Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 446
Опубликовано на портале: 18-03-2009Равиль Талибович Насибуллин Социологические исследования. 2007. № 11. С. 140-142.
Статья написана по результатам исследования "Молодежь в условиях крупного города", проведенного в 2006 г. комитетом по молодежной политике администрации городского округа "Город Уфа" совместно с муниципальным учреждением "Центр содействия занятости молодежи". Задачами исследование было изучение противоречий в функционировании рынка труда города. Объектом исследования была молодежь Уфы в возрасте от 14 до 30 лет. Были разработаны два вида анкет: для работающей и безработной молодежи, учитывающих статусные различия обеих категорий.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2009Андрей Олегович Блинов, В.Я. Захаров, Илья Владимирович Захаров Социологические исследования. 2008. № 11. С. 34-39.
В статье представлена часть результатов исследования, посвященного анализу социальных проблем, возникающих в процессе глубокой трансформации организаций. Исследование проводилось по заказу одного из нижегородских промышленных предприятий двумя волнами с интервалом в три года (в 2003 и 2005 гг.). После опроса были проведены фокус-группы с рабочими, специалистами и руководителями, которые позволили получить более точное представление о том, что происходит в трудовом коллективе.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-01-2009Александр Лазаревич Темницкий, Ольга Николаевна Максимова Социологические исследования. 2008. № 11. С. 13-23.
Предмет статьи - изменения в мотивации труда рабочих крупного промышленного предприятия, происходящие в послекризисный период. Охарактеризованы этапы изменений мотивации труда, сделаны выводы об их тенденциях, типологии и резервах интенсификации труда рабочих в последние годы. В основе статьи - сравнительный анализ данных исследований рабочих (1976, 1990, 2000, 2007 гг.)
From Relational Employment to Relational Contracting: Outsourcing and Dependent Self-employment in the British and Austrian Insurance Industry [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger EUI Working Paper. 2002. No. 12.
Labour relations in business organisations are facing a profound change. This paper focuses on one specific change in labour relations, namely dependent outsourcing. Dependent outsourcing refers to contracts over products with little alternative use, where the subcontractor bears the entrepreneurial risk. From the perspective of the contractor, dependent outsourcing represents a business relationship to outsource the entrepreneurial risk. The lack or the high costs of an alternative use creates long-standing ties between the business partners, which allows them to overcome some of the difficulties with formal contracts and utilise their detailed knowledge of the situation to adapt to new contingencies as they arise. Drawing on 57 semi-structured interviews in the British and Austrian insurance industry, I identify the nature and logic of dependent outsourcing, deploying the dimensions control, dependency, support and incentives. Results reveal that the logic of dependent outsourcing is not straightforward. Instead, intensive field research shows widespread reasons for and against dependent outsourcing. In both countries, the changes in the cost structure, the passing of risk, the increase in productivity and the gains through specialisation are the most important reasons for tied agency. The reduction of control and mutual dependency are the main problems of insurance companies using tied agents or the key rationales why they do not deploy them. The paper highlights the hybrid position of dependent subcontractors between integration and non-integration. It is argued that blurring firm boundaries are pivotal to understand new developments in organisational governance.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger ICER Working Paper. 2005. No. 22.
We observe that economic restructuring is significantly changing organizational governance. On the one hand, we witness an increase in mergers & acquisitions, which substitutes markets for hierarchies and, on the other hand, we see an increase in outsourcing and subcontracting activities, appearing to replace hierarchies by markets. However, there is evidence that an increasing part of outsourcing activities mix hierarchies with market forms of governance. The key argument of this paper is that firms have established governance structures based on markets, hierarchies and self-enforcing relational contracts so that they are able to keep a substantial amount of control despite of sourcing out labour. Furthermore, we argue that such hierarchical forms of outsourcing produce dependency. Using empirical evidence of the Austrian insurance industry, it is demonstrated that dependency is created, firstly, by the contractual restriction of alternative uses of resources, secondly, by support measures that bind the upstream party closely to the downstream party, thirdly, by relationship-specific investments made by the upstream party, and fourthly, by authority elements.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger, Silvia Pasqua, ICER Working Paper. 2006. No. 11.
The number of workers on the border between self-employment and employment strongly increased across Europe over the last decade. This paper investigates whether and in what respect these workers differ from employees and self-employed and analyses whether these work relationships are a stepping stone to more stable employment in the short-run using Italian data. Depending on the data source the para-subordinates represent between 1.8% and 5.3% of the Italian labour force. Since most of them work only for one company and are strongly integrated into the firm of the contract partner, we argue that labour and social security law discriminates against these workers who are in fact very close to employees. We find that they are not low qualified workers, but young, highly educated professionals. At the same time these contracts are not a port of entry into the labour market nor do we find that they are a vehicle to more stable jobs. However, they are a possibility for women to work part-time.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger, Silvia Pasqua, CHILD Working Paper. 2006. No. 10.
Over the last decade Italy has seen a strong increase in the number of workers on the border between self-employment and employment. Depending on the data source the “parasubordinati”, i.e. workers with a “contract of continuous collaboration” (collaborators) represented between 1.8% (ISTAT, 2004) and 5.3% (Alteri and Oteri , 2004) of the Italian labour force. Since most of them work only for one company and are, moreover, strongly integrated into the firm of the contract partner, we argue that the Italian labour and social security law strongly discriminates against these workers who are, in fact, very close to employees. We investigate whether and in what respect the group of the collaborators differs from the group of employees and the group of the self-employed using the Italian Labour Force Survey (ILFS) of 2004 (4th quarter). Additionally, we analyse the short-term labour market transitions of collaborators to other labour market statuses. In contrast to other European countries, these collaborators are not low qualified workers, but young, highly educated professionals. At the same time the contracts of continuous collaboration are not a port of entry into the labour market nor do we find that these contracts are a vehicle to more stable jobs. However, they seem to be a possibility for women to work part-time.
Dependent Forms of Self-Employment in the UK: Identifying Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger, René Böheim IZA Discussion Papers. 2006. No. 1963 .
We analyse the characteristics of workers who provide work on the basis of a civil or commercial contract, but who are dependent on or integrated into the firm for which they work. We argue that these dependent self-employed lose their rights under labour law, receive less favourable benefits from social security protection and are often beyond trade union representation and collective bargaining. Using data from the British Labour Force Survey we test two hypotheses: (1) Dependent self-employed workers are significantly different from both employees and (independent) self-employed individuals, thus forming a distinct group. (2) Dependent self-employed workers have lower labour market skills, less labour market attachment and, thus, less autonomy than self-employed workers. The data support our hypothesis that dependent self-employed workers are a distinct labour market group which differs from both employees and independent self-employed individuals. Men, older workers, those with low education and a low job tenure have greater odds of working in dependent self-employment than their counterparts. Our results suggest that dependent forms of self-employment are used by firms to increase labour flexibility.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger
Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 256 с.
This book investigates work relationships on the border between employment and self-employment by bringing together economic, sociological and legal research approaches. It answers the following questions: Why do firms deploy dependent self-employed workers? Why do individuals supply this form of work? By which informal and formal mechanism is dependency created? Who are the dependent self-employed workers? How can firms solve the control-flexibility dilemma in these work relationships? Which implications for social and labour market policy do we find?
Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger Organization Studies. 2007. Vol. 28. No. 5. P. 709-727.
The focus of this paper is outsourcing activities, where the contracting worker is formally self-employed but the conditions of work are similar to those of employees. It is argued that the outsourced workers are dependent on or integrated into the firm for which they work. We investigate the mechanisms by which firms mix governance structures and give evidence of how these 'hierarchical' forms of outsourcing create dependency. The key argument of this paper is that firms have established governance structures based on markets, hierarchies and self-enforcing relational contracts so that they are able to keep a substantial amount of control despite sourcing out of labour. Furthermore, we argue that such hierarchical forms of outsourcing produce dependency. Using empirical evidence of the Austrian insurance industry, it is demonstrated that dependency is created, firstly, by the contractual restriction of alternative uses of resources, secondly, by support measures that bind the worker closely to the outsourcing firm, thirdly, by relationship-specific investments made by the worker and, fourthly, by authority elements.
Should we do away with teleworking? An examination of whether teleworking can be defined in the new world of work [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Linda Wilks, Jon Billsberry New Technology, Work, And Employment. 2007. Vol. 22. No. 2. P. 168-177.
This empirical paper analyses data gathered from self-employed teleworkers, matching this against teleworking's defining characteristics, which appear in the literature. Our evaluation leads us to question whether the term 'teleworking' has lost much of its value in today's working world. We therefore suggest the new term 'home-anchored worker' as a less complex and more useful replacement.
Flexibility and individualisation in adult education careers: The case of portfolio workers. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Journal of Education and Work. 2003. Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 165-184.
‘Portfolio educators’ is a term adopted here to represent people engaged in adult education activities, who create portfolios of self-employed work arrangements to contract their skills in a variety of contexts. This qualitative study explores the personal experiences of negotiating teaching, research and programme-planning activities as a ‘portfolio educator’, focusing on the life histories of 12 individuals in western Canada. Within these stories of flexibilisation and individualisation in education work, four tensions in particular are examined: the tensions of personal choice, of continuous change, of fluid knowledge, and of flexible location. Implications are discussed related to the changing state of adult education and the nature of portfolio careers.
Knowledge and the enterprising self: Workplace refugees navigating entrepreneurial discourses [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Studies in the Education of Adults. 2008. Vol. 33. No. 2. P. 127-134.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Studies in Continuing Education. 2008. Vol. 26. No. 2. P. 229-241.
Portfolio work has become recognized as a significant if under-researched form of work emerging in changing work structures. This article presents findings of a qualitative study of nurses and adult educators who function as 'portfolio professionals', in that they contract their services to multiple employers and organizations. Proceeding from interpretive analysis of their narratives, the focus here is their learning processes, particularly in relation to innovation. It is argued that they must learn how to perform innovative work while learning and acting within innovative work. Three learning/acting processes are identified: discerning and rendering something that others understand to be innovative, mobilizing others' activities around the innovation, and anchoring or integrating the innovation within existing systems. These processes inevitably entwine portfolio professionals' identities (as innovators) and their knowledge (as innovative models). Thus they are in danger of becoming fixed or anchored along with an innovation, and an important contrary movement is slipping away and beyond the very anchors they work to render.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Work, Employment, and Society. 2002. Vol. 16. No. 4. P. 703-723 .
The growth of self-employed enterprise and the supposed ascendancy of the enterprising self' are commonly associated with the forces of flexibilization and individualization in contemporary work arrangements. What is driving these forces and their effects can be understood, in part, by examining what psychoanalytic theory would name desire. The focus here is upon the dynamics of desire among individuals who leave jobs to enter the growing ranks of the self-employed. Drawing from findings of a qualitative study of such new women entrepreneurs across Canada, changing concepts of the enterprising self are explored with specific attention to the relations between their desires and their conception of work. This article addresses three questions in particular: How is desire enmeshed in the development of enterprising selves? How do women come to desire work through self-employed enterprise, often entailing personal and economic pain? Do these desires configure possibilities for new alternatives in enterprise? The study findings suggest not only that contradictory desires are closely integrated with identity in the transition to enterprise, but also that some women's desires appear to form resistance to aspects of conventional models of business development. Through analysis informed by psychoanalytic theories of desire, these impulses are named 'transgressive desires' and their importance is demonstrated in their links to the new models of entrepreneurism that seem to be appearing among these women's enterprises.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Tara J. Fenwick Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2007. Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 509-524.
Purpose - This paper seeks to examine the identities and subjectivities of independent knowledge workers who contract their services to organizations. Two questions are addressed: who are these enterprising knowledge workers, in terms of how they understand and position themselves relative to organizational structures, practices and social relations in their work as '' inside outsiders ''? How do they recognize their own constitution, and what spaces for agency are possible? Design/methodology/approach - The discussion draws upon a qualitative study of 18 self-employed consultants in organizational change, analysing their articulations as ongoing constitutions within prescribed discourses and cultural technologies. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were analysed inductively to determine themes and silences among the narratives. Findings - The argument shows how these subjectivities emerge from in-between spaces, both inside and outside organizations. As they negotiate these spaces, they exercise agency by resisting control while building connections. These articulations are described as '' network identities ''. Originality/value - The paper concludes with implications for organizations employing or contracting with such individuals. Suggestions for managers involve enabling more project structures, negotiating boundaries and purposes more clearly, providing more flexible conditions and facilitating more integration of these knowledge workers with other employees before, during and following innovative project activity.
Being independent is a great thing: Subjective evaluations of self-employment and hierarchy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Matthias Benz, Bruno S. Frey Economica. 2008. Vol. 75. No. 298. P. 362-383.
One can be independent, or one can be subject to decisions made by others. This paper argues that this difference, embodied in the institutional distinction between the decision-making procedures 'market' and 'hierarchy', affects individual wellbeing beyond outcomes. Taking self-employment as an important case of independence, it is shown that the self-employed derive higher satisfaction from work than those employed in organizations, irrespective of income gained or hours worked. This is evidence for procedural utility: people value not only outcomes, but also the processes leading to outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-08-2008В.А. Дмитриев TERRA ECONOMICUS. 2006. Т. 4. № 4. С. 60-68.
Рыночные преобразования в России пока так и не дали общих положительных результатов, не воспринимаются большинством населения как социально справедливые. В статье отстаивается взгляд, что необходимым фактором эффективной и социально справедливой экономики является такая структура использования национального продукта, в которой однозначно представлен приоритет оплаты труда.
Черты к портрету трудового мигранта [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-04-2008Галина Дмитриевна Гриценко, Наталья Николаевна Кобзева, Татьяна Федоровна Маслова Социологические исследования. 2007. № 8. С. 125-127.
Статья подготовлена по результатам опроса 200 трудовых мигрантов, проведенного в 2006 г. в 2-х городах (Ставрополь, Пятигорск) и 4-х районах Ставропольского края. Респонденты - выходцы из 25 стран ближнего и дальнего зарубежья, в том числе из Азербайджана, Армении, Вьетнама, Грузии, Израиля, Китая, Турции, Таджикистана, Узбекистана и Украины. Основным мотивом прибытия в регион большинство опрошенных (57,8%) назвали стремление больше заработать, на втором месте - стремление найти желаемую работу и самореализоваться (22,4%), далее идет потребность в смене обстановки (17,3%). Выбор территории, где трудится мигрант, определяется доступом к хорошо оплачиваемой работе при наличии поддерживающих социальных сетей, обеспечиваемых в основном благодаря родственным связям и отчасти пригласившим работников работодателям. Приводится распределение оценок мигрантами их состояния здоровья, а также распределение ответов на вопрос об отношении к соблюдению ими российских законов.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-03-2008Розалина Владимировна Рывкина, Ольга Александровна Коленникова Социологические исследования. 2007. № 8. С. 52-57.
Статья посвящена рассмотрению ситуации дефицита высококвалифицированных кадров, проявившейся на начальной стадии оживления отечественной промышленности. В ходе рыночных трансформаций происходил отток наиболее квалифицированных работников из промышленности в коммерцию и сферу услуг. Авторы публикации регулярно проводят опросы директоров промышленных предприятий различных отраслей во многих регионах России. В статье констатируется, что В 1990-е гг. из-за низкой загрузки производственных мощностей директора закрывали глаза на подработки подчиненных на стороне, в том числе с использованием производственной базы предприятий, чтобы сохранить трудовые коллективы, а за счет этого и сами предприятия. Но уже к 2000 году сокращение численности рабочих кадров, занятых в промышленности, остановилось после ее падения почти в 3 раза по сравнению с началом 1990-х годов. Даже на предприятиях с избытком кадров директора в ходе взятых в 2005 г. интервью высказали обеспокоенность нехваткой научно-технического персонала. О том, что дефицита кадров нет, сообщили только 5% директоров. этому поводу в 2005 г. высказывали руководители практически всех отраслей промышленности.