Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22213
Agency and social networks: Strategies of action in a social structure of position, opposition, and opportunity [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William B. Stevenson, Danna Greenberg Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 651-678.
This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.
Challengers, elites, and owning families: A social class theory of corporate acquisitions in the 1960s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Donald Palmer Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 1. P. 87-120.
This paper analyzes data on 461 large US industrial corporations to determine that factors that led large firms to participate in the wave of diversifying acquisitions that peaked in the late 1960s. A class theory of corporate acquisitions is elaborated on and tested, maintaining that firms pursue acquisitions in this periods when they were commended by well-networked challenges who were central in elite social networks but relatively marginal with respect to social status, isolated from the resistance of established elites, and free from control of owning families. Also considered is a wide range of factors highlighted by alternative accounts of acquisition likelihood, including resource dependent, institutional pressures, and principle-agent conflicts. The results provide support for the moan theoretical arguments, even when controls related to alternative explanations are taken into account.
Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robin J. Ely, David A. Thomas Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 229-273.
This paper develops theory about the conditions under which cultural diversity enhances or detracts from work group functioning. From qualitative research in three culturally diverse organizations, three different perspectives on workforce diversity are identified: 1. the integration-and-learning perspective, 2. the access-and-legitimacy perspective, and 3. the discrimination-and-fairness perspective. The perspective on diversity a work group held influenced how people expressed and managed tensions related to diversity, whether those who had been traditionally underrepresented in the organization felt respected and valued by their colleagues, and how people interpreted the meaning of the racial identity at work. By identifying the conditions that intervene between the demographic composition of a work group and its functioning, the research helps to explain mixed results on the relationship between cultural diversity and work group outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yadong Luo Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 177-20.
This study examines how personal attachments between boundary spanners within cross-cultural international cooperative ventures (ICV) are established and their association with venture performance. Results of analysis of 282 ICVs in an emerging market, the People's Republic of China, show that the development depends on factors at three levels. At the individual level, attachment is an increasing function of overlap in tenure between boundary spanners. At the organizational level, attachment is heightened by goal congruity between the parent firms but is impeded by cultural distance. At the environmental level, market disturbance and regulatory deterrence lead to strong attachments. Such attachments may stimulate an ICV's process performance and increase financial returns.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jesper B. Sorensen Administrative Science Quarterly. 2002. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 70-91.
Prevailing research claims that strong corporate cultures improve firm performance by facilitating internal behavioral consistency. This paper addresses an unexamined implication of this argument by analyzing the effect of strong corporate cultures on the variability of firm performance. This relationship depends on how strong cultures affect organizational learning in response to internal and external change. It is hypothesized that strong-culture firms excel at incremental change but encounter difficulties in more volatile environments. Results of analyses of a sample of firms show that in relatively stable environments, strong-culture firms have more reliable (less variable) performance. In volatile environments, however, the reliability benefits of strong cultures disappear.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert A. Baron, Gideon D. Markman Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 106-116.
Why are some entrepreneurs so much more successful than others in starting new ventures? Previous efforts to answer this question have generally focused either in the personality traits of susceptibility to various cognitive errors of individual entrepreneurs, or on such external factors as the number of competing businesses. It is suggested that entrepreneurs' social skills - specific competencies that help them interact effectively with others - may also play a role in their success.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Maurice E. Schweitzer, Jeffrey L. Kerr Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 47-57.
Managers consume alcohol across a broad range of organizational contexts. In many cases, alcohol is consumed with little or no consideration of the risks or benefits involved. This paper identifies hazards of managerial drinking, as well as the role alcohol can play in developing relationships. It is argued that the decision to consume alcohol should be made rationally and strategically, and advice is offered for managers setting corporate policy or making individual decisions to consume alcohol.
Differential effects of parental involvement on cognitive and behavioral outcomes by socioeconomic status [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ralph B. McNeal Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 171-179.
Using the concepts of cultural and social capital, a theoretical framework is provided for why there would exist differential effects of parental involvement across cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The variable relationships between involvement and each outcome are investigated by socioeconomic status.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mildred Warner Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 187-192.
This paper explores the constructability of social capital and specifically the role formal state supported institutions can play in structuring community level interventions to build social capital.
Is the good corporation dead? The community social responsibility of small business operators [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Terry L. Besser, Nancy J. Miller Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 221-241.
This study examined whether social responsibility is a meaningful characteristic with which to differentiate businesses given its supposed demise in the new global economy. The analysis focuses on small businesses and the social responsibility of businesses toward their community. Community social responsibility and competitive strategies were measured by the self reports of 675 small business operators in 10 Iowa cities. Cluster analysis revealed 4 categories of business operators designated as: 1. civic leaders, 2. alienated business operators, 3. followers in high collective action communities, and 4. followers in low collective action communities. Business owners and managers can be differentiated on the basis of community social responsibility. In spite of changes in the economy, a significant segment of small business operators believe in tenets of the enlightened self interest model of business social responsibility, that is, that doing good is good business.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John F. Tomer Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 243-261.
Drawing on important insights from psychological and other noneconomic literature and combining these with economic insights, a careful explanation of why addictive behavior is not rational is provided and a socio-economic model is developed to explain addictive behavior. The model incorporates a much broader conception of human behavior than does mainstream economics, and a broader recognition of the variety of factors that influence human behavior. The model is consistent with intuitive wisdom and the wisdom of religious and spiritual traditions. There is much scope for further research.
A behavioral model of labor supply: Casting some light into the black box of income-leisure choice [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morris Altman Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 199-219.
The economics of labor supply, a basic building block of economic theory, cannot provide any substantive analytical predictions on the course of labor supply by an individual or a group. This is largely due to the absence, in the theory of income-leisure choice, of any consequential behavioral content which speaks to existing and changing preferences of individuals and to the differences in preferences across individuals. Introducing a discussion of preferences into the argument, in particular target real income and target nonmarket time, provides for a richer model of labor supply and for a more precise set analytical predictions with important public policy implications.
Economic man vs. heterodox men: The concepts of human nature in schools of economic thought [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John F. Tomer Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 281-293.
Economic man, the man who acts on pure economic motives alone, is the concept of man at the heart of mainstream economics. Heterodox economists, while acknowledging that economic man has served usefully for some purposes, know in different ways that economic man is, because it leaves out too much of human nature, a deficient concept of man. They are uncomfortable at best with the idea of characterizing humans in such a reductionist way. This paper proposes to use the comprehensive view of human nature developed by Ken Wilber to point to the specific deficiencies of economic man. With Wilber's model of human development as the backdrop, it is possible to map the different schools of thought with respect to each other, showing how each of their overlapping conceptions of man include some important elements missing in economic man but fail to include other elements.
A focus group study of the motivation to invest: 'Ethical/green' and 'ordinary' investors compared [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Lewis Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 4. P. 331-341.
Forty-five ordinary investors, in 7 focus groups, and 49 ethical/green investors in a further 7 focus groups discussed their various motivations for investing. Interpretations of the results were produced with the aid of NUDIST software and repeated readings of the transcriptions. Neither ordinary nor especially ethical investors were keen to attribute solely economic motives to themselves revealing instead their need to provide for future selves and to bequeath. Ethical/green investors primarily mentioned avoiding companies who manufacture munitions, are exploitative, and who pollute. Many participants, especially the ethicals, felt an unease about contemporary capitalism and current UK government policy, suggesting that ethical investing had become a necessity because of government failure and that it could change the commercial world for the better although the process was admittedly a slow one. This paper aims to enrich the notion of rational economic man.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rebeca Raijman Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 5. P. 393-410.
This paper focuses on Mexican immigrants who are considering to start a business but do not so for various reasons. It queries the individuals at the very preliminary stages of the process when they are contemplating the alternatives, so it is well suited to learn about the determinants of business ownership. The findings demonstrate the potential value of personality measures for predicting who will want to start a business. The results underscore that having close family members in business exposes individuals to role models and sources of financial and nonfinancial help that might put business ownership within reach of people with modest resources. Economic resources in the household, in the form of financial investments, also affect the wish to start a business because they furnish available capital for the start-up.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morris Altman Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 5. P. 379-391.
In this paper cultural factors are incorporated into a behavioral model of economic growth and development and the circumstances under which culture can make a difference are articulated. In this context, the question of the long run survival, in a competitive environment, of firms and societies imbued with cultural precepts that are not conducive to growth and development, is addressed. This discussion attempts to redress a gap in economic theory, which does not well incorporate cultural factors as independent and causally substantive variables.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Haizhou Huang, Chenggang Xu American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 2. P. 438-443.
The fundamental importance of economic institutions for economic growth through their impact on technological change has long been argued by Joseph Schumpter and others. Recent empirical studies have reconfirmed such arguments. Robert Barro (1997) finds that economic and political institutions are the most important factors in explaining differences in growth across economies. New growth theory has made major breakthroughs in endogenizing technological changes. However, although some insightful and inspiring discussions of institutional impacts of innovation are provided, there is little attempt in these models to explain what, aside from capital, labor inputs, and knowledge accumulation, determines innovation. An attempt is made to fill the gap in literature by examining how financial institutions affect technological innovation and thus affect growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Harriet Orcott Duleep, Mark C. Regets American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 2. P. 186-191.
The following question is approached theoretically and empirically: Why do immigrants invest more in human capital than the native-born, and how do investment patterns vary by type of immigrant? It is found that greater immigrant human capital investment is due to the lower opportunity costs of investment by immigrants lacking US-specific skills and the role of untransferred human capital as a factor of production for destination-country skills, as well as the higher return to investment spending from the complementarity of foreign and US human capital. This theoretical insight is supported by direct evidence of human capital investment and by empirical analyses.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Donna K. Ginther, Kathy J. Hayes American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 2. P. 397-402.
In their annual review of academic salaries, the American Association of University Professors observes large gender-related salary differentials. At doctoral-level institutions, male professors at the rank of full professor earn 11.4% more than women full professors. Data on academic labor markets from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate gender differences in salaries and promotion probabilities. Differences in employment outcomes by gender are found using two methods: the Oaxaca decomposition is used to examine salary differentials, and duration analysis is used to estimate promotion to tenure. While gender salary differences can largely be explained by academic rank, substantial gender differences in promotion to tenure exist after controlling for productivity, demographic characteristics, and primary work activity.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rachel Croson, Nancy Buchan American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 2. P. 386-39.
Gender is rarely included as a factor in economic models. However, recent work in experimental economics, as well as in psychology and political science, suggests that gender is an important determinant of economic and strategic behavior. Gender differences in bargaining are examined using the trust game introduced by Joyce Berg et al. (1995). In this two-person game, the proposer is given a choice of sending some, all, or none of his or her $10 experimental payment to an anonymous partner, the responder. For US subjects, Berg et al. found that 30 of 32 proposers deviated from economic equilibrium and sent some money to their partners. In sending money, proposers are trusting that their partners will return some money to them. In addition, 24 out of 32 of responders who received money returned some. Gender differences in this game are discussed.