Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 4037
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yishay Yafeh Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 74-84.
Much has been written about the Japanese model of corporate governance. This article describes the evolution of corporate governance in Japan since the Second World War, and surveys the empirical evidence on its performance. Although there is substantial evidence on the effectiveness of the Japanese system, there is also evidence on its significant shortcomings. The article also evaluates the effects of the current macroeconomic and banking crises on corporate governance in Japan, and suggests possible directions for future changes, which are likely to make Japan more similar to the U.S. in this respect.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yutaka Imai, Masaaki Kawagoe Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 114-123.
It is argued that the comparatively low levels of business start-ups in Japan need not be a matter of concern insofar as the pattern of growth relying on existing companies persists. But the declining trend of start-up rates may be worrisome for it may indicate waning entrepreneurship and weakening mechanisms of resource reallocation and economic growth. Policy measures to promote business start-ups are not based on well founded studies at an aggregate level, which are lacking in the absence of comparable data, but rather are inspired by the successful U.S. experience. This paper looks into two specific areas of policy-private equity markets and bankruptcy-where important progress has been made, and points to further scope for improvement.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Xavier Vives Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 4. P. 535-547.
This paper reviews the role of competition in banking against the background of a transforming sector. It uses industrial organization and modern financial intermediation analysis to study the relationships between the level of competition, risk-taking incentives, and the regulatory frame. The consequences for market structure of the liberalization process and the need for competition policy in the sector are highlighted.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Kiminori Matsuyama Journal of Political Economy. 2002. Vol. 110. No. 5. P. 1035-1070.
This paper studies mechanisms behind the rise of mass consumption societies. The development process depicted follows the Flying Geese pattern, in which a series of industries take off one after another. As productivity improves in these industries, each consumer good becomes affordable to an increasingly large number of households, which constantly expand the range of goods they consume. This in turn generates larger markets for consumer goods, which leads to further improvement in productivity. For such virtuous cycles of productivity gains and expanding markets to occur, income distribution should be neither too equal nor too unequal. With too much equality, the economy stagnates in a poverty trap. With too much inequality, the development stops prematurely.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Michael Pryke, John Allen Economy and Society. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 264 - 284.
This paper examines some of the ways in which the everyday is becoming connected into the world of finance, a process facilitated through so-called derivatives.The increasing use of derivatives is traced to the collapse of the Bretton Woods agreement and the ways in which innovative developments in financial engineering were used to overcome the uncertainties of interest rate, currency and price risks that grew apace from the early 1970s. We argue that these risks are not more of the same.They are qualitatively different and run deeper through the highly integrated financial markets of today. And, as later parts of the paper argue taking their cue from the works of Paul Virilio and Georg Simmel, notably the latters Philosophy of Money, the manner in which these risks interact and the speed of their interaction suggest the emergence of new forms of money, a new monetization of time-space. The paper then moves on to consider how the calculative practices that lie at the heart of derivatives involve a process of socialization of the understanding of the risks that new money forms are made to negotiate successfully. The idea of money of what it is now supposed to be capable of doing with and across time-space thus stems from a new money imaginary. The paper concludes by reemphasizing the reasons why, when understood through areading of Virilio and Simmel, derivatives should be viewed as representing new forms of money.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski Economy and Society. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 181 - 206.
That the extension of the rational choice model beyond the economy to all society can finally lead to integration of social theory is often claimed by the models advocates. The underlying assumption is that this model is valid for both the economy and society, in the form of an economic approach to, or a utilitarian paradigm of, all social behaviour. The meta-theoretical presupposition or injunction that agents are (should be) profit-seekers or utility-optimizers is therewith given the mission to integrate and save contemporary social science. However, such extensions of the rational choice model from the economy to society neglect the fact that this presupposition has been partly mitigated and compromised within economics itself. If so, then suspicion is strong that the rational choice model would be even less appropriate for the other social sciences and thus fall short of achieving its self-designated role of integration of social theory. The conclusion of an interdisciplinary analysis drawing both from economics and sociology is that rational choice is far from being an integrative model of the economy and society.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ben Fine, Costas Lapavitsas Economy and Society. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 357 - 382.
This article addresses the issue of how the market and the non-market are to be understood especially by concentrating on the theory of money. For mainstream economics, the market is simply an institution facilitating exchange, money being the key instrument for alleviating the inefficiencies of barter. In contrast, recent work in other social sciences, such as that by Zelizer, distinguishes among markets, and various roles of money, depending on cultural and social content. While being sympathetic to such an approach, we claim that the commodity is a better analytical starting point than the market. Based on Marx's work, we then show what commodities have in common and establish a common essence for money as generalized purchasing power. This is a peculiarly bland essence that allows money to undertake the variety of social roles identified by Zelizer.
Insuring morality [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tom Baker Economy and Society. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 559 - 577.
This article describes and compares two forms of moral regulation employed in connection with insurance institutions. The first governs through moralized personal attributes or pressures like 'temptation' and 'character'. The second governs through moralized institutional or system attributes and processes described in terms of 'efficiency'. The article traces these forms of moral regulation from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, arguing that both continue to inform popular and specialized discourses of risk.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hanson Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 62 - 84.
Russia's economic adjustment to the fall of communism has been notoriously troubled. The output recovery since 1998 is widely judged to be fragile. What is less often noted is that Russia is far from unique in its 'transition' troubles. In this paper the main hypotheses put forward to account for Russia's transition difficulties are reviewed in the context of economic change in all ex-communist countries. Accounts relying on (unexplained) mistakes in economic policy are inadequate. Two accounts may be sustainable in the light of evidence from other ex-communist countries: one based on inherited economic structure and one based on cultural factors. The latter hypothesis is shown to be susceptible to testing.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicholas Thoburn Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 434 - 460.
This article considers the place of difference in Marx's politics through an exploration of his categories of the lumpenproletariat and the proletariat. Far from a simple set of class subjects or empirical peoples, these two categories are argued to describe particular modes of political composition. Despite the frisson of difference and excess which is usually associated with Marx's lumpenproletariat, it is argued to describe a mode of composition - and, in relation to anarchism, a politics - oriented not towards difference and becoming, but towards present identity. The proletariat, on the other hand, is shown to be not a People, historical Subject or identity, but a 'minor' political mode of composition immanent to the manifolds of capitalism, and premised on the condition that, as Deleuze puts it, 'the people are missing'.
"Carry your credit in your pocket": The early history of the credit card at Bank of America and Chase Manhattan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Timothy Wolters Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 2. P. 315-354.
Drawing from newly available archival material, this article explores the early history of one of today's most ubiquitous financial instruments, the bank credit card. It focuses on the managerial decisions that led to the implementation and development of charge card programs at the 2 largest American banks of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Even though the initial performance of the 2 programs was comparable, top management at each bank ultimately adopted different business strategies. The differences resulted from managers' contrasting interpretations of the appropriate market for the credit card, interpretations formed within the context of 2 distinct banking cultures.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carole Turbin Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 3. P. 507-535.
Detachable collars, essential to men's appearance from the 1840s to the 1920s, have left a lasting legacy: the term 'white collar' and the "Arrow Man," the centerpiece of Arrow collar advertisements from 1907 until 1931. The Arrow Man was the visual representation of the "New Man," and Arrow collars were preserved in American culture through the lyrics of a 1934 Cole Porter song, "You're the Top." Both the Arrow collar and the Arrow Man derived from business decisions that reflected emerging and changing American consumer tastes and markets, an expanding middle class, and shifts in culture, especially in new ideal images of manliness that were less class-based, contributing to Americans' impression that social distinctions were more blurred than in the past. The Arrow Man embodied in a single compelling image the resolution of social contradictions that persisted beneath the increased similarity of men of different backgrounds.
Standard bearers: Material culture and middle-class communities at the turn of the Twentieth century [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Marina Moskowitz Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 4. P. 693-698.
American businesses played as pivotal a role in setting the American standard of living as they did in encouraging the dream. The standard of living became increasingly defined as a set of goods and the establishment and maintenance of spaces to house these goods. In 4 case studies, the means by which objects were both physically transported and culturally represented as desirable are discussed. The four topics are silverplate flatware, bathroom fixtures, mass-produced foursquare dwellings, and early zoning plans. The broad distribution of goods and design ideals at the turn of the 20th century can be considered the nationalization of material culture.
Gender differences in labor turnover and the development of internal labor markets in the United States during the 1920s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Laura J. Owen Enterprise and Society. 2001. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 41-71.
Exploring the relationship between gender differences in labor turnover - which have been linked to male-female differentials - and the early Twentieth-century development of internal labor markets, this case study suggests that observed gender differences in labor turnover in the twentieth-century can be attributed, at least in part, to the specific employment policy decisions of firms. These policies, and the internal labor markets they helped create, directly addressed some of the causes of male turnover but did little to confront the sources of female turnover. The results of this analysis call into question the assumption that the higher rate of female turnover is exogenously determined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Fahim A. Al-Marhubi Contemporary Economic Policy. 2000. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 428-439.
Different strands of the political economy approach to macroeconomic policy imply a link between income inequality and inflation. This article tests this proposition using a newly assembled data set on income distribution. The results show that income inequality is associated with higher inflation. This association, although not economically large, holds for democracies as well as nondemocracies. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are not due to measurement error, reverse causation, or omitted variables.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Murray Leibbrandt, Haroon Bhorat, Ingrid Woolard Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 73-86.
There has been very little detailed exploration of the relationship between wage income and household inequality in South Africa despite the relevance of this issue for many contemporary growth and development policy debates. This article is directed at such an analysis. It uses a decomposition of household income inequality by income components to highlight the dominance of wage income in driving overall income inequality. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the distribution of the unemployed across different wage-earning household categories. Many of the unemployed are seen to depend on wage earners within their households, but a significant percentage of the unemployed, especially in rural areas, have no direct link to labor market earners. In such cases, the creation of employment is essential. The conclusion explores policy implications by linking our empirical findings to South African debates over the quality versus the quantity of employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Debra A. Barbezat, James W. Hughes Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 409-423.
The hypothesis that individuals increase future earnings by investing in themselves through job change has considerable empirical support. To date, this hypothesis has not been tested on the academic labor market. Using a national faculty survey that includes respondents' complete work history, the authors estimate the impact of job mobility on faculty salaries. The rate of job mobility among faculty members appears low compared to that of other workers. Salaries overall are not significantly related to the number of academic jobs held until the number of jobs reaches four, and then the effect is negative. An examination by gender reveals that women incur a salary penalty of 8% in moving to the second job.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alison J. Wellington Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 465-478.
This article estimates the importance of health insurance coverage on the probability of self-employment. Using data from the 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS), the author focuses on the impact of having health insurance through one's spouse on the likelihood of self-employment. The best estimates suggest that a guaranteed alternative source of health insurance would increase the probability of self-employment between 23 and 4.4 percentage points for husbands and 1.2 and 4.6 percentage points for wives. The author's more conservative estimates suggest that universal coverage could increase the percentage of self-employed in the workforce by 2 to 3.5 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James V. Koch, Richard J. Cebula Contemporary Economic Policy. 2002. Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 25-37.
Faster, frictionless, cheaper, better: these are said to be the hallmarks of economic activity on the Internet. Search theory suggests use of the Internet could reduce the prices consumers pay, but product branding, price discrimination based on data mining, and auctions may raise prices. The Internet has lowered most prices, but raised others, even when shop bots are used. Price dispersion is greater on the Internet, and Internet sellers change their prices more often. The role of intermediaries has not been reduced. The quality of service is idiosyncratic and highly variable. The Internet is a new and distinctive avenue of commerce, but those who argue it has invalidated conventional economic principles are well off base.
Is there a role for transaction cost economics if we view firms as complex adaptive systems? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Foster Contemporary Economic Policy. 2000. Vol. 18. No. 4. P. 369-385.
This article assesses the usefulness of transaction cost economics when we view economic organizations, such as firms, as complex adaptive systems. Modern complexity science is a radically different in orientation to neoclassical economics, which deals with decision making in contexts that are presumed to be simple and, therefore, disconnected from complex reality. However transaction cost economics can be related to aspects of modern complexity science: bounded rationality, opportunism, and asset specificity are all associated with behavioral complexity.