Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Murray Leibbrandt, Haroon Bhorat, Ingrid Woolard Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 73-86.
There has been very little detailed exploration of the relationship between wage income and household inequality in South Africa despite the relevance of this issue for many contemporary growth and development policy debates. This article is directed at such an analysis. It uses a decomposition of household income inequality by income components to highlight the dominance of wage income in driving overall income inequality. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the distribution of the unemployed across different wage-earning household categories. Many of the unemployed are seen to depend on wage earners within their households, but a significant percentage of the unemployed, especially in rural areas, have no direct link to labor market earners. In such cases, the creation of employment is essential. The conclusion explores policy implications by linking our empirical findings to South African debates over the quality versus the quantity of employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Debra A. Barbezat, James W. Hughes Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 409-423.
The hypothesis that individuals increase future earnings by investing in themselves through job change has considerable empirical support. To date, this hypothesis has not been tested on the academic labor market. Using a national faculty survey that includes respondents' complete work history, the authors estimate the impact of job mobility on faculty salaries. The rate of job mobility among faculty members appears low compared to that of other workers. Salaries overall are not significantly related to the number of academic jobs held until the number of jobs reaches four, and then the effect is negative. An examination by gender reveals that women incur a salary penalty of 8% in moving to the second job.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alison J. Wellington Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 465-478.
This article estimates the importance of health insurance coverage on the probability of self-employment. Using data from the 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS), the author focuses on the impact of having health insurance through one's spouse on the likelihood of self-employment. The best estimates suggest that a guaranteed alternative source of health insurance would increase the probability of self-employment between 23 and 4.4 percentage points for husbands and 1.2 and 4.6 percentage points for wives. The author's more conservative estimates suggest that universal coverage could increase the percentage of self-employed in the workforce by 2 to 3.5 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James V. Koch, Richard J. Cebula Contemporary Economic Policy. 2002. Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 25-37.
Faster, frictionless, cheaper, better: these are said to be the hallmarks of economic activity on the Internet. Search theory suggests use of the Internet could reduce the prices consumers pay, but product branding, price discrimination based on data mining, and auctions may raise prices. The Internet has lowered most prices, but raised others, even when shop bots are used. Price dispersion is greater on the Internet, and Internet sellers change their prices more often. The role of intermediaries has not been reduced. The quality of service is idiosyncratic and highly variable. The Internet is a new and distinctive avenue of commerce, but those who argue it has invalidated conventional economic principles are well off base.
Is there a role for transaction cost economics if we view firms as complex adaptive systems? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Foster Contemporary Economic Policy. 2000. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 369-385.
This article assesses the usefulness of transaction cost economics when we view economic organizations, such as firms, as complex adaptive systems. Modern complexity science is a radically different in orientation to neoclassical economics, which deals with decision making in contexts that are presumed to be simple and, therefore, disconnected from complex reality. However transaction cost economics can be related to aspects of modern complexity science: bounded rationality, opportunism, and asset specificity are all associated with behavioral complexity.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Leslie A. Perlow Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 1. P. 57-81.
This paper describes a qualitative study of how people use their time at work, why they use it this way, and whether their way of using time is optimal for them or their work groups. Results of a 9-month field study of the work practices of a software engineering team revealed that the group's collective use of time perpetuated its members' "time famine", a feeling of having too much to do and not enough time to do it. Engineers had difficulty getting their individual work done because they were constantly interrupted by others. A crisis mentality and a reward system based on individual heroics perpetuated this disruptive way of interacting. Altering the way software engineers used their time at work, however, enhanced their collective productivity.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Freeman Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 1. P. 163-175.
Gibbons argues persuasively in Taking Coase Seriously (1999) that economic modeling offers a useful set of tools that noneconomists may employ to good effect in their research on organizations. His arguments are even more persuasive if it is understood that this brand of modeling lends itself naturally to one of the key theoretical problems facing such researchers - the need for a theory of aggregation, sometimes called a theory of action. Such a theory is necessary to link the behavior of individuals with properties of collectivites, such as corporations.
Wages and unequal access to organizational power: An empirical test of gender discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mia Hultin, Ryszard Szulkin Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 3. P. 453-472.
This study of Swedish workers investigates gender wage inequality, specifically, whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of establishments' managerial and supervisory staff. Theoretical arguments focus on managers' propensity to create and maintain or to undermine institutionalized gender bias and employees' capacity to mobilize resources and establish claims in the wage distribution process, mainly through social networks. Results show that gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures is essential in explaining women's relatively low wages. Women who work in establishments in which relatively many of the managers are men have lower wages than women with similar qualifications and job demands in establishments with more women in the power structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ann E. Tenbrunsel, David M. Messick Administrative Science Quarterly. 1999. Vol. 44. No. 4. P. 684-707.
Three studies are used to examine how surveillance and sanctioning systems affect cooperative behavior and dilemma situations. The first two studies demonstrate that a weak sanctioning system results in less cooperation and no sanctioning system; furthermore, results from the second study suggest that sanctions affect the type of decision people perceive they are making, prompting them to see it as a business rather than an ethical decision. The results from the studies are used to develop a theoretical model that postulates that the relationship between sanctions in cooperation is due to both the signaling effect, in which sanctions influence the type of decision that is perceived to be made, and a processing effect, in which the decision processing, including whether or not the strength of the sanction is considered, depends on the decision frame evoked. A third study provides support for the processing-effect hypothesis.
Friends in high places: The effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marc-David L. Seidel, Jeffrey T. Polzer, Katherine J. Stewart Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-24.
This article tests hypotheses about the effects of social networks on inequitable salary negotiation outcomes using a US high-technology company's salary negotiation data for 1985-1995. The paper finds that members of racial minority groups negotiated significantly lower salary increases than majority members, but this effect was dramatically reduced when social ties to the organization were controlled. Having a social tie to the organization significantly increased salary negotiation outcomes, and minorities were less likely than majority members to have such a social tie.
How experience and network ties affect the influence of demographic minorities on corporate boards [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James D. Westphal, Laurie P. Milton Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 2. P. 366-398.
This study examines how the influence of directors who are demographic minorities on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger socia structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The effects of minority status are assessed according to functional background, industry background, education, race, and gender for a large sample of corporate outside directors at Fortune/Forbes 500 companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gautam Ahuja Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 425-455.
To assess the effects of a firm's network of relations on innovation, this paper elaborates a theoretical framework that relates 3 aspects of a firm's ego network - direct ties, indirect ties, and structural holes - to the firm's subsequent innovation output. Results from a longitudinal study of firms in the international chemicals industry indicate support for the predictions on direct and indirect ties, but in the inter-firm collaboration network, increasing structural holes has a negative effect on innovation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Thomas D'Aunno, Melissa Succi, Jeffrey C. Alexander Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 679-703.
This paper focuses on a radical change, in which organizations abandon an institutionalized template for arranging their core activities, that is likely to occur in organizational fields that have strong, local market forces and strong but heterogeneous institutional forces. The role of market forces and heterogeneous institutional elements in promoting divergent change in core activities among all U.S. rural hospitals from 1984 to 1991 is examined. Results support the view that divergent change depends on both market forces (proximity to competitors, disadvantages in service mix) and institutional forces (state regulation, ownership and governance norms, and mimicry of models of divergent change).
Agency and social networks: Strategies of action in a social structure of position, opposition, and opportunity [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William B. Stevenson, Danna Greenberg Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 651-678.
This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.
Challengers, elites, and owning families: A social class theory of corporate acquisitions in the 1960s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Donald Palmer Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 1. P. 87-120.
This paper analyzes data on 461 large US industrial corporations to determine that factors that led large firms to participate in the wave of diversifying acquisitions that peaked in the late 1960s. A class theory of corporate acquisitions is elaborated on and tested, maintaining that firms pursue acquisitions in this periods when they were commended by well-networked challenges who were central in elite social networks but relatively marginal with respect to social status, isolated from the resistance of established elites, and free from control of owning families. Also considered is a wide range of factors highlighted by alternative accounts of acquisition likelihood, including resource dependent, institutional pressures, and principle-agent conflicts. The results provide support for the moan theoretical arguments, even when controls related to alternative explanations are taken into account.
Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robin J. Ely, David A. Thomas Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 229-273.
This paper develops theory about the conditions under which cultural diversity enhances or detracts from work group functioning. From qualitative research in three culturally diverse organizations, three different perspectives on workforce diversity are identified: 1. the integration-and-learning perspective, 2. the access-and-legitimacy perspective, and 3. the discrimination-and-fairness perspective. The perspective on diversity a work group held influenced how people expressed and managed tensions related to diversity, whether those who had been traditionally underrepresented in the organization felt respected and valued by their colleagues, and how people interpreted the meaning of the racial identity at work. By identifying the conditions that intervene between the demographic composition of a work group and its functioning, the research helps to explain mixed results on the relationship between cultural diversity and work group outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yadong Luo Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 177-20.
This study examines how personal attachments between boundary spanners within cross-cultural international cooperative ventures (ICV) are established and their association with venture performance. Results of analysis of 282 ICVs in an emerging market, the People's Republic of China, show that the development depends on factors at three levels. At the individual level, attachment is an increasing function of overlap in tenure between boundary spanners. At the organizational level, attachment is heightened by goal congruity between the parent firms but is impeded by cultural distance. At the environmental level, market disturbance and regulatory deterrence lead to strong attachments. Such attachments may stimulate an ICV's process performance and increase financial returns.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jesper B. Sorensen Administrative Science Quarterly. 2002. Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 70-91.
Prevailing research claims that strong corporate cultures improve firm performance by facilitating internal behavioral consistency. This paper addresses an unexamined implication of this argument by analyzing the effect of strong corporate cultures on the variability of firm performance. This relationship depends on how strong cultures affect organizational learning in response to internal and external change. It is hypothesized that strong-culture firms excel at incremental change but encounter difficulties in more volatile environments. Results of analyses of a sample of firms show that in relatively stable environments, strong-culture firms have more reliable (less variable) performance. In volatile environments, however, the reliability benefits of strong cultures disappear.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert A. Baron, Gideon D. Markman Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 106-116.
Why are some entrepreneurs so much more successful than others in starting new ventures? Previous efforts to answer this question have generally focused either in the personality traits of susceptibility to various cognitive errors of individual entrepreneurs, or on such external factors as the number of competing businesses. It is suggested that entrepreneurs' social skills - specific competencies that help them interact effectively with others - may also play a role in their success.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Maurice E. Schweitzer, Jeffrey L. Kerr Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 47-57.
Managers consume alcohol across a broad range of organizational contexts. In many cases, alcohol is consumed with little or no consideration of the risks or benefits involved. This paper identifies hazards of managerial drinking, as well as the role alcohol can play in developing relationships. It is argued that the decision to consume alcohol should be made rationally and strategically, and advice is offered for managers setting corporate policy or making individual decisions to consume alcohol.