workers. On the macro front, unemployment has declined to its lowest level for a generation without excessive inflationary pressure. The main factors behind this decline in equilibrium unemployment stem from actions taken by the previous government. Changes introduced in the labour market since 1997 are likely to have only small effects on equilibrium unemployment. Underlying this favourable aggregate labour-market performance are serious problems facing unskilled men who have seen dramatic increases in their unemployment and inactivity rates, concentrated particularly in Wales and the northern regions of Britain. The policy response since 1997 has focused on encouraging the unskilled into work (the New Deal) while simultaneously raising the rewards for working. These polices have had a positive impact on youth employment and have significantly reduced child poverty. So far, however, existing policies do not seem likely to have a serious impact on the high levels of worklessness among unskilled men.