Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22137
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan-Peter Olters American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 79-102.
Elections, often to a considerable degree, influence the fiscal policies of governments installed on the basis of their results. Yet, economists have tended to view politicians' behavior either as being determined exogenously or as the result of a social planner's maximization of a well-defined social-welfare function (subject to some appropriate technology and resource constraints). On the basis of explicit microeconomic foundations and a democratically coordinated decision-making mechanism over the optimal provision of public goods and the corresponding taxes required to finance them, this paper will introduce a simple economic model of politics that subjects individuals to a two-tiered political decision-making process over party membership and electoral participation, thereby endogenizing the evolution of the competing parties' ideologies, households' electoral behavior, and the key factors explaining the design of fiscal policies. Having the majority party's median delegate determine on the optimal degree of income redistribution suggests that a country's wealth distribution is a crucial explanatory variable explaining its politico-economic development path.
Toward capitalism or away from Russia? Early stage of post-Soviet economic reforms in Belarus and the Baltics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andrew Savchenko American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 233-257.
While at the start of systemic economic transformations in Eastern Europe, both indigenous reformers and Western observers tended to interpret the events as a rationally conceived and executed replacement of an economic system of inferior performance by another one whose superiority was proven, the developments that followed the disintegration of the Soviet polity did not support this view. Shortly after the former Soviet republics gained independence, they exhibited marked variations in speed and sometimes direction of market transformation that could not be satisfactorily explained within the framework of economic theories used by promoters of reforms. This paper compares the early stages of economic transformation in Belarus, where reforms were eventually abandoned, with the three Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia), which are the most successful emerging market economies among the former Soviet republics. Non-economic factors that might have contributed to this difference are highlighted.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Vladimir Kollontai American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 217-232.
This paper analyzes some of the problems created by a rapidly changing interaction between the political and the economic spheres in society. In periods of condensed social change this interaction is profoundly different from customary evolutionary developments. In Russia, various political economic concepts during the last century have led to profound shifts in economic mechanisms and structures (first toward a planned economy, later toward a market one). A knowledge of this experience (and the new problems that surface) might be useful if globalization, environmental issues and the transition to a post-industrial society should lead to periods of condensed socioeconomic change in the West.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Shuntian Yao American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 279-299.
This paper examines China's corruption problem with the help of several simple economic models. The concepts of implicit corruption and explicit corruption are proposed. The granting of privileges has directly created implicit corruption in China's socialist market economy. The long-term existence of the same privileged group in Chinese society has led to widespread collusion among its members, and as a result, these privileged group members, by utilizing their monopoly power, are able to seize almost all the wealth created by the ordinary Chinese people. This seizure is accomplished by means of a two-part tariff in pricing their administrative service, which is the essence of the explicit corruption. Because both implicit corruption and explicit corruption are generated by China's political system, which grants and protects privileges, unless a political reform is initiated and privileges are eliminated, China's problem of corruption will never be solved.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter J. Boettke, Virgil Henry Storr American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 161-191.
This paper explores the relationship of Max Weber's social economics to the work of the Austrian School of Economics, and in particular the writings of Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek. It argues that the Austrian school scholars complement and extend the work of Weber. The sophisticated form of methodological individualism found in Weber, Mises and Hayek overcomes the shortcomings of traditional economic and sociological analysis and could provide the analytical structure for a post-classical political economy.
Political culture, economic structure and policy: The Laffont-Tirole model extended to modern Japan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Warren Young, Joris Meijaard American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 301-326.
This paper deals with two issues. By linking culture and political systems, alternatives to the Developmental State approach are developed and the Bureaucratic State, among other types, is proposed for explaining the case of Japan. The Laffont-Tirole (L-T) model of regulatory capture is extended and a bureaucratic capture model is proposed. Variations of capture are shown to apply, given particular cultural predispositions. The case of atomic energy in Japan and the United States is then studied to assess the predictive efficacy of the extended L-T model. The paper concludes that cultural predispositions and the corresponding state types affect the degree to which capture takes place.
New political economy, scientism and knowledge: A critique from a Hayekian perspective and a proposal for an extension of the research agenda [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan Schnellenbach American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 193-214.
New political economy has something very important in common with welfare economics: its focus on static, technical efficiency criteria to judge the rationality of a social, political or economic order. This often leads theorists to perceive their objects of research as well-defined problems to which clear-cut solutions can be found and prescribed as policy proposals, addressed at the policymaker or the democratic sovereign. This perspective frequently excludes important empirical phenomena from the research agenda. Although, for example, certain well-defined informational asymmetries are frequently modeled, fundamental knowledge problems such as ignorance of the true model of the economy are usually ignored. In the present paper, this approach is criticized from a Hayekian point of view, with an emphasis on the problems of scientism (i.e., the inappropriate transfer of methods from the natural to the social sciences) and irremediably imperfect knowledge, troubling both the agents in the theoretical model and the theorist.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Marangos American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 259-276.
The neoclassical model of transition from a centrally-administered socialist economic system to a market-based economic system was implemented in Russia and Eastern Europe. The neoclassical process took the form of either shock therapy or gradualism. However, each approach actually involved a combination of shock therapy and gradualist policies, making the distinction between the two approaches unfounded. In addition, both approaches suffered by the innate inadequacies of neoclassical economic analysis as being politically/institutionally naked. Both shock therapy supporters and gradualist neoclassical economists did not provide a specific process of institutional development, favoring a gradual market-driven institutional outcome. With regard to the political structure, democracy was inconsistent with shock therapy, while active state intervention during transition was inconsistent with the ultimate goal of the gradualist neoclassical economists of competitive capitalism.
"New political economies" then and now: Economic theory and the mutation of political doctrine [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002A.M.C. Waterman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 13-51.
This article is concerned with the positive sense of political economy: that is, as a body of theory that purports to explain economic phenomena. It proposes a following strong thesis for debate: The new political economies of the present day differ sharply in their ideological implications from those of 50 years ago. Neoclassical orthodoxy provided the intellectual foundations of a collectivist political consensus. But the new political economies have destroyed those foundations, and have replaced them with economic theories far more congenial to an earlier, laissez-faire consensus born in the European Enlightenment.
The long and bumpy road to glass-steagall reform: A historical and evolutionary analysis of banking legislation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jill M. Hendrickson American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 849-879.
This paper focuses on understanding the role of interest groups and markets in influencing regulatory change. To that end, it first identities the interest groups surrounding the creation of legislation that separated commercial and investment banking in the 1930s and then identifies the interest groups involved in the more recent attempts to repeal the separation. Careful attention is also given to developments in the private market that affect the legislative process. This particular case study finds that existing orthodox economic and political science literature gives too much credit to interest groups and not enough credit to private market developments when analyzing policy development and reform.
Social inequality and the sociology of life style: Material and cultural aspects of social stratification [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dieter Bogenhold American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 829-847.
The rising importance of dimensions such as age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, political attitudes, and multiple choices to organize the notion of life course has made the older class concept appear obsolete to the research sociologist. A thesis is that the current expanding discussions of life styles are not necessarily a substitute but a valuable supplement to social stratification theory. Life style research can contribute to the question of the relevance of the class concept. The result of the investigation shows that life style research, when connected to the writings of Thorstein Veblen, Georg Simmel, and Max Weber, can enrich research in the social sciences.
Do reservation Native Americans vote with their feet?: A re-examination of Native American migration, 1985-1990 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Zahrt Geib American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 815-827.
Native Americans suffer some of the highest rates of poverty and unemployment and the lowest rates of human capital attainment among racial minority groups in the United States, but economists undestand very little about the impact these conditions have on the migration patterns of Native Americans. In 1994, a seminal article on this topic appeared in this journal (Cehula and Belton 1994). In their article, the authors suggest that the low levels of human capital and poor conditions in Native American reservations should make Native American migration sensitive to interstate differences in AFDC spending levels. This parer refines their analysis by using micro-level rather than aggregate ddta, and by controlling for reservation residence and the impact of informal social safety nets in the source region.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lauchlan T. Munro American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 795-814.
This paper suggests that a principal-agent perspective may be one of several useful ways of analyzing the family. The principal-agent literature has so far ignored an important set of cases where the principal is incapable of defining and defending her own interests, and so is assigned an agent by law or custom. This paper applies principal-agent analysis to one such case, the family, where the child is taken as the principal and the parent is her agent. The principal-agent problem within families creates a prima facie case for certain state interventions to protect the interests of child-principals. The principal-agent perspective on the family sheds new light on two old debates: about provision of state welfare services in cash or in kind, and about user fees for social services.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Fred E. Foldvary American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 403-418.
An alternative to centralized top-down city governance is a multi-level bottom-up structure based on small neighborhood contractual communities. This paper analyzes the voting rules and public finances of decentralized, contractual urban governance and the likely outcome of such a constitutional structure, substantially reduced transfer seeking or rent seeking. Tax and service substitution, with lower-level funding and services substituting for higher-level public finance, is the general process by which the governance would devolve. Land rent is the most feasible source of such decentralized public finance, and local communities could also engage in local currency and credit services. Some empirical examples demonstrate the implementation of some of these governance structures.
Manufacturing and rural economies in the United States: The role of nondurable producers, labor costs and state taxes [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Jelavich American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 185-192.
This paper investigates the preferences of manufacturers in deciding whether to locate in metropolitan or nonmetropolitan (rural) areas. Using 1997 state-level data and OLS regression estimation, it was determined that nondurable goods manufacturers prefer rural areas, while durable goods manufacturers are indifferent as to area. However, both sets of manufacturers prefer to locate in larger states. Wage rates are not significant in the regressions, while durable manufacturers appear sensitive to state taxes. Some policy conclusions for local economic developers are derived from these findings.
The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nathan B. Anderson, William T. Bogart American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 147-169.
This paper applies a consistent framework to four comparably sized metropolitan areas to identify and characterize their employment centers. Employment centers are identified as places that exceed a threshold employment density and a threshold employment level. They are also characterized as specializing on the basis of location quotient analysis. Clear evidence was found of specialization in every employment center in the four metropolitan areas studied. The interpretation is that what is observed is a systematic change in metropolitan structure rather than a random sprawling of firms. Evidence was also found that the size distribution of employment centers follows the rank-size rule. This suggests that there is structure not only in the distribution of economic activity among the employment centers but also in their size distribution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Norman Sedgley, Bruce Elmslie American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 101-121.
Urban economists have long recognized that space is economically important. Evidence of the importance of urban agglomeration and the offsetting effects of congestion are provided in a number of studies of productivity and wages. Little attention has been paid to this evidence in the economic growth literature. The new growth research focuses on technological change. The production function is extended for new ideas common to this research in a way that allows for congestion and agglomeration in innovation and the hypothesis that these forces are important in explaining innovation is tested. Strong evidence is found that agglomeration and congestion are important in explaining the vast differences in per capita patent rates across US states. This suggests an important new agenda in linking studies of urban economics with the rapidly advancing of endogenous growth.
Making the country work for the city: Von Thunen's ideas in geography, agricultural economics and the sociology of agriculture [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Daniel Block, Melanie E. DuPuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 79-98.
Von Thunen's Isolated State is a predictive model of how rural hinterlands organize agricultural production in relation to an urban center. Despite today's globalized food provisioning system, there are still some agricultural commodities that remain in US city hinterlands. The most prominent of these is milk. The spatial organization of dairying is therefore a topic in which von Thunen's notions of centrality are still pertinent. This paper will examine von Thunen and notions of centrality in the formulation of dairy policy in the US. His contribution has been very important to agricultural economists and agricultural geographers but less important to sociologists of agriculture, who see the spatial organization of food production around cities due as much to contingent, local political outcomes as to law-like notions of centrality.
Modeling agglomeration and dispersion in city and country: Gunnar Myrdal, Francois Perroux, and the new economic geography [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen J. Meardon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 25-57.
The new economic geography is a recent body of literature that seeks to explain how resources and production come to be concentrated spatially for reasons other than the standard geographic ones. Some authors outside the new economic geography have criticized it a simplistic, irrelevant, or passe. They claim it employs overly abstract analysis, prioritizes mathematical technique over realistic explanation, and is reminiscent of the much earlier worlds of Gunnar Myrdal and Francois Perroux - in comparison to which, however, it falls short. This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the new economic geography and the work of Myrdal and Perroux. It examines how the techniques of analysis and intuitive explanations of agglomeration compare between these economic sociologists and the new economic geographers. The paper highlights what has been gained and what has been lost by the new economic geographers, who generally eschew interdisciplinary study.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mike W. Peng, Stanislav V. Shekshia Academy of Management Executive. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 95-110.
Entrepreneurship has been flourishing in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent state of the former Soviet Union, and East Asia. Entrepreneurs in these countries are characterized by their sheer energy, relentless strategies, and sometimes controversial practices. How can entrepreneurs rise to crate wealth in environmental traditionally hostile to entrepreneurial activity? What can be learned from such an experience? Focusing on these 2 key questions, this article draws on research from a broad range of transition economies to identify 3 major entrepreneurial strategies of prospecting, networking, and boundary blurring. It also delineates important lessons for entrepreneurs active in transition economies and foreign entrants interested in these emerging markets.