Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 22262
The structure of sprawl: Identifying and characterizing employment centers in polycentric metropolitan areas [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nathan B. Anderson, William T. Bogart American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 147-169.
This paper applies a consistent framework to four comparably sized metropolitan areas to identify and characterize their employment centers. Employment centers are identified as places that exceed a threshold employment density and a threshold employment level. They are also characterized as specializing on the basis of location quotient analysis. Clear evidence was found of specialization in every employment center in the four metropolitan areas studied. The interpretation is that what is observed is a systematic change in metropolitan structure rather than a random sprawling of firms. Evidence was also found that the size distribution of employment centers follows the rank-size rule. This suggests that there is structure not only in the distribution of economic activity among the employment centers but also in their size distribution.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Norman Sedgley, Bruce Elmslie American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 101-121.
Urban economists have long recognized that space is economically important. Evidence of the importance of urban agglomeration and the offsetting effects of congestion are provided in a number of studies of productivity and wages. Little attention has been paid to this evidence in the economic growth literature. The new growth research focuses on technological change. The production function is extended for new ideas common to this research in a way that allows for congestion and agglomeration in innovation and the hypothesis that these forces are important in explaining innovation is tested. Strong evidence is found that agglomeration and congestion are important in explaining the vast differences in per capita patent rates across US states. This suggests an important new agenda in linking studies of urban economics with the rapidly advancing of endogenous growth.
Making the country work for the city: Von Thunen's ideas in geography, agricultural economics and the sociology of agriculture [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Daniel Block, Melanie E. DuPuis American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 79-98.
Von Thunen's Isolated State is a predictive model of how rural hinterlands organize agricultural production in relation to an urban center. Despite today's globalized food provisioning system, there are still some agricultural commodities that remain in US city hinterlands. The most prominent of these is milk. The spatial organization of dairying is therefore a topic in which von Thunen's notions of centrality are still pertinent. This paper will examine von Thunen and notions of centrality in the formulation of dairy policy in the US. His contribution has been very important to agricultural economists and agricultural geographers but less important to sociologists of agriculture, who see the spatial organization of food production around cities due as much to contingent, local political outcomes as to law-like notions of centrality.
Modeling agglomeration and dispersion in city and country: Gunnar Myrdal, Francois Perroux, and the new economic geography [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen J. Meardon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 25-57.
The new economic geography is a recent body of literature that seeks to explain how resources and production come to be concentrated spatially for reasons other than the standard geographic ones. Some authors outside the new economic geography have criticized it a simplistic, irrelevant, or passe. They claim it employs overly abstract analysis, prioritizes mathematical technique over realistic explanation, and is reminiscent of the much earlier worlds of Gunnar Myrdal and Francois Perroux - in comparison to which, however, it falls short. This paper investigates the similarities and differences between the new economic geography and the work of Myrdal and Perroux. It examines how the techniques of analysis and intuitive explanations of agglomeration compare between these economic sociologists and the new economic geographers. The paper highlights what has been gained and what has been lost by the new economic geographers, who generally eschew interdisciplinary study.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mike W. Peng, Stanislav V. Shekshia Academy of Management Executive. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 95-110.
Entrepreneurship has been flourishing in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent state of the former Soviet Union, and East Asia. Entrepreneurs in these countries are characterized by their sheer energy, relentless strategies, and sometimes controversial practices. How can entrepreneurs rise to crate wealth in environmental traditionally hostile to entrepreneurial activity? What can be learned from such an experience? Focusing on these 2 key questions, this article draws on research from a broad range of transition economies to identify 3 major entrepreneurial strategies of prospecting, networking, and boundary blurring. It also delineates important lessons for entrepreneurs active in transition economies and foreign entrants interested in these emerging markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, Felix Rioja, Samuel Skogstad American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 501-517.
Emerging economies in crisis typically request assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). After evaluating the situation, the IMF makes a loan available to the country, conditional on certain policy reforms. Governments usually resist many of these measures and negotiation ensues. This paper analyzes the most contentious measures of IMF conditionally in the context of Russia after the August 1998 crisis. The most discussed measures include the budget deficit structural reforms, and exchange rate policy. The analysis suggests that to some extent the disagreement arose because the IMF is focused on changing steady states somewhat ignoring the transition path, while the Russian government is preoccupied with transitional dynamics without a clearly defined steady state concept.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Is there an underclass in Britain? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Buckingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 49-75.
The underclass is defined and the predictions are tested of three competing theories in the underclass debate. Using the National Child Development Study for the analysis it is found that an underclass suffering from a lack of qualifications, low cognitive ability and chronic joblessness exists. The validity of making a distinction between the working class and an underclass has often been questioned both because of the dubious history of such a distinction and because it is not believed that such a distinction is empirically true. The results contradict this assertion by finding the underclass to be distinctive from the working class in terms of patterns of family formation, work commitment and political allegiance. The distinct attitudes of the underclass, when coupled with evidence of inter- and intra-generational stability of membership, provide early evidence that a new social class, the underclass, may now exist in Britain.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Ingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 76-96.
A conception of money as a neutral veil masking a real economy was adopted by economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic commodity theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann (1986) and Runciman (1989), for example, consider the economy exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the real economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Andreas Buss British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 317-329.
Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1958), studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. It is suggested the Weber's subsequent essays on The Economic Ethics of World Religions (1958, 1959) are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. The concept of causal adequacy and the related concept of objective possibility are developed on hte basis of the work of v. Kries on who Weber heavily relied. This concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the spirit of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Iganski, Geoff Payne British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 195-215.
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the gap is addressed with a detailed account of 3 main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are reconceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rod Bond, Peter Saunders British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 217-249.
Using data from the National Child Development Study, a complex path model is developed predicting the occupational grade achieved by 4,298 employed British males at age 33. Using various measures of class origins, parental support, qualifications, and individual ability and ambition, a linear structural equations model is developed which achieves a good fit to the data. The model demonstrates that individual ability is by far the strongest influence on occupational achievement, that motivation is also important, and that factors like class background and parental support, while significant, are relatively much weaker. It is concluded that occupational selection in Britain appears to take place on meritocratic principles.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James A. Beckford British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 671.
Critical responses to the application of Rational Choice theories to the study of religious phenomena tend to be polarized between outright denial that the theories have any relevance to religion and equally outspoken claims that the theories are the only hope for progress in the sociology of religion. Both of these extreme positions are avoided by raising a question, instead, about one of Rational Choice's central propositions about religion. This proposition holds that levels of religious vitality vary positively with the degree to which agencies of the state are prevented from regulating religious activity. The findings of recent research into prison chaplaincy in the UK and the US are used to test this claim. The main argument is that the existence of an established church has facilitated a higher level of religious activity, especially for minority faiths, in prisons in England and Wales than is possible in US prisons.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Gay British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 575-587.
In his highly regarded and influential Modernity and the Holocaust Zygmunt Bauman launched one of the most passionate and sustained critiques of bureaucracy rationality seen within social theory for some time. In so doing he drew heavily upon the work of Max Weber for support. The extent to which Weber really is the anti-bureaucratic ally Bauman claims him to be is examined. The main elements of Bauman's critique of bureaucratic rationality is outlined, drawing particular attention to its reliance upon a self-consciously Weberian theoretical lexicon. It is indicated that, despite his claims to be following in Weber's tracks, Bauman's conclusions regarding the moral vacuity of bureaucratic conduct are the very antithesis of Weber's own.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. . Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 5-24.
Some elements for a grounded theory of the network society are outlined. The network society is the social structure characteristic of the Information Age, as tentatively identified by empirical, cross-cultural investigation. It permeates most societies in the world, in various cultural and institutional manifestations, as the industrial society characterized the social structure both capitalism and statism for most of the twentieth century. Social structures are organized around relationships of production/consumption, power, and experience, whose spatio-temporal configurations constitute cultures. They are enacted, reproduced, and ultimately transformed by social actors, rooted in the social structure, yet freely engaging in conflictive social practices, with uupredictable outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Wendy Bottero, Sarah Irwin British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 261-280.
This paper explores recent arguments about the marketization of female labor, in the context of a wider analysis of the role of concepts like 'the market' and 'individualization' in sociological accounts of change in employment relations. It will be argued that within sociology there has been a tendency for rapid, large-scale changes in employment relations to be characterized as the breakdown of social influences or structures and as the emergence of atomized, individuated market forces. In the most recent models, change in the nature of gendered positions within employment are presented in terms of a decline of social structuring and social constraint. These emergent accounts hold similarities to classical economics, and to Marx's and Weber's accounts of employment, which also characterized new forms of employment relations in terms of the emptying of their social content and their repl placement by market forms. An alternative, moral economy, perspective which foregrounds the continued significance of social relations in the structuring of employment and employment change is offered. The argument is developed through an analysis of gendered patterns of employment and change in family form.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Christel Lane British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 207-234.
A small number of German multinational corporations are examined in their domestic and international context. More particularly, the work focuses on whether and how their emergent globalization activities affect the reproduction or erosion of the three institutional complexes which shape the factors of production: the financial system; the innovation system; and the industrial relations system. The paper concludes that a new type of transformation - hybridization - is emerging. It is regarded as a consequence of German companies' growing integration into a global economic system.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Heidi Gottfried British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 235-259.
This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. It is argued that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labor, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hadfield, Steve Hall, Dick Hobbs British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 707-717.
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an en trepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives.