Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22273
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jocelyn F. Pixley British Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 51. No. 1.
Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioral psychology (exuberance or panic). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than individuals make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotion like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reaction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to herd behavior in economics, and system trust applied to finance and money as a medium of communication in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to think or feel, they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial manias in aggregate or system trust.
Using occupational preference in estimating market wage discrimination: The case of the gender pay gap-decomposition of a reduced-form wage equation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Eric J. Solberg American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 85-113.
Past occupational preference is used to estimate the gender pay gap. The use of predetermined variables in a reduced-form wage equation avoids the bias caused by using variables that are correlated with the random error. Using a gender coefficient, the potential discriminatory gap is about 11.5% when past occupational preference is included. Decomposition yields an estimate of 10.5% when past occupational preference is included. In both cases, the discriminatory gap is close to that obtained when actual occupation is included. This suggests public policy directed toward reducing hiring discrimination by gender might be misdirected.
Flexible working hours, family responsibilities, and female self-employment: Gender differences in self-employment selection [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Boden American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 71-83.
Using cross-sectional data from the Contingent Work Survey of the February 1995 Current Population Survey, direct evidence is presented that there are substantial gender differences in the reasons why individuals become self-employed. In particular, women - especially women with young children - are more likely than men to cite flexibility of schedule and family-related reasons for becoming self-employed. Men's reasons for becoming self-employed show little association with their parental status. Findings suggest that employers should be encouraged to offer working conditions that are friendly to workers whose family obligations conflict with traditional, 40-hour-per-week jobs.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jin Heum Park American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 1. P. 43-56.
Evidence is found consistent with the hypothesis that English-speaking ability is an important determinant of earnings of immigrants in the US. Immigrants who do not speak English well acquire English proficiency as well as other skills, and experience faster earnings growth, than immigrants who are fluent in English. For those immigrants whose first language is English or who speak English very well, fluency in English is valuable because it facilitates the transfer to the US labor market of schooling and labor market experience obtained abroad. Documenting and studying the importance of local efforts to teach English to immigrants - such as the English as a second language classes offered by the Chinese American Civic Association, Jewish Vocational Services, and El Centro de Cardenal - will be an important future research task.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Franz Ritzmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 2. P. 167-192.
From Rice Vaughan (1675): The first Invention of Money was for a Pledge and instead of a Surety" to John Manyard Keynes (1937): Our desire to hold money as a store of wealth is a barometer of the degree of our distrust, there is a tradition of monetary theory linking the demand for money with the state of confidence. In the early 19th century, Henry Thornton and Thomas Attwood analyzed the shifts in precautionary demand for money and their implications for money supply, production, employment, and the balance of payments. The tradition was interrupted during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was subsequently revived by Keynes's General Theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter J. Boettke American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 3. P. 371-384.
Since 1992, the rhetoric of Russian economic reformers has been one of full-speed ahead to a free-market economy. The reality, however, has diverged significantly from this rhetoric at both a broad rules of the game level and specific policy within rules level. The resulting ambiguity of the economic environment and the lingering effects of the previous system which is supposed to be reformed has led to a continued deterioration of the Russian economy. A modified defense of shock therapy as a path to a cure for Russia's economic malaise, as opposed to the cure itself, is offered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jocelyn F. Pixley American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1091-1116.
New developments in the sociology of money are outlined. Certain aspects of Post Keynesian monetarism are highlighted and Keynesian concepts of emotions relative to economics and economic sociology are explored. Underdeveloped areas of discourse in both sociology and economics are identified and the resulting superficiality of references to money are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jack Birner, Ragip Ege American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 749-780.
Emil Durkheim published The Division of Labour in Society as part of his strategy to create a place for sociology as a science independent from economics. The book describes how social cohesion and cooperation evolve spontaneously in the course of the process of the division of labor. Freidrich Hayek developed a theory of markets and competition which was later extended into a theory of society, in which spontaneous evolution is a central element. The main force behind this process is competition and the evolution of coordination. Both authors address the problem of social stability. Hayek rejects Durkheim's analysis as constructivistic, but his criticism is unjustified. Further analysis reveals many similarities between the two authors' theories of societal evolution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ning Wang American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 783-805.
Drawing upon the development of fish markets in a Chinese fishery community, the impact of transaction costs on the institutional structure of exchange is investigated. Fish markets in this region are connected and organized into a hierarchical network. This structure of fish markets dramatically reduces the cost for geographically distanced fishermen and consumers to execute trades. However, the provision of the market itself requires entrepreneurial efforts. The market is conceptualized as a continuum of middlemen, whose entrepreneurial efforts of buying and selling make the market work. When the middleman makes profits, the market is at work. Otherwise, the market fails to emerge. Comparing the different ways of organizing fish transportation at two distinct villages, it is shown that the choice of the market or the firm to organize fish transportation is determined by the cost of putting the market to work.
Towards a synthesis of transaction cost economics and a feminist oriented network anaylsis: An application to women's street commerce [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anne De Bruin, Ann Dupuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 807-827.
The possibility of an interdisciplinary, tripartite merger of transaction cost economics and the concept of embeddedness with feminist insights is suggested. It is demonstrated that in isolation, a simple application of transaction cost analysis can offer an adequate explanation of economic activity. The explanatory power of this approach however, is enhanced when complemented by greater recognition of the importance of the social context in which economic activity occurs. Research from New Zealand's largest street market is used to examine women's work in street commerce, a sub-sector of the informal sector. Aspects of transaction cost analysis are applied to activities of women market vendors. It is proposed that the approach taken which considers the embeddedness of economic activity in ongoing networks of social relations, and the intertwining of economic with non-economic goals, is compatible with aspects of feminism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sarah Maxwell American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 999-1018.
Social norms have been recognized as an important influence in long-term relational exchange between firms. It is argued that social norms are equally important in short-term discrete exchange that takes place between firms and consumers. The norms of consumer exchange are, however, of a different kind. To clarify the difference, a classification system is presented. Based on the classification, the social norms of discrete consumer exchange are defined and a method of quantifying these norms is proposed.
The economics of the criminal behavior of young adults: Estimation of an economic model of crime with a correction for aggregate market and public policy variables [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mark Gius American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 947-957.
A combination of individual-level and county-level data is used to estimate an economic model of crime for young adults similar to that used by Becker (1968) and Trumbull (1989). In order to estimate a model of crime in which both individual-level and county-level data are used, it is necessary to take account of the bias introduced by using aggregate-level data in conjunction with individual-level data. In order to eliminate this bias, a technique derived by Moulton (1990) is employed. Results from a logit regression model indicate that race, sex, and peer pressure have statistically significant effects on the probability that a young adult will commit a crime. Results also suggest that police presence, as measured by county-level per capita police expenditures, does not deter young adults from committing crimes.
The consumption of music and the expression of VALUES: A social economic explanation for the advent of pop music [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wilfred Dolfsma American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1019-1046.
By consuming pop music, people want to express who they are, to which group they belong, what their identity is. People's identity, however and contrary to what many believe, is not strictly individual. Instead, people's identity is highly social and draws on the socio-cultural values (VALUES) in society - VALUES that become objectified or institutionalized and may thus be communicated to others. If such institutionalized socio-cultural values are not conceptualized, and if one is not able to understand how institutions work in signaling people's identity, one is not able to explain a phenomenon such as the advent of pop music. Ideas taken from institutional and social economics are applied and developed to understand the consumption of a symbolic good such as pop music.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Michael Davern American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 843-864.
Several hypotheses are derived that relate social networks to the occupational prestige attainment process. These hypotheses are evaluated using theoretically derived indicators and ordinary least squares regression. Most of the hypotheses considered do not receive support, and the one hypothesis that does lacks a consistent theoretical explanation. From this analysis, two important conclusions are drawn: 1. The relationship between the prestige of a social network contact and prestige attainment may be empirically strong, but the theoretical explanation linking them lacks consistency. 2. Empirical work performed to test social network theories should no longer focus on dyadic data alone. The broader implications of these conclusions for future research are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Arthur A. Goldsmith American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 865-883.
The international community is redoubling efforts to curb political corruption in the developing and transitional economies. The consensus now is that the abuse of public office stunts economic growth, replacing a formerly dominant view that the effect is neutral or positive. Corruption's political correlates, however, are seldom studied empirically. Using Transparency International's recently developed index of perceived corruption, the issue is explored by regression analysis in a sample of less-developed countries. Economic liberalization, political democratization, and administrative centralization are associated with lower degrees of political corruption.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jürgen G. Backhaus American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1075-1090.
An attempt is made to put Georg Simmel's The Philosophy of Money into the context of current monetary discussions in economics. It is argued that Simmel is able to transcend subdisciplinary borders, to great benefit for today's scholar. It is shown that Simmel's approach, transgressing interdisciplinary borders, has merits even today. It is not monetary economics but constitutional political economy which is the unifying concept to explain the peculiar features of European monetary integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Levy American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 729-747.
Is the well-known finding of experimental economics that talk is correlated with cooperation in prisoner-dilemma contexts related to Adam Smith's claim that trade requires language? Using Smith's postulate of the existence of a desire for approbation and the supposition that language carries approbation, it is demonstrated how the ability to exchange approbation enhances the rationality of cooperation.
Ethnic solidarity and black business: The case of ethnic beauty aids distributors in Chicago [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert M. Silverman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 829-841.
The development of a separate economic niche for black entrepreneurs in Chicago's ethnic beauty aids industry is examined. It is argued that this economic niche developed in response to advantages black entrepreneurs had in mobilizing ethnic resources in the black community. The findings lend support to general theoretical arguments stating that ethnicity, race, and other symbols for identity function as low-cost screening devices for evaluating the likelihood that trading partners will honor economic contracts, particularly in a market setting where formal market mechanisms are not fully developed. The findings are based on a series of in-person interviews with Korean, Jewish and black distributors of ethnic beauty aids in Chicago.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lyn Spillman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1047-1071.
As economic sociologists have been arguing for some time, markets are not to be abstractly opposed to other social relations but rather to be understood as embedded in them, and indeed subject to the same kinds of analysis as other social relations. However, many accounts of embeddedness explain it in structural terms and still operate with an impoverished notion of culture. It is argued that there is a rich agenda for cultural investigation which has yet to be fully exploited in economic sociology, and fascinating work on economic embeddedness which could be enriched with more culturally oriented analysis and research. Three issues on this agenda which are more often collapsed are distinguished, arguing that the meaning of markets should be investigated in terms of the cultural construction of objects of market exchange, the cultural construction of parties to market exchange, and the cultural construction of norms of exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.