Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jack Birner, Ragip Ege American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 749-780.
Emil Durkheim published The Division of Labour in Society as part of his strategy to create a place for sociology as a science independent from economics. The book describes how social cohesion and cooperation evolve spontaneously in the course of the process of the division of labor. Freidrich Hayek developed a theory of markets and competition which was later extended into a theory of society, in which spontaneous evolution is a central element. The main force behind this process is competition and the evolution of coordination. Both authors address the problem of social stability. Hayek rejects Durkheim's analysis as constructivistic, but his criticism is unjustified. Further analysis reveals many similarities between the two authors' theories of societal evolution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ning Wang American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 783-805.
Drawing upon the development of fish markets in a Chinese fishery community, the impact of transaction costs on the institutional structure of exchange is investigated. Fish markets in this region are connected and organized into a hierarchical network. This structure of fish markets dramatically reduces the cost for geographically distanced fishermen and consumers to execute trades. However, the provision of the market itself requires entrepreneurial efforts. The market is conceptualized as a continuum of middlemen, whose entrepreneurial efforts of buying and selling make the market work. When the middleman makes profits, the market is at work. Otherwise, the market fails to emerge. Comparing the different ways of organizing fish transportation at two distinct villages, it is shown that the choice of the market or the firm to organize fish transportation is determined by the cost of putting the market to work.
Towards a synthesis of transaction cost economics and a feminist oriented network anaylsis: An application to women's street commerce [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anne De Bruin, Ann Dupuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 807-827.
The possibility of an interdisciplinary, tripartite merger of transaction cost economics and the concept of embeddedness with feminist insights is suggested. It is demonstrated that in isolation, a simple application of transaction cost analysis can offer an adequate explanation of economic activity. The explanatory power of this approach however, is enhanced when complemented by greater recognition of the importance of the social context in which economic activity occurs. Research from New Zealand's largest street market is used to examine women's work in street commerce, a sub-sector of the informal sector. Aspects of transaction cost analysis are applied to activities of women market vendors. It is proposed that the approach taken which considers the embeddedness of economic activity in ongoing networks of social relations, and the intertwining of economic with non-economic goals, is compatible with aspects of feminism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sarah Maxwell American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 999-1018.
Social norms have been recognized as an important influence in long-term relational exchange between firms. It is argued that social norms are equally important in short-term discrete exchange that takes place between firms and consumers. The norms of consumer exchange are, however, of a different kind. To clarify the difference, a classification system is presented. Based on the classification, the social norms of discrete consumer exchange are defined and a method of quantifying these norms is proposed.
The economics of the criminal behavior of young adults: Estimation of an economic model of crime with a correction for aggregate market and public policy variables [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Gius American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 947-957.
A combination of individual-level and county-level data is used to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults similar to that used by Becker (1968) and Trumbull (1989). In order to estimate a model of crime in which both individual-level and county-level data are used, it is necessary to take account of the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, a technique derived by Moulton (1990) is employed. Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young adult will commit a crime. Results also suggest that police presence, as measured by county-level per capita police expenditures, does not deter young adults from committing crimes.
The consumption of music and the expression of VALUES: A social economic explanation for the advent of pop music [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wilfred Dolfsma American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1019-1046.
By consuming pop music, people want to express who they are, to which group they belong, what their identity is. People's identity, however and contrary to what many believe, is not strictly individual. Instead, people's identity is highly social and draws on the socio-cultural values (VALUES) in society - VALUES that become objectified or institutionalized and may thus be communicated to others. If such institutionalized socio-cultural values are not conceptualized, and if one is not able to understand how institutions work in signaling people's identity, one is not able to explain a phenomenon such as the advent of pop music. Ideas taken from institutional and social economics are applied and developed to understand the consumption of a symbolic good such as pop music.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Michael Davern American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 843-864.
Several hypotheses are derived that relate social networks to the occupational prestige attainment process. These hypotheses are evaluated using theoretically derived indicators and ordinary least squares regression. Most of the hypotheses considered do not receive support, and the one hypothesis that does lacks a consistent theoretical explanation. From this analysis, two important conclusions are drawn: 1. The relationship between the prestige of a social network contact and prestige attainment may be empirically strong, but the theoretical explanation linking them lacks consistency. 2. Empirical work performed to test social network theories should no longer focus on dyadic data alone. The broader implications of these conclusions for future research are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Arthur A. Goldsmith American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 865-883.
The international community is redoubling efforts to curb political corruption in the developing and transitional economies. The consensus now is that the abuse of public office stunts economic growth, replacing a formerly dominant view that the effect is neutral or positive. Corruption's political correlates, however, are seldom studied empirically. Using Transparency International's recently developed index of perceived corruption, the issue is explored by regression analysis in a sample of less-developed countries. Economic liberalization, political democratization, and administrative centralization are associated with lower degrees of political corruption.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1075-1090.
An attempt is made to put Georg Simmel's The Philosophy of Money into the context of current monetary discussions in economics. It is argued that Simmel is able to transcend subdisciplinary borders, to great benefit for today's scholar. It is shown that Simmel's approach, transgressing interdisciplinary borders, has merits even today. It is not monetary economics but constitutional political economy which is the unifying concept to explain the peculiar features of European monetary integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Levy American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 729-747.
Is the well-known finding of experimental economics that talk is correlated with cooperation in prisoner-dilemma contexts related to Adam Smith's claim that trade requires language? Using Smith's postulate of the existence of a desire for approbation and the supposition that language carries approbation, it is demonstrated how the ability to exchange approbation enhances the rationality of cooperation.
Ethnic solidarity and black business: The case of ethnic beauty aids distributors in Chicago [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert M. Silverman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 829-841.
The development of a separate economic niche for black entrepreneurs in Chicago's ethnic beauty aids industry is examined. It is argued that this economic niche developed in response to advantages black entrepreneurs had in mobilizing ethnic resources in the black community. The findings lend support to general theoretical arguments stating that ethnicity, race, and other symbols for identity function as low-cost screening devices for evaluating the likelihood that trading partners will honor economic contracts, particularly in a market setting where formal market mechanisms are not fully developed. The findings are based on a series of in-person interviews with Korean, Jewish and black distributors of ethnic beauty aids in Chicago.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lyn Spillman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1047-1071.
As economic sociologists have been arguing for some time, markets are not to be abstractly opposed to other social relations but rather to be understood as embedded in them, and indeed subject to the same kinds of analysis as other social relations. However, many accounts of embeddedness explain it in structural terms and still operate with an impoverished notion of culture. It is argued that there is a rich agenda for cultural investigation which has yet to be fully exploited in economic sociology, and fascinating work on economic embeddedness which could be enriched with more culturally oriented analysis and research. Three issues on this agenda which are more often collapsed are distinguished, arguing that the meaning of markets should be investigated in terms of the cultural construction of objects of market exchange, the cultural construction of parties to market exchange, and the cultural construction of norms of exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Grabowski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 699-712.
An attempt is made to integrate the concepts of embedded exchange and impersonal exchange via the notion of integrated markets. The more integrated market exchange is, the more likely that each potential actor in the exchange process is linked to a large number of others. As a result, it is less likely that buyers and sellers will choose to cheat each other, and market exchange thrives. Integration occurs as a result of bridging structural holes in social networks and is carried out by entrepreneurial middlemen. Their activities are characterized by significant increasing returns to scale. Thus coordination is likely to be necessary for integrated markets to develop.
Assessing the new synthesis of economics and sociology: Promising themes for contemporary analysts of economic life [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dan Krier American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 669-696.
The emergence of the New Synthesis of economics and sociology is explored and analyzed in the context of the classical writings in economic sociology. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather a selective assessment that introduces the most important questions, answers, and contributions of this emerging and important specialized literature. An attempt is made to: 1. translate faithfully the internal logic of this active specialty field into a language and problematic that can be appreciated by non-specialists, 2. identify central assumptions and themes in the New Synthesis writings that seem particularly promising for the appreciation of contemporary economic happenings, and 3. indicate opportunities for the development of further theoretical richness by incorporating Old Synthesis approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 651-667.
The aim of this study is to present the economic sociology of Alfred Marshall (1842-1924). Three topics are discussed: 1. Marshall's ideas of how preferences are generated, 2. the theory of action, and 3. the introduction of a fourth factor of production, organization. It is argued that Marshall's approach encourages a closer connection between sociologists interested in economic phenomena and economists. This conclusion is strengthened because of the resemblance of Marshall's analysis to those offered by Max Weber and Thorstein Veblen.
Economic sociology in retrospect and prospect: In search of its identity within economics and sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 583-627.
Theory and research in the field of economic sociology have seen steady advancements in recent years. Economic sociology has become a legitimate branch of sociology as well as of economics. Nonetheless, the treatment of economic sociology in both modern economics and sociology leaves much to be desired. Various formal-terminological confusions and theoretical-substantive misconceptions are still present in the field. Some proposals for remedying this situation are advanced. In particular, clarifications are provided of and amendments to the current treatment of issues, such as the relationship between economics and sociology, the character of economic sociology, its links to economic theory, socio-economics, and rational choice theory, as well as the question of the old versus the new economic sociology. Special emphasis is placed on the relationships between economic sociology and rational choice theory, given the latter's claims to universality.
Max Weber as an economist and as a sociologist: Towards a fuller understanding of Weber's view of economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Swedberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 561-582.
A picture of Max Weber as an economist is given, mainly by focusing on a text which he distributed to his students when he taught economics in the 1890s. Weber's work in economic sociology is outlined, relying primarily on Economy and Society and its central Chapter 2 (Sociological Categories of Economic Action). The differences between the approaches of economic theory and economic sociology, as seen by Weber, are summarized, and an account is given of some of Weber's most suggestive concepts in economic sociology. The question is raised as to when the analyst, according to Weber, should use economic sociology rather than economic theory, and vice versa. Weber's ideas about a broad economic science are also presented.
An empirical test of the institutionalist view on income inequality: Economic growth within the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carolyn B. Rodriguez American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The relationship between income inequality and economic growth within the US is analyzed using state level data. Income inequality in the US since 1960 is described. A two-step causal model is employed to test the institutionalist contention that income inequality leads to socio-political instability, which has a negative impact on economic progress. The empirical results offer support for the institutionalist view.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Milios American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 283-302.
The notion social class attains a well-defined theoretical content in the works of the classical political economists, who defined classes on the basis of the specific income form that each category of people (class) obtains. As economic theory became increasingly apologetic after the Marginalist Revolution (setting itself the aim of justifying capitalism), the theory of class has been totally banished from the corpus of modern (neoclassical) economic science. It is asserted that the scientific elements inherent in classical political economy's class theory were preserved by the Marxist class theory, which further revolutionized the classical approach, creating a new, purely non-economistic and non-mechanical relationist class theory, and forming thus a vivid economic-sociological approach to social classes. On the basis of the Marxist approach, complex problems concerning the class structure of contemporary societies can be tackled.