Всего публикаций в данном разделе: 444
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Kozo Yamamura
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001, cерия "Cornell Studies in Political Economy", 288 с.
The German and Japanese economies are more socially and politically regulated, and in this sense less liberal, than their Anglo-American counterparts. In The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars explains why and how Germany and Japan developed nonliberal types of capitalism, looking at the institutional histories of the welfare state, the financial system, corporate governance and skill formation. Similarities and differences are traced in relation to attempts at conservative social reform during late 19th century industrialization and subsequent political pathways to democratization. The book's analysis of the historical dynamics of institutional change, particularly the political and organizational challenges of adapting and integrating new institutional repertoires, suggests new insights on how nationally distinct forms of capitalism will respond to current and future challenges of internationalization.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Kozo Yamamura
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003, cерия "Cornell Studies in Political Economy", 401 с.
After the devastation of World War II, Germany and Japan built national capitalist institutions that were remarkably successful in terms of national reconstruction and international competitiveness. Yet both "miracles" have since faltered, allowing U.S. capital and its institutional forms to establish global dominance. National varieties of capitalism are now under intense pressure to converge to the U.S. model. Kozo Yamamura and Wolfgang Streeck have gathered an international group of authors to examine the likelihood of convergence—to determine whether the global forces of Anglo-American capitalism will give rise to a single, homogeneous capitalist system. The chapters in this volume approach this question from five directions: international integration, technological innovation, labor relations and production systems, financial regimes and corporate governance, and domestic politics. In their introduction, Yamamura and Streeck summarize the crises of performance and confidence that have beset German and Japanese capitalism and revived the question of competitive convergence. The editors ask whether the two countries, confronted with the political and economic exigencies of technological revolution and economic internationalization, must abandon their distinctive institutions and the competitive advantages these have yielded in the past, or whether they can adapt and retain such institutions, thereby preserving the social cohesion and economic competitiveness of their societies.
Germany: Beyond the Stable State [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Herbert Kitschelt
London: Routledge, 2004
From the 1960s to the 1980s, observers attributed to Germany the character of a political-economic "model" that was able to weather a multiplicity of economic challenges. The term "model Germany" indicated a political and economic compact permitting centripetal political competition in the electoral and legislative arenas, while co-ordinating public policy among political parties, large interest associations and private business firms such that changes would take place only in an incremental and positive sum fashion. Since the early 1990s and even more so in the new millennium, the "German model" has faced serious troubles. Authors in this book describe the physiognomy of the incremental disintegration the model has undergone over the past decade and probe into the causes of such developments. Articles in this volume examine Germany's national and Europe-wide integration as triggers of the model's unravelling. Such processes are paralleled by novel tendencies in public opinion, social life styles, and modes of political mobilization in parties, interest groups, and social movements. The strains of "model Germany" show up in particularly sharply contoured fashion in the transformation of industrial relations, corporate governance structures, social and immigration policies in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-01-2008Ред.: Wolfgang Streeck, Jürgen Grote, Volker Schneider, Jelle Visser
London, New York: Routledge, 2006, cерия "Routledge Studies in International Business and the World Economy", 256 с.
In the present period of globalization Governing Interests presents new research on the impact of internationalization on the organization and representation of business interests through trade and employer associations. By exploring ongoing, gradual but nevertheless profound changes in the structures and functions of business interest associations, the book develops a more precise understanding of the relationship between the national and the international. Focusing on national business associations and the ways they are adjusting to the changing composition and interests of their membership, and to the shift in functions of economic governance to levels above the nation state, the essays in this volume cover a selection of OECD countries, paying special attention to Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden. Unlike much of the current top-down research on European integration, the volume contains both theoretical and empirical papers studying internationalization from the bottom-up, adopting the perspective of national actors facing new challenges and opportunities in their international environment.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2007Ред.: Henry Wai-Chung Yeung
Изд-во: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, 488 с.
The rise of Asia as an important region for global business has been widely recognized as one of the most significant economic phenomena in the new millennium. This accessible and comprehensive Handbook brings together state-of-the-art reviews of Asian business in an expansive range of areas including: business organizations, strategic management, marketing, state-business relations, business and development, business policy issues. It is argued that whilst academic studies on Asian business have been in existence for over two decades, there is relatively little systematic integration of our knowledge and research on Asian business. The contributors, drawn from a variety of disciplines within the social sciences, aim to redress the balance with their lively, cutting-edge discussion. Serving as a timely overview of more than two decades of scholarly research, this Handbook will be warmly welcomed by academics, students and researchers interested in Asian business.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley
Изд-во: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002, cерия "Critical Studies in Economic Institutions", 1040 с.
This authoritative collection (two volume set) brings together the leading contributions to the comparative study of forms of capitalism. An introductory essay presents the context in which these contributions developed, discusses the major issues raised by such comparative work, and suggests likely future developments. Topics include: the major theoretical issues involved in analyzing different kinds of market economies; the key frameworks for comparing systems of economic organization, both historically and between societies; the analysis of the distinctive varieties of industrial capitalism that have developed in the Anglo-Saxon countries, Continental Europe and East Asia; and studies of globalization and the connections between types of market economies and varying forms of economic performance, particularly in terms of sectoral development and technical change. The collection will be an indispensable reference source and will improve access to important papers that may not be available in many libraries.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley, Peer Hull Kristensen, Glenn Morgan
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 329 с.
In contrast to the traditional view of multinational firms as cohesive rational actors maximizing the use of resources across national boundaries, the contributors to this volume argue that they are complex social arenas where competing groups draw on resources from their own socially-embedded locations in developing new transnational social relationships. As firms seek to manage across national and institutional boundaries, they stretch their existing capacities and routines and develop new sets of transnational social relationships through different groups competing and cooperating. These processes occur at a number of levels which are explored in different empirical settings. Firstly, at the level of governance, multinational firms may develop conflicts between investors from different national contexts, e.g. between the arms-length orientation of Anglo-Saxon institutional investors and the more committed orientation of investors in certain European and Asian contexts. The tension between opening the firm up for foreign investors in order to have access to more and cheaper capital and the consequent effects on management strategy is explored in a number of chapters. Secondly, at the level of coordinating activities across different sites, multinationals may encourage competition between plants in different countries as well as seeking to transfer best practices. The result may be pressure on managers and employees in certain plants to give up traditional practices and employment rights. Thirdly, multinational firms operate in environments where other forms of coordinating international business activity may also occur, e.g. cartels or the creation of international regulatory activity. They therefore compete for the regulatory space in complex political environments that will enable them to prosper.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley, Peer Hull Kristensen
Изд-во: Oxford University Press, 1997, 288 с.
Global pressures present similar challenges to companies in different countries, but how those organizations deal with them depends on the social and institutional framework in which they develop and operate. In this book, leading academics explore and explain variations in governance systems, focusing in particular on European trends. In Governance at Work: The Social Regulation of Economic Relations the authors ask: Are structures of work and business organization changing? Are we seeing a move away from large-scale (Fordist) mass-production systems that have dominated the industrialized world in the 20th century? What are the local/national determinants of business organization? Can we speak of different national business systems if so, how do these interact with the operations of international companies in global competition?
Опубликовано на портале: 25-12-2007Овсей Ирмович Шкаратан, Сергей Александрович Инясевский, Т.С. Любимова Общественные науки и современность. 2008. № 1. С. 5-27.
Авторы анализируют особенности экономики глобализирующегося информационного общества и выделяют ее основного актора – информационального работника как наиболее активную часть среднего класса, являющуюся инициатором инновационного развития. Уточняются его отличия от традиционных представителей среднего класса. Выявляются особенности теоретической модели и эмпирических индикаторов информационального производителя. Анализируется пространственная среда новой экономики России. Приводятся результаты проведенного авторами исследования российских информациональных работников в составе отечественного среднего класса как акторов экономики, основанной на знаниях. При этом традиционные профессионалы сопоставляются с информациональными работниками.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley, Peer Hull Kristensen
Изд-во: Thomson Learning, 1996, 320 с.
Throughout Europe, governments have acted in accordance with the conviction that a larger and uniform market would enable greater economics of scale and the growth of large corporations. This is seen in terms of the spread of multinational, US-style companies, enforcing a uniform type of firm across countries. The contributions to this volume, in contrast, show how the nature of firms is embedded in the larger societal context of nations, preventing a homogenised firm-type spreading across European countries. It becomes clear that researchers should locate the firm in the social context in which it is rooted, rather than looking to economic science to explain a 'non-ideal type.' Areas covered by the contributors include the comparison of typical firms in Denmark adn Finland; the limited transformation of large enterprises in Hungary; and an analysis of supply networks in Britain and Germany. Through these essays and a discussion of the variations in the nature of the firm in Europe by leading Eur
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2007Ред.: Richard Whitley
Изд-во: Sage Publications Ltd, 1994, 302 с.
As Europe moves towards greater unification there is increasing awareness of the differences within the business structure--the significant diversity between cultures and social institutions affecting the myriad and complex business systems. European Business Systems explores these differences and the key characteristics of businesses and markets in eight European countries--Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Germany, Britain, Sweden, Italy, and France. Central to the analysis is the thorough examination of the impact that the different cultural, political, and economic groups have had on Europe's business market. The editors show how such factors as the role of the state, financial sectors, education and training, and employment expectations and labor relations are crucial to management styles and decision-making processes, growth and diversification strategies, and to market relationships and development. A major contribution to the analysis of international business, European Business Systems is indispensable reading for all those engaged in, or studying, European and international business, comparative management, and the sociology of organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2007Richard Whitley
Изд-во: Sage Publications Ltd, 1994, 288 с.
As trends toward the internationalization and globalization of business intensify, it becomes increasingly apparent that different cultures manifest very different--yet no less effective--forms of business organization. And while much has been written about the Japanese approach to business, far less attention has been paid to other East Asian business systems. In this fascinating and informative book, Whitley looks at business in its social context in South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong as well as Japan. He explores similarities and differences organizations, markets and societies. The author also compares East Asian business systems with dominant Western practices and considers the international transferability of different business "recipes." Clearly demonstrating how different business practices can only be fully understood with reference to the societies from which they come, this volume will be essential reading for all students and managers concerned with international business, the comparative analysis of organizations, and the social foundations of business enterprise.
Научная жизнь [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-12-2007Николай Валентинович Романовский Социологические исследования. 2007. № 2. С. 144-148.
Региональная социология или социология в регионах? Статья подготовлена по итогам VIII Харчевских чтений: "Региональная социология: становление и направления исследований", проведенных журналом "Социологические исследования" в октябре 2006 г. В чтениях участвовали свыше пятидесяти социологов, специализировавшиеся по данной проблематике. Выступили ученые из Москвы, Санкт-Петербурга, Екатеринбурга, Белгорода, Саранска, а также коллеги, прибывшие из Литовской Республики. Член-корреспонден РАН Н.И. Лапин подробно остановился на методологических аспектах социологического исследования в регионах, рассказал о содержании реализуемой под его руководством исследовательской программы "Социокультурная эволюция России и ее регионов". В.В. Козин показал (на опыте издания в Саранске журнала "Регионология") негативное влияние таких факторов, как несформированность рынка социологической продукции, отсутствие спроса и заказчиков, ограниченность ресурсов для поведения полевых исследований. Доктора эконом. наук Ж. Симанавичене и Д. Бернатоните рассказали о проводимых ими социолого-экономических исследованиях, в ходе которых была разработана и применена система индексов, позволяющих оценивать перспективную конкурентоспособность конкретного региона страны.
Changing Capitalisms? Internationalism, Institutional Change, and Systems of Economic Organization [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ред.: Glenn Morgan, Eli Moen
Руководитель: Richard Whitley
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 466 с.
An increasing number of studies in the last decade or so have emphasized the viability and persistence of distinctive systems of economic coordination and control in developed market economies. Over more or less the same period, the revival of institutional economics and evolutionary approaches to understanding the firm has focused attention on how firms create distinctive capabilities through establishing routines that coordinate complementary activities and skills for particular strategic purposes. For much of the 1990s these two strands of research remained distinct. Those focusing on the institutional frameworks of market economies were primarily concerned with identifying complementarities between institutional arrangements that explained coherence and continuity. On the other hand, those focusing on the dynamics of firm behaviour studied how firms develop new capacities and are able to learn new ways of doing things. This book aims to bring together these approaches. It consists of a set of theoretically motivated and empirically informed chapters from a range of internationally known contributors to these debates. In their chapters, the authors show how institutions and firms evolve. Ideas of path dependency and complementarity of institutions are subjected to critical scrutiny both by reference to their own internal logic and to empirical examples. Varieties of institutional integration, the surprising maintenance of 'deviant' or alternative traditions and processes, and the existence of unpredictable yet consequential policy options that can lead to breaks in path dependency are scrutinized with particular reference to how national and international firms may relate to institutions at various levels as a diverse arena of potential resources rather than as a singular and determinant constraining force. The book provides a set of theoretical and empirical challenges for researchers concerned with the relationship between national institutional contexts and firm dynamics. For those involved in teaching or studying at doctoral, Masters and higher level undergraduate courses, the book provides a structured entry into the debates about how institutions and firms are changing in the contemporary era.
Business Systems and Organizational Capabilities. The Institutional Structuring of Competitive Competences [книги]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Richard Whitley
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, 375 с.
Twenty-first century capitalism has been marked by an increasing international economic independence, and considerable differences between dominant economic systems of coordination and control. In this context, national competition and coordination within industries has increased, but the governance of leading firms, and the kinds of competences they develop, remain quite diverse. This book shows how different kinds of firms become established and develop different capabilities in different societies, and as a result are effective in particular kinds of industries and markets. By integrating institutionalist approaches to organizations with the capabilities theory of the firm, Richard Whitley suggests how we can understand this combination of diversity and integration by developing the comparative business systems framework in three major ways. First, by identifying the particular circumstances in which distinctive business systems and innovation systems become nationally established and reproduced, as well as how changing endogenous and exogenous pressures have affected the major kinds of business systems that developed in many OECD states during the postwar period. Second, by showing how variations in authority sharing with employees and business partners and in the provision of organizational careers lead institutional regimes to affect the nature of organizational capabilities that dominant firms develop and enable them to deal with different kinds of risks and opportunities in particular technologies and markets. Third, by identifying the circumstances in which multinational firms are likely to develop distinctive transnational organizational capabilities through such authority sharing and careers, and so become different kinds of companies from their more domestically focused competitors. In many, if not most, cases of cross national managerial coordination, these conditions rarely exist, and so the extent to which multinational firms do indeed constitute distinct organizational forms and strategic actors is much less than is sometimes claimed.
Making Sense of Globalisation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CEP Occasional Papers. 2001. No. 16.
This paper, originally written as an encyclopaedia survey, considers as globalisation all the consequences of the long-term cheapening of, and expansion of the technical possibilities of - transport and communication; a process more or less uninterrupted since the improvements of navigation in the fifteenth century, though recently much accelerated. It considers five main areas of contemporary discussion: 1. How integrated global markets really are. (Not as much as one might think.) 2. How far globalisation erodes the sovereignty of nation-states, reducing their autonomy in making economic policy. (More for some than for others.) 3. The consequences of globalisation for the distribution of income among the world's population; both among nations (equalising for good learners, not for others) and within nations (generally unequalising). 4. The problematic growth of a transnational ‘world society’ (slow, probably unstoppable, but still a long way from creating a ‘world class system’) and international governance (hesitant and more likely to be hegemonic than conciliar). 5. The interaction of national economic, political, military and cultural power, and the possibility and desirability of retaining distinctive national institutions, embodying distinctive national value preferences and cultures. (in the end, as much a matter of neo-liberalism vs. social democracy as of the persistence of Germanness or Japaneseness).
Japan's Shareholder Revolution [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CentrePiece Magazine. 2006. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 22-24.
Over the past decade or so, there has been a fundamental change in what the managers of Japanese companies believe are their key objectives. Ronald Dore traces the country’s conversion to Anglo-Saxon capitalism - and growing concerns about the emergence of a new 'divided society'.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore New Left Review. 2000. No. 6.
A decade ago, German and Japanese capitalism were widely held superior in economic performance and social cohesion to American or British. Now the stockmarket-based, deregulated US/UK model has the upper hand in market competition. Will it force all other societies to conform to its rules? Ronald Dore doubts it.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore Corporate Governance: An International Review. 2005. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 437-446.
There are good reasons for national differences in corporate governance, differences in the distributional outcomes desired and differences in motivational resources; material sticks and carrots are not the only ways of keeping top managers efficient, honest and dynamic. Yet, too often discussions of corporate governance assume the Anglo-Saxon model to be normal and others“deviant”– a notion to be challenged, but nevertheless the dominant assumption among the“reformers” of corporate governance in Japan and Germany. Most of the reforms in those two countries over the past decade have purported to be about making top managers more honest and efficient. In fact their purport has more often been to change distributional outcomes, favouring shareholders at the expense of employees.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore British Journal of Sociology. 1983. Vol. 34. No. 4. P. 459-482.
This article focuses on the predominance of obligated relational contracting in Japanese business. Consumer goods markets are highly competitive in Japan, but trade in intermediates, by contrast, is for the most part conducted within long-term trading relations in which goodwill give-and-take is expected to temper the pursuit of self-interest. Cultural preferences explain the unusual predominance of these relations in Japan, but they are in fact more common in Western economies than textbooks usually recognize. The growth of relational contracting in labour markets especially is, indeed, at the root of the rigidities supposedly responsible for contemporary stagflation. Japan shows that to sweep away these rigidities and give markets back their pristine vigor is not the only prescription for a cure of stagflation. The Japanese economy more than adequately compensates for the loss of allocative efficiency by achieving high levels of other kinds of efficiency. Relational contracts are just a way of trading off the short term loss involved in sacrificing a price advantage, against the insurance. As for relational contracting between enterprises, there are three things to be said. First, the relative security of such relations encourages investment in supplying firms. Second, the relationships of trust and mutual dependency make more for a rapid flow of information. Third, a by-product of the system is a general emphasis on quality.