Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22246
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anil Hira, Rona Hira American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 267-282.
It is suggested that the new institutionalism contains ambiguous and contradictory notions of change. By setting up a model that explains institutional constraints on decision makers, the new institutionalism correctly points out the limits of a rational choice framework of economic decision making. However, by failing to explain the sources and avenues of modifications of those constraints, the new institutionalism is unable to provide a satisfactory explanation of change. Instead, a patchwork of exogenous factors is found, such as technology, culture, and ideology, which feed into institutional change in unclear ways. Those factors for change should be examined directly, rather than through the proxy of institutions.
An analysis of kin-provided child care in the context of intrafamily exchanges: Linking components of family support for parents raising young children [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter D. Brandon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 191-216.
Previous models of the choice of kin-provided child care assumed that the presence of other forms of in-kind support from relatives nearby was inconsequential to estimating effects of economic and demographic factors on the decision to use kin-provided child care. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, it is shown that this assumption is incorrect because use of kin-provided child care and intrafamily in-kind resource exchanges are interrelated. When the association between use of kin-provided child care and the presence of other family in-kind exchanges is ignored, it is shown that estimated effects for income, the price of child care, and maternal characteristics are underestimated. The findings provide a better understanding of why parents choose kin-provided child care by confirming that this decision is a part of a larger set of parental decisions about involvement in resource exchanges within extended families.
The uses of authority in Economics: Shared intellectual frameworks as the foundation of personal persuasion [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Morgan Marietta, Mark Perlman American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 151-189.
The answer to the questions about what economists believe and why they do not all believe the same things revolves around the nature, variety, and uses of authority in economics. The data used are the various frameworks that economists, knowingly and unknowingly, employ to formulate their questions and organize their intellectual endeavors. These devices are called patristic traditions, or cultural and intellectual frameworks, or governing legacies, or several other phrases. They all connote authority systems, traceable to specific intellectual or cultural precursors, or authorities. The central proposition is that the specific set of governing legacies that each individual economist possesses effectively guides his or her thinking. By recognizing these authorities it is possible to more effectively understand others' minds and increase the ability to persuade.
The worldwide movement in private universities: Revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Munir Quddus, Salim Rashid American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 487-516.
An attempt is made to analyze the phenomenon of new private universities in non-Western nations, focusing on the developing world in general, and Asia in particular. Within the context of a few case studies that reflect the breadth and diversity of this revolutionary growth in post-secondary higher education, an attempt is made to answer, among other things, questions about these institutions' missions, the models they are following, the challenges they face, how they are coping with their relationship to existing public universities, and how they are dealing with tuition and budgetary issues.
Incentives and the work decisions of welfare recipients: Evidence from the panel survey of income dynamics, 1981-1988 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Kevin Duncan American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 433-449.
The policy issue of work replacing welfare is examined through evidence derived from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics (1981-1988). Results indicate that welfare recipients supplement the earnings from low paying occupations with public assistance. Further, this income strategy responds to changes in economic incentives. For example, higher wages are associated with a greater probability of working without a welfare subsidy while lower wages are associated with a higher probability of mixing welfare and work. These results underscore the importance of liveable wage levels in providing for a durable substitution of work for welfare. The results also support Solow's recommendations of packaging welfare and work for those who find their occupational choices limited to the lower end of the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bradley T. Ewing American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 419-432.
New empirical evidence is provided about the existence of a Catholic wage premium. A simple allocation-of-time model provides two explanations for the observation that those persons raised in the Catholic religion earn more than their non-Catholic counterparts. The Catholic religion may add to a person's stock of human capital and/or it may act as a signal of desirable labor market characteristics such as discipline, honesty, trustworthiness, and high motivation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Werner Onken American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 4. P. 609-622.
Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) pioneered a version of the market economy that was about competitive entrepreneurship but not about capitalism. The financial interests of the hoarders of scarce bank financing and those leveraged with speculative land dealings were to be sacrificed for the greater good of a nation of free and enterprising men and women. Gesell was a radical reformer and quite a famous one, having received more than a respectful mention in John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Keynes dubbed Gesell a non-Marxian socialist. Gesell founded the Free Economy school, which is undergoing a renaissance today in Eastern Europe as a possible model for a redesigned transition economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Markus C. Becker, Thorbjorn Knudsen American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 387-403.
This paper presents to the English-speaking reader a sample of material contained only in Schumpeter’s first German edition (1911) of Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, material subsequently omitted from later German editions and from the English translation. The newly-translated material, comprises a substantial part of the second chapter, only available in a completely rewritten version, and fully half of the famous seventh chapter, which has not been previously available at all in English. This material merits attention today because it contains remarkable and farsighted visions on economic theory that may inspire current efforts to devise models of economic and social evolution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Agnes Festre American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 439-480.
This paper examines and compares, in both historical and theoretical perspectives, Hayek's and Schumpeter's accounts of the role played by banks and credit in their respective explanations of business cycles. The first section is focused on the common inheritance of these two authors, which can be traced back to Wicksell, going from Mises whose Theory of Money and Credit provides a crucial link in this perspective. The following two sections deal with Hayek's and Schumpeter's respective accounts as well as critical reconstruction of this tradition. The last section is dedicated to a comparison between Hayek's and Schumpeter's views of the dynamics of monetary economies and their corresponding policy issues.
A note on the determinants of public dissatisfaction with government: Economic and political factors affecting the public's attitude toward government [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Cebula, Chris Paul American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 495-501.
This study empirically identifies both the economic and political determinants of the public's dissatisfaction with government in the US. Using annual survey data on the public's dissatisfaction with government obtained for the years 1965-1996, it is found that the Vietnam War, Watergate, oil price shocks and higher federal marginal income tax rates resulted in elevated levels of the public's dissatisfaction with government, whereas increases in housing prices and a rising Dow Jones industrial average reduced the public's dissatisfaction with the government.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Shlomo Benartzi, Richard H. Thaler American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 1. P. 79-98.
There is a worldwide trend toward defined contribution saving plans and growing interest in privatized social security plans. In both environments, individuals are given some responsibility to make their own asset-allocation decisions, raising concerns about how well they do at this task. This paper investigates one aspect of the task, namely diversification. It is shown that some investors follow the "1/n strategy": they divide their contributions evenly across the funds offered in the plan. Consistent with this naive notion of diversification, it is found that the proportion invested in stocks depends strongly on the proportion of stock funds in the plan.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Anthony P. Carnevale, Richard A. Fry, Lindsay B. Lowell American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 159-163.
An immigrant's ability to understand the spoken word is a preeminent English ability for labor-market success on average. Reading, writing, and speaking ability are not significantly predictors of immigrant wages after considering ability to understand the spoken word. The magnitude of the wage impact of understanding only is similar to that found in the literature on speaking only, suggesting their kinship in an underlying construct of English proficiency, and reinforcing the finding that language matters. These findings indicate that hearing and comprehending are perhaps most fundamental in the immigrant labor market. The findings also suggest that, after having achieved a given level of understanding of the spoken word, then improved skills in speaking, reading, and writing do matter to employers. Understanding is the key starting place to getting into the labor market and that subsequent incremental increases in productivity may require a greater array of English skills.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, Jonathan A. Parker American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 406-412.
One of the basic motives for saving is the accumulation of wealth to ensure future welfare. Both introspection and extant research on consumption insurance find that people face substantial risks that they do not fairly pool. A simple decomposition that characterizes the importance of precautionary saving in the US economy is presented. This decomposition is used as an organizing framework to present four main findings: 1. the concavity of the consumption policy rule, 2. the importance of precautionary saving for life-cycle saving and wealth accumulation, 3. the contribution of changes in risk to fluctuations in aggregate consumption, and 4. the significant impact of incomplete markets on aggregate fluctuations in calibrated general-equilibrium models. The study is concluded with directions for future research.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marco Cagetti American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 418-421.
This paper examines the question of whether households adjust savings in response to interest rates in a life-cycle model with precautionary savings, where both motives for saving (retirement and precautionary) are present. While uncertainty may be the most important motive for younger households, eventually, households will start saving for retirement as well. By how much the wealth of the median household at retirement changes after an exogenous permanent increase in the after-tax interest rate is computed. In an estimated life-cycle model with precautionary savings, the elasticity of savings is also very low. However, the results are sensitive to the utility parameters.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 73-78.
Twelve experienced field researchers, working in 12 countries on five continents, recruited subjects from 15 small-scale societies exhibiting a wide variety of economic and cultural conditions. While the results do not imply that economists should abandon the rational-actor framework, they do suggest 2 major revisions. First, the canonical model of the self-interested material payoff-maximizing actor is systematically violated. Second, preferences over economic choices are not exogenous as the canonical model would have it, but rather are shaped by the economic and social interactions of everyday life. Finally, the connection between experimental behavior and the structure of everyday economic life should provide an important clue in revising the canonical model of individual choice behavior.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Linda Goldberg, Joseph Tracy American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 400-405.
A study finds that women, like men, experience most of the expected wage response to dollar fluctuations at times of job transitions, rather than when they remain with the same employer. In this context, dollar-depreciation periods, which are generally viewed as providing positive labor demand shocks, reduce the penalties that often are associated with a job change. Since women have higher job-changing rates than their male counterparts, these findings suggest that the average female worker has more sensitive wages than her male counterpart. Within the population there is diversity in these effects, with the least-educated women having both the highest job-transition rates and the largest response to exchange rates at these transitions.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 67-72.
Four main messages emerge from the study of subjective survey data. First, a large experimental literature by and large supports economists' skepticism of subjective questions. Second, put in an econometric framework, these findings cast serious doubts on attempts to use subjective data as dependent variables, because the measurement error appears to correlate with a large set of characteristics in behaviors. Third, these data may be useful as explanatory variables. Finally, the empirical work suggests that subjective variables are useful in practice for explaining differences in behavior across individuals. Changes in answers to these questions, however, do not appear useful in explaining changes in behavior.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David L. Carr, James R. Markusen, Keith E. Maskus American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 3. P. 693-708.
The knowledge-capital approach to the multinational enterprise as outlined in this paper is operational and yields clear, testable hypotheses. It is more useful than some other theories of FDI, such as the transactions cost approach to multinational enterprises. Hypotheses are tested regarding the importance of multinational activity between countries as a function of certain characteristics of those countries, particularly size, size differences, relative endowment differences, trade and investment costs, and certain interactions among these variables as predicted by theory. Data fit the model well, lending considerable support to the theory. Outward investment from a source country to affiliates in a host country is increasing the sum of their economic sizes, their similarity in size, the relative skilled-labor abundance of the parent nation, and the interaction between size and relative endowment differences.
A theory of buyer-seller networks [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rachel E. Kranton, Deborah F. Minehart American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 3. P. 485-508.
A new model of exchange is introduced: networks, rather than markets, of buyers and sellers. It begins with the empirically motivated premise that a buyer and seller must have a relationship to exchange goods. Networks - buyers, sellers, and the pattern of links connecting them - are common exchange environments. This paper develops a methodology to study network structures and explains why agents may form networks. In a model that captures characteristics of a variety of industries, the paper shows that buyers and sellers, acting strategically in their own self-interests, can form the network structures that maximize overall welfare.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Hanming Fang American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 4. P. 924-937.
The connection between obtaining higher paying jobs and undertaking some seemingly irrelevant activity is interpreted as social culture. In the context of a society trying to adopt a new technology, it is shown that by allowing the firms to give preferential treatment to workers based on some cultural activity, the society can partially overcome an informational free-riding problem. Therefore, social culture may affect the economic performance by altering the effective production technology of the economy.