Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22213
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hanson Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 62 - 84.
Russia's economic adjustment to the fall of communism has been notoriously troubled. The output recovery since 1998 is widely judged to be fragile. What is less often noted is that Russia is far from unique in its 'transition' troubles. In this paper the main hypotheses put forward to account for Russia's transition difficulties are reviewed in the context of economic change in all ex-communist countries. Accounts relying on (unexplained) mistakes in economic policy are inadequate. Two accounts may be sustainable in the light of evidence from other ex-communist countries: one based on inherited economic structure and one based on cultural factors. The latter hypothesis is shown to be susceptible to testing.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicholas Thoburn Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 434 - 460.
This article considers the place of difference in Marx's politics through an exploration of his categories of the lumpenproletariat and the proletariat. Far from a simple set of class subjects or empirical peoples, these two categories are argued to describe particular modes of political composition. Despite the frisson of difference and excess which is usually associated with Marx's lumpenproletariat, it is argued to describe a mode of composition - and, in relation to anarchism, a politics - oriented not towards difference and becoming, but towards present identity. The proletariat, on the other hand, is shown to be not a People, historical Subject or identity, but a 'minor' political mode of composition immanent to the manifolds of capitalism, and premised on the condition that, as Deleuze puts it, 'the people are missing'.
"Carry your credit in your pocket": The early history of the credit card at Bank of America and Chase Manhattan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Timothy Wolters Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 2. P. 315-354.
Drawing from newly available archival material, this article explores the early history of one of today's most ubiquitous financial instruments, the bank credit card. It focuses on the managerial decisions that led to the implementation and development of charge card programs at the 2 largest American banks of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Even though the initial performance of the 2 programs was comparable, top management at each bank ultimately adopted different business strategies. The differences resulted from managers' contrasting interpretations of the appropriate market for the credit card, interpretations formed within the context of 2 distinct banking cultures.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carole Turbin Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 3. P. 507-535.
Detachable collars, essential to men's appearance from the 1840s to the 1920s, have left a lasting legacy: the term 'white collar' and the "Arrow Man," the centerpiece of Arrow collar advertisements from 1907 until 1931. The Arrow Man was the visual representation of the "New Man," and Arrow collars were preserved in American culture through the lyrics of a 1934 Cole Porter song, "You're the Top." Both the Arrow collar and the Arrow Man derived from business decisions that reflected emerging and changing American consumer tastes and markets, an expanding middle class, and shifts in culture, especially in new ideal images of manliness that were less class-based, contributing to Americans' impression that social distinctions were more blurred than in the past. The Arrow Man embodied in a single compelling image the resolution of social contradictions that persisted beneath the increased similarity of men of different backgrounds.
Standard bearers: Material culture and middle-class communities at the turn of the Twentieth century [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marina Moskowitz Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 4. P. 693-698.
American businesses played as pivotal a role in setting the American standard of living as they did in encouraging the dream. The standard of living became increasingly defined as a set of goods and the establishment and maintenance of spaces to house these goods. In 4 case studies, the means by which objects were both physically transported and culturally represented as desirable are discussed. The four topics are silverplate flatware, bathroom fixtures, mass-produced foursquare dwellings, and early zoning plans. The broad distribution of goods and design ideals at the turn of the 20th century can be considered the nationalization of material culture.
Gender differences in labor turnover and the development of internal labor markets in the United States during the 1920s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Laura J. Owen Enterprise and Society. 2001. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 41-71.
Exploring the relationship between gender differences in labor turnover - which have been linked to male-female differentials - and the early Twentieth-century development of internal labor markets, this case study suggests that observed gender differences in labor turnover in the twentieth-century can be attributed, at least in part, to the specific employment policy decisions of firms. These policies, and the internal labor markets they helped create, directly addressed some of the causes of male turnover but did little to confront the sources of female turnover. The results of this analysis call into question the assumption that the higher rate of female turnover is exogenously determined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Fahim A. Al-Marhubi Contemporary Economic Policy. 2000. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 428-439.
Different strands of the political economy approach to macroeconomic policy imply a link between income inequality and inflation. This article tests this proposition using a newly assembled data set on income distribution. The results show that income inequality is associated with higher inflation. This association, although not economically large, holds for democracies as well as nondemocracies. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are not due to measurement error, reverse causation, or omitted variables.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Murray Leibbrandt, Haroon Bhorat, Ingrid Woolard Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 73-86.
There has been very little detailed exploration of the relationship between wage income and household inequality in South Africa despite the relevance of this issue for many contemporary growth and development policy debates. This article is directed at such an analysis. It uses a decomposition of household income inequality by income components to highlight the dominance of wage income in driving overall income inequality. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the distribution of the unemployed across different wage-earning household categories. Many of the unemployed are seen to depend on wage earners within their households, but a significant percentage of the unemployed, especially in rural areas, have no direct link to labor market earners. In such cases, the creation of employment is essential. The conclusion explores policy implications by linking our empirical findings to South African debates over the quality versus the quantity of employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Debra A. Barbezat, James W. Hughes Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 409-423.
The hypothesis that individuals increase future earnings by investing in themselves through job change has considerable empirical support. To date, this hypothesis has not been tested on the academic labor market. Using a national faculty survey that includes respondents' complete work history, the authors estimate the impact of job mobility on faculty salaries. The rate of job mobility among faculty members appears low compared to that of other workers. Salaries overall are not significantly related to the number of academic jobs held until the number of jobs reaches four, and then the effect is negative. An examination by gender reveals that women incur a salary penalty of 8% in moving to the second job.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alison J. Wellington Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 465-478.
This article estimates the importance of health insurance coverage on the probability of self-employment. Using data from the 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS), the author focuses on the impact of having health insurance through one's spouse on the likelihood of self-employment. The best estimates suggest that a guaranteed alternative source of health insurance would increase the probability of self-employment between 23 and 4.4 percentage points for husbands and 1.2 and 4.6 percentage points for wives. The author's more conservative estimates suggest that universal coverage could increase the percentage of self-employed in the workforce by 2 to 3.5 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James V. Koch, Richard J. Cebula Contemporary Economic Policy. 2002. Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 25-37.
Faster, frictionless, cheaper, better: these are said to be the hallmarks of economic activity on the Internet. Search theory suggests use of the Internet could reduce the prices consumers pay, but product branding, price discrimination based on data mining, and auctions may raise prices. The Internet has lowered most prices, but raised others, even when shop bots are used. Price dispersion is greater on the Internet, and Internet sellers change their prices more often. The role of intermediaries has not been reduced. The quality of service is idiosyncratic and highly variable. The Internet is a new and distinctive avenue of commerce, but those who argue it has invalidated conventional economic principles are well off base.
Is there a role for transaction cost economics if we view firms as complex adaptive systems? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Foster Contemporary Economic Policy. 2000. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 369-385.
This article assesses the usefulness of transaction cost economics when we view economic organizations, such as firms, as complex adaptive systems. Modern complexity science is a radically different in orientation to neoclassical economics, which deals with decision making in contexts that are presumed to be simple and, therefore, disconnected from complex reality. However transaction cost economics can be related to aspects of modern complexity science: bounded rationality, opportunism, and asset specificity are all associated with behavioral complexity.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Leslie A. Perlow Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 1. P. 57-81.
This paper describes a qualitative study of how people use their time at work, why they use it this way, and whether their way of using time is optimal for them or their work groups. Results of a 9-month field study of the work practices of a software engineering team revealed that the group's collective use of time perpetuated its members' "time famine", a feeling of having too much to do and not enough time to do it. Engineers had difficulty getting their individual work done because they were constantly interrupted by others. A crisis mentality and a reward system based on individual heroics perpetuated this disruptive way of interacting. Altering the way software engineers used their time at work, however, enhanced their collective productivity.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Freeman Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 1. P. 163-175.
Gibbons argues persuasively in Taking Coase Seriously (1999) that economic modeling offers a useful set of tools that noneconomists may employ to good effect in their research on organizations. His arguments are even more persuasive if it is understood that this brand of modeling lends itself naturally to one of the key theoretical problems facing such researchers - the need for a theory of aggregation, sometimes called a theory of action. Such a theory is necessary to link the behavior of individuals with properties of collectivites, such as corporations.
Wages and unequal access to organizational power: An empirical test of gender discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mia Hultin, Ryszard Szulkin Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 3. P. 453-472.
This study of Swedish workers investigates gender wage inequality, specifically, whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of establishments' managerial and supervisory staff. Theoretical arguments focus on managers' propensity to create and maintain or to undermine institutionalized gender bias and employees' capacity to mobilize resources and establish claims in the wage distribution process, mainly through social networks. Results show that gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures is essential in explaining women's relatively low wages. Women who work in establishments in which relatively many of the managers are men have lower wages than women with similar qualifications and job demands in establishments with more women in the power structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ann E. Tenbrunsel, David M. Messick Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 4. P. 684-707.
Three studies are used to examine how surveillance and sanctioning systems affect cooperative behavior and dilemma situations. The first two studies demonstrate that a weak sanctioning system results in less cooperation and no sanctioning system; furthermore, results from the second study suggest that sanctions affect the type of decision people perceive they are making, prompting them to see it as a business rather than an ethical decision. The results from the studies are used to develop a theoretical model that postulates that the relationship between sanctions in cooperation is due to both the signaling effect, in which sanctions influence the type of decision that is perceived to be made, and a processing effect, in which the decision processing, including whether or not the strength of the sanction is considered, depends on the decision frame evoked. A third study provides support for the processing-effect hypothesis.
Friends in high places: The effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marc-David L. Seidel, Jeffrey T. Polzer, Katherine J. Stewart Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-24.
This article tests hypotheses about the effects of social networks on inequitable salary negotiation outcomes using a US high-technology company's salary negotiation data for 1985-1995. The paper finds that members of racial minority groups negotiated significantly lower salary increases than majority members, but this effect was dramatically reduced when social ties to the organization were controlled. Having a social tie to the organization significantly increased salary negotiation outcomes, and minorities were less likely than majority members to have such a social tie.
How experience and network ties affect the influence of demographic minorities on corporate boards [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James D. Westphal, Laurie P. Milton Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 2. P. 366-398.
This study examines how the influence of directors who are demographic minorities on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger socia structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The effects of minority status are assessed according to functional background, industry background, education, race, and gender for a large sample of corporate outside directors at Fortune/Forbes 500 companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gautam Ahuja Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 425-455.
To assess the effects of a firm's network of relations on innovation, this paper elaborates a theoretical framework that relates 3 aspects of a firm's ego network - direct ties, indirect ties, and structural holes - to the firm's subsequent innovation output. Results from a longitudinal study of firms in the international chemicals industry indicate support for the predictions on direct and indirect ties, but in the inter-firm collaboration network, increasing structural holes has a negative effect on innovation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Thomas D'Aunno, Melissa Succi, Jeffrey C. Alexander Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 679-703.
This paper focuses on a radical change, in which organizations abandon an institutionalized template for arranging their core activities, that is likely to occur in organizational fields that have strong, local market forces and strong but heterogeneous institutional forces. The role of market forces and heterogeneous institutional elements in promoting divergent change in core activities among all U.S. rural hospitals from 1984 to 1991 is examined. Results support the view that divergent change depends on both market forces (proximity to competitors, disadvantages in service mix) and institutional forces (state regulation, ownership and governance norms, and mimicry of models of divergent change).