Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 446
Опубликовано на портале: 05-03-2003Ростислав Исаакович Капелюшников Проблемы прогнозирования. 2001. № 3. С. 117-132.
Задержки заработной платы - центральный элемент российской модели рынка труда, сформировавшейся в переходный период. На основе данных Российского экономического барометра в статье рассматриваются микроэкономические аспекты этого явления. Выделяются главные механизмы накопления задолженности по оплате труда и оценивается их относительное значение. Анализ поведения предприятий на рынке труда позволяет автору сделать вывод, что в ближайшей перспективе перевод российской экономики в режим с нулевым уровнем невыплат едва ли осуществим и ей предстоит еще долго нести груз связанных с этим проблем.
Опубликовано на портале: 28-02-2003Татьяна Ивановна Заславская, Марина Андриановна Шабанова Социологические исследования. 2002. № 6. С. 3-17.
Почему в современных условиях разные группы россиян включаются в неправовые трудовые практики? Сколько тех, кто включается в неправовые практики преимущественно добровольно, с явной выгодой для себя, и тех, кто втягивается в них вынужденно, исчерпав законные способы адаптации к новым условиям? Кто больше выигрывает, а кто в основном проигрывает от погружения в неправовое пространство? Что предпринимают разные группы работников, столкнувшись с нарушением своих прав и какова результативность правозащитных действий? Каковы социальные механизмы распространения массовых неправовых практик в сфере труда? Можно ли как-то ослабить неправовые трудовые практики с помощью мер социальной и экономической политики или нет? Таковы основные вопросы, находящиеся в центре внимания авторов.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-02-2003Галина Алексеевна Монусова Социологический журнал. 1998. № 1/2.
Описываются результаты монографических обследований, проводившихся на нескольких промышленных предприятиях Москвы, Твери, Красноярска, Владимира и Калуги с целью изучения адаптации, дифференциации и мобильности среди рабочих. Для анализа использовались также данные RLMS.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Susan McRae British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 384-405.
The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patters of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rosemary Crompton, Fiona Harris British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 118-136.
Explanations of the persisting differences in the structure of men's and women's employment have long been debated in the social sciences. Sociological explanations have tended to stress the continuing significance of structural constraints on women's employment opportunities, which persist, despite the removal of formal barriers. Neo-classical economics, in contrast, have emphasized the significance of individual choice, an argument which has been recently endorsed by Hakim who suggests that patterns of occupational segregation reflect the outcome of the choices made by different 'types' of women. In this paper, a previous debate relating to the explanatory utility of men's 'orientations to work' is used to argue that employment structures are the outcome of both choice and constraint, and that this is also the case for women. The argument is illustrated with evidence from cross-nationally comparative biographical interviews carried out in five countries
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Flora Gill Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 725-743.
Economics views work as merely providing purchasing power. Many economists agree that there is a great deal more to work, but they nonetheless feel comfortable with this narrow description, believing that important aspects of work that they have left out of consideration have no impact on the validity of their analytical conclusions and policy propositions. This paper argues that if economics is to shed light on urgent socio-economic issues and suggest appropriate remedies, labor economics must be expanded to encompass work as a creative endeavor - an escape from social isolation - and to acknowledge the analytical implications of the workplace as a social microcosm, which is, inter alia, governed by power relationships. This paper presents lessons from an investigation of the meaning of work in a number of cognate disciplines and outlines their implication for labor economics and for policy seeking to advance the cause of social justice.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sourushe Zandvakili Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 73-89.
The labor market in the United States has gone through a number of noticeable changes, one of which is a rise participation of women in the labor force. A number of studies have investigated the consequences of these changes on wage, income, or earnings inequality in a static framework. This study investigated the consequences of these changes on earnings inequality over time. The earnings inequality among male- and female-headed households is compared. The factors are considered that might have influenced the earnings inequality among female-headed households. Short-term and long-term inequality was measured from 1978-1986. It was found that short-term inequalities generally have a rising trend and contain transitory components; long-term inequalities declined in the early years because of a smoothing of transitory components; and within-group inequalities are the principle determinant of overall inequality. Education, race, age, and marital status were considered as possible contributors to the overall inequality. Education and race were shown to be the most influential factor explaining inequality among female-headed households and explained a third of the observed inequality. Earnings stability profiles reveal the existence of permanent and chronic inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bijou Yang, David Lester Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 281-290.
The role of culture in economic affairs was first recognized by Max Weber who attributed the rise of modern capitalism to the Protestant ethic. More recently, the contribution of cultural factors to economic success or failure in different countries or regions of the world has been documented. The present paper joins this effort by demonstrating the impact of culture on unemployment empirically. The national character traits of neuroticism and extraversion were added to a regression analysis of unemployment developed by Nickell (1998).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Damian Grimshaw, Kevin G. Ward, Jill Rubery Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 25-54.
This paper explores changes in employment policies and practices that are typically associated with the classical model of the internal labour market. Drawing on documentary information and interviews with managers in four large organisations in the UK, the evidence suggests that many of the traditional pillars of the internal labour market have been dismantled. New policies around training, recruitment, pay, job security and career progression have been introduced in response to pressures and opportunities for change, both internal and external to the organisation. Changes in the external labour market involve a shift in the balance of power between labour and capital, coupled with a weakening of the mechanisms which coordinate and regulate labour market exchange. Within the organisation, there are a range of pressures to transform production, or service delivery, including the restructuring of traditional forms of work organisation, the extension of working-time and changes in organisational structure. This paper analyses evidence of new employer-led market solutions to this range of conflicting pressures. The aim is to highlight the tendency for contradictory outcomes as new policies capitalise on changing external conditions, but at the expense of meeting organisational demands. Also, new policies implemented by individual employers may be unsustainable where, on aggregate, they fail to develop workforce skills or to fulfil career expectations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Dual-Earner Couples in Britain and France: Gender Divisions of Domestic Labour and Parenting Work in Different Welfare States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan Windebank Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 269-290.
In recent years, much cross-national research on women's work has focused on the impact of the state in creating the conditions to enable women to combine paid work and motherhood. However, when dealing with women's domestic responsibilities, this research has concentrated heavily on caring functions, whilst largely ignoring the importance of other basic household chores. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the question of how state policy concerning women, work and childcare impacts on the ways in which parenting and domestic duties are constructed and distributed between mothers, fathers and others in the everyday experiences of individuals. The present article addresses both of these questions through evidence gathered from a qualitative cross-national comparative study of the child-care strategies of two groups of women, one French and one British, working in secretarial or clerical occupations, living with a partner and with at least one child aged under twelve. Minimal differences concerning the gender division of domestic and parenting work are discovered between these two national groups. This finding is then used to question some of the theoretical perspectives regarding the relationship between women's greater participation in employment and men's greater participation in domestic and parenting work.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Felstead, Nick Jewson, Annie Phizacklea Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 215-231.
It is frequently suggested that working at home will be the future of work for many people in the UK and that trends in this direction are already well underway. This paper examines these claims by analysing data from the Labour Force Survey which has, at various times, asked questions about the location of work. Seven key hypotheses are identified, including issues surrounding the extent and growth of working at home, reliance on information and communication technology, prevalence of low pay, average pay rates, gender issues, ethnic minority participation and household composition. The results paint a variegated and complex picture which suggests that those who work at home do not comprise a homogeneous group. The paper in particular highlights differences between non-manual and manual workers, and those who work mainly, partially and sometimes at home.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tracey Warren, Karen Rowlingson, Claire Whyley Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 465-488.
The size and source of the gender wage gap in Britain has been well researched. Women's typically lower status employment and their reduced, discontinuous career profiles when they have caring responsibilities have combined seriously to damage their ability to earn a decent wage. Such marked gender differences in employment patterns produce a substantial gender gap in levels of wealth too, yet despite this there has been less attention paid to the gendering of assets than there has to gender differentials in earnings and income. So to pull out these multi-dimensional effects of a gender disadvantaged labour market, this article explores the extent of wage and assets inequality in Britain in the mid 1990s. Analysis of the Family Resources Survey shows that women continue to have lower incomes than men even with their increased entry to the labour market, and have fewer chances to build up a safety net of savings in their working lives and a good income for their retirement. It would seem that in a future Britain where individuals will increasingly depend on private pensions rather than a state minimum, even if women continue to increase their participation levels, the poverty they face in old age will persist.
Women in the Indian Informal Economy: Collective Strategies for Work Life Improvement and Development [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Elizabeth Hill Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 443-464.
Strategies for work life reform amongst informal sector workers in developing countries are currently dominated by resource-based approaches such as the micro-credit movement. This policy framework is predicated upon certain liberal assumptions about individual human action and the relationship between human behaviour and economic development. This article contends that these assumptions are inappropriate when applied to informal sector workers and their economic activities. A focus on the intersubjective conditions of work and economic development, based on the work of Axel Honneth (1995), provides an alternative way of conceptualising the work life experience of marginalised workers and appropriate interventions for economic and social security. An example of a collective strategy implemented by the Self Employed Womens' Association (SEWA) in India, demonstrates the important role that interpersonal recognition plays in activating worker identity and agency to achieve development. The success of SEWA's methodology has implications for how we think about the meaning of development and work life reform in poor countries, suggesting that interventions for economic and social security must engage workers at both the economic and cultural levels at which insecurity, moral injury and social exclusion are produced.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Nickell, Glenda Quintini Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 202-220.
Both the overall macroeconomic performance of the UK labour market since 1997 are considered, as well as some of the underlying micro problems, particularly those facing unskilled workers. On the macro front, unemployment has declined to its lowest level for a generation without excessive inflationary pressure. The main factors behind this decline in equilibrium unemployment stem from actions taken by the previous government. Changes introduced in the labour market since 1997 are likely to have only small effects on equilibrium unemployment. Underlying this favourable aggregate labour-market performance are serious problems facing unskilled men who have seen dramatic increases in their unemployment and inactivity rates, concentrated particularly in Wales and the northern regions of Britain. The policy response since 1997 has focused on encouraging the unskilled into work (the New Deal) while simultaneously raising the rewards for working. These polices have had a positive impact on youth employment and have significantly reduced child poverty. So far, however, existing policies do not seem likely to have a serious impact on the high levels of worklessness among unskilled men.
The role of the state in skill formation: evidence from the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Francis Green, David Ashton, Donna James Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 82-96.
We propose a new interpretation of the role of the state in skill formation, with reference to three East Asian newly industrialized economies. Rather than see the state as simply redressing externalities, we interpret the state as matching the supply and demand for skills in a rapidly growing economy. This role can be superior to a strategy of allowing education and training institutions to be driven by autonomous processes. The role is most likely to be observed in developmental states. We examine the political mechanisms that have helped to ensure that educational and training policy formation are subordinated to the imperatives of economic growth. While the East Asian model cannot be imported wholesale to western countries such as Britain in different historical circumstances, the example lends credence to the value of the state taking a strategic approach to education and training policy.
The impact of the regulation of low wages on inequality and labour-market adjustment: A comparative analysis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Bazen Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 57-69.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or regulate wage rates for the low-paid. The experience of three countries that have national minimum wages - France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining - Germany, Italy, and Denmark, are considered. It is found that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the UK and the US, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labor-market adjustment - employment, unemployment, and gross job flows - vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labor-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to regulate low wages.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Webster Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 114-128.
This paper argues that British welfare to work policies are inadequate, given the geographical concentration of worklessness in northern regions and in cities and former coalfields. While unemployment has been converging geographically, inactivity has not. All the welfare to work target groups - youth unemployed, long-term unemployed, lone parents, the long-term sick, and partners of the unemployed - have closely similar geographical distributions. Official arguments that there are adequate job vacancies everywhere are shown to be flawed. The geography of worklessness is largely explained by the weakness of adjustment through migration and commuting to the loss of jobs in manufacturing and mining, the cities being particularly affected by urban-rural manufacturing shift. Policy needs to promote more relevant employment in high unemployment areas, through increased spending on derelict land reclamation and on transport and other infrastructure. The case for more supportive policies towards manufacturing should also be considered.
Gender differences in labor turnover and the development of internal labor markets in the United States during the 1920s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Laura J. Owen Enterprise and Society. 2001. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 41-71.
Exploring the relationship between gender differences in labor turnover - which have been linked to male-female differentials - and the early Twentieth-century development of internal labor markets, this case study suggests that observed gender differences in labor turnover in the twentieth-century can be attributed, at least in part, to the specific employment policy decisions of firms. These policies, and the internal labor markets they helped create, directly addressed some of the causes of male turnover but did little to confront the sources of female turnover. The results of this analysis call into question the assumption that the higher rate of female turnover is exogenously determined.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Debra A. Barbezat, James W. Hughes Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 409-423.
The hypothesis that individuals increase future earnings by investing in themselves through job change has considerable empirical support. To date, this hypothesis has not been tested on the academic labor market. Using a national faculty survey that includes respondents' complete work history, the authors estimate the impact of job mobility on faculty salaries. The rate of job mobility among faculty members appears low compared to that of other workers. Salaries overall are not significantly related to the number of academic jobs held until the number of jobs reaches four, and then the effect is negative. An examination by gender reveals that women incur a salary penalty of 8% in moving to the second job.