Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22262
The economics of the criminal behavior of young adults: Estimation of an economic model of crime with a correction for aggregate market and public policy variables [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Gius American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 947-957.
A combination of individual-level and county-level data is used to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults similar to that used by Becker (1968) and Trumbull (1989). In order to estimate a model of crime in which both individual-level and county-level data are used, it is necessary to take account of the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, a technique derived by Moulton (1990) is employed. Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young adult will commit a crime. Results also suggest that police presence, as measured by county-level per capita police expenditures, does not deter young adults from committing crimes.
The consumption of music and the expression of VALUES: A social economic explanation for the advent of pop music [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wilfred Dolfsma American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1019-1046.
By consuming pop music, people want to express who they are, to which group they belong, what their identity is. People's identity, however and contrary to what many believe, is not strictly individual. Instead, people's identity is highly social and draws on the socio-cultural values (VALUES) in society - VALUES that become objectified or institutionalized and may thus be communicated to others. If such institutionalized socio-cultural values are not conceptualized, and if one is not able to understand how institutions work in signaling people's identity, one is not able to explain a phenomenon such as the advent of pop music. Ideas taken from institutional and social economics are applied and developed to understand the consumption of a symbolic good such as pop music.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Michael Davern American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 843-864.
Several hypotheses are derived that relate social networks to the occupational prestige attainment process. These hypotheses are evaluated using theoretically derived indicators and ordinary least squares regression. Most of the hypotheses considered do not receive support, and the one hypothesis that does lacks a consistent theoretical explanation. From this analysis, two important conclusions are drawn: 1. The relationship between the prestige of a social network contact and prestige attainment may be empirically strong, but the theoretical explanation linking them lacks consistency. 2. Empirical work performed to test social network theories should no longer focus on dyadic data alone. The broader implications of these conclusions for future research are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Arthur A. Goldsmith American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 865-883.
The international community is redoubling efforts to curb political corruption in the developing and transitional economies. The consensus now is that the abuse of public office stunts economic growth, replacing a formerly dominant view that the effect is neutral or positive. Corruption's political correlates, however, are seldom studied empirically. Using Transparency International's recently developed index of perceived corruption, the issue is explored by regression analysis in a sample of less-developed countries. Economic liberalization, political democratization, and administrative centralization are associated with lower degrees of political corruption.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1075-1090.
An attempt is made to put Georg Simmel's The Philosophy of Money into the context of current monetary discussions in economics. It is argued that Simmel is able to transcend subdisciplinary borders, to great benefit for today's scholar. It is shown that Simmel's approach, transgressing interdisciplinary borders, has merits even today. It is not monetary economics but constitutional political economy which is the unifying concept to explain the peculiar features of European monetary integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Levy American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 729-747.
Is the well-known finding of experimental economics that talk is correlated with cooperation in prisoner-dilemma contexts related to Adam Smith's claim that trade requires language? Using Smith's postulate of the existence of a desire for approbation and the supposition that language carries approbation, it is demonstrated how the ability to exchange approbation enhances the rationality of cooperation.
Ethnic solidarity and black business: The case of ethnic beauty aids distributors in Chicago [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert M. Silverman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 829-841.
The development of a separate economic niche for black entrepreneurs in Chicago's ethnic beauty aids industry is examined. It is argued that this economic niche developed in response to advantages black entrepreneurs had in mobilizing ethnic resources in the black community. The findings lend support to general theoretical arguments stating that ethnicity, race, and other symbols for identity function as low-cost screening devices for evaluating the likelihood that trading partners will honor economic contracts, particularly in a market setting where formal market mechanisms are not fully developed. The findings are based on a series of in-person interviews with Korean, Jewish and black distributors of ethnic beauty aids in Chicago.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lyn Spillman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1047-1071.
As economic sociologists have been arguing for some time, markets are not to be abstractly opposed to other social relations but rather to be understood as embedded in them, and indeed subject to the same kinds of analysis as other social relations. However, many accounts of embeddedness explain it in structural terms and still operate with an impoverished notion of culture. It is argued that there is a rich agenda for cultural investigation which has yet to be fully exploited in economic sociology, and fascinating work on economic embeddedness which could be enriched with more culturally oriented analysis and research. Three issues on this agenda which are more often collapsed are distinguished, arguing that the meaning of markets should be investigated in terms of the cultural construction of objects of market exchange, the cultural construction of parties to market exchange, and the cultural construction of norms of exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Grabowski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 699-712.
An attempt is made to integrate the concepts of embedded exchange and impersonal exchange via the notion of integrated markets. The more integrated market exchange is, the more likely that each potential actor in the exchange process is linked to a large number of others. As a result, it is less likely that buyers and sellers will choose to cheat each other, and market exchange thrives. Integration occurs as a result of bridging structural holes in social networks and is carried out by entrepreneurial middlemen. Their activities are characterized by significant increasing returns to scale. Thus coordination is likely to be necessary for integrated markets to develop.
Assessing the new synthesis of economics and sociology: Promising themes for contemporary analysts of economic life [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dan Krier American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 669-696.
The emergence of the New Synthesis of economics and sociology is explored and analyzed in the context of the classical writings in economic sociology. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather a selective assessment that introduces the most important questions, answers, and contributions of this emerging and important specialized literature. An attempt is made to: 1. translate faithfully the internal logic of this active specialty field into a language and problematic that can be appreciated by non-specialists, 2. identify central assumptions and themes in the New Synthesis writings that seem particularly promising for the appreciation of contemporary economic happenings, and 3. indicate opportunities for the development of further theoretical richness by incorporating Old Synthesis approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrik Aspers American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 651-667.
The aim of this study is to present the economic sociology of Alfred Marshall (1842-1924). Three topics are discussed: 1. Marshall's ideas of how preferences are generated, 2. the theory of action, and 3. the introduction of a fourth factor of production, organization. It is argued that Marshall's approach encourages a closer connection between sociologists interested in economic phenomena and economists. This conclusion is strengthened because of the resemblance of Marshall's analysis to those offered by Max Weber and Thorstein Veblen.
Economic sociology in retrospect and prospect: In search of its identity within economics and sociology [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 583-627.
Theory and research in the field of economic sociology have seen steady advancements in recent years. Economic sociology has become a legitimate branch of sociology as well as of economics. Nonetheless, the treatment of economic sociology in both modern economics and sociology leaves much to be desired. Various formal-terminological confusions and theoretical-substantive misconceptions are still present in the field. Some proposals for remedying this situation are advanced. In particular, clarifications are provided of and amendments to the current treatment of issues, such as the relationship between economics and sociology, the character of economic sociology, its links to economic theory, socio-economics, and rational choice theory, as well as the question of the old versus the new economic sociology. Special emphasis is placed on the relationships between economic sociology and rational choice theory, given the latter's claims to universality.
Max Weber as an economist and as a sociologist: Towards a fuller understanding of Weber's view of economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Swedberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 561-582.
A picture of Max Weber as an economist is given, mainly by focusing on a text which he distributed to his students when he taught economics in the 1890s. Weber's work in economic sociology is outlined, relying primarily on Economy and Society and its central Chapter 2 (Sociological Categories of Economic Action). The differences between the approaches of economic theory and economic sociology, as seen by Weber, are summarized, and an account is given of some of Weber's most suggestive concepts in economic sociology. The question is raised as to when the analyst, according to Weber, should use economic sociology rather than economic theory, and vice versa. Weber's ideas about a broad economic science are also presented.
An empirical test of the institutionalist view on income inequality: Economic growth within the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carolyn B. Rodriguez American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The relationship between income inequality and economic growth within the US is analyzed using state level data. Income inequality in the US since 1960 is described. A two-step causal model is employed to test the institutionalist contention that income inequality leads to socio-political instability, which has a negative impact on economic progress. The empirical results offer support for the institutionalist view.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Milios American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 283-302.
The notion social class attains a well-defined theoretical content in the works of the classical political economists, who defined classes on the basis of the specific income form that each category of people (class) obtains. As economic theory became increasingly apologetic after the Marginalist Revolution (setting itself the aim of justifying capitalism), the theory of class has been totally banished from the corpus of modern (neoclassical) economic science. It is asserted that the scientific elements inherent in classical political economy's class theory were preserved by the Marxist class theory, which further revolutionized the classical approach, creating a new, purely non-economistic and non-mechanical relationist class theory, and forming thus a vivid economic-sociological approach to social classes. On the basis of the Marxist approach, complex problems concerning the class structure of contemporary societies can be tackled.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anil Hira, Rona Hira American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 267-282.
It is suggested that the new institutionalism contains ambiguous and contradictory notions of change. By setting up a model that explains institutional constraints on decision makers, the new institutionalism correctly points out the limits of a rational choice framework of economic decision making. However, by failing to explain the sources and avenues of modifications of those constraints, the new institutionalism is unable to provide a satisfactory explanation of change. Instead, a patchwork of exogenous factors is found, such as technology, culture, and ideology, which feed into institutional change in unclear ways. Those factors for change should be examined directly, rather than through the proxy of institutions.
An analysis of kin-provided child care in the context of intrafamily exchanges: Linking components of family support for parents raising young children [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter D. Brandon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 191-216.
Previous models of the choice of kin-provided child care assumed that the presence of other forms of in-kind support from relatives nearby was inconsequential to estimating effects of economic and demographic factors on the decision to use kin-provided child care. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, it is shown that this assumption is incorrect because use of kin-provided child care and intrafamily in-kind resource exchanges are interrelated. When the association between use of kin-provided child care and the presence of other family in-kind exchanges is ignored, it is shown that estimated effects for income, the price of child care, and maternal characteristics are underestimated. The findings provide a better understanding of why parents choose kin-provided child care by confirming that this decision is a part of a larger set of parental decisions about involvement in resource exchanges within extended families.
The uses of authority in Economics: Shared intellectual frameworks as the foundation of personal persuasion [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morgan Marietta, Mark Perlman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 151-189.
The answer to the questions about what economists believe and why they do not all believe the same things revolves around the nature, variety, and uses of authority in economics. The data used are the various frameworks that economists, knowingly and unknowingly, employ to formulate their questions and organize their intellectual endeavors. These devices are called patristic traditions, or cultural and intellectual frameworks, or governing legacies, or several other phrases. They all connote authority systems, traceable to specific intellectual or cultural precursors, or authorities. The central proposition is that the specific set of governing legacies that each individual economist possesses effectively guides his or her thinking. By recognizing these authorities it is possible to more effectively understand others' minds and increase the ability to persuade.
The worldwide movement in private universities: Revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Munir Quddus, Salim Rashid American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 487-516.
An attempt is made to analyze the phenomenon of new private universities in non-Western nations, focusing on the developing world in general, and Asia in particular. Within the context of a few case studies that reflect the breadth and diversity of this revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education, an attempt is made to answer, among other things, questions about these institutions' missions, the models they are following, the challenges they face, how they are coping with their relationship to existing public universities, and how they are dealing with tuition and budgetary issues.